Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

SOIL QUALITY ASSESSMENT Bob Kremer & Kristen Veum USDA-ARS Cropping Systems and Water Quality Research Unit Columbia, MO Translating Missouri USDA-ARS.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "SOIL QUALITY ASSESSMENT Bob Kremer & Kristen Veum USDA-ARS Cropping Systems and Water Quality Research Unit Columbia, MO Translating Missouri USDA-ARS."— Presentation transcript:

1 SOIL QUALITY ASSESSMENT Bob Kremer & Kristen Veum USDA-ARS Cropping Systems and Water Quality Research Unit Columbia, MO Translating Missouri USDA-ARS Research and Technology into Practice A training session provided by USDA-ARS-CSWQRU, October 2012, Columbia, MO

2 SOIL QUALITY: functional capacity of soil to meet defined human needs by supporting optimal biological activity and diversity for economic production of crops and livestock, regulation of water flow and storage, and provision of environmental buffers. SOIL HEALTH: continued capacity of soil as a vital living system whereby plant and animal growth and environmental quality is sustained; a holistic approach in which plant, animal, and human health is promote Missouri (Menfro silt loam) Brazil (‘Oxisol’)

3 Translating Missouri USDA-ARS Research and Technology into Practice A training session provided by USDA-ARS-CSWQRU, October 2012, Columbia, MO Soil Quality Test Kit - landowner self-assessment of soil quality/soil health USDA-NRCS, Soil Quality Institute Soil Quality Test Kit Guide.

4 Soil Quality Assessment Vital functions: sustain biological activity, diversity, productivity regulate/partition water and solute flow filter, buffer, degrade, immobilize and detoxify organic/inorganic material store and cycle nutrients within the biosphere support socioeconomic structure, protect habitat Soil Processes: Biological Chemical Physical Indicators: Soil property measurements that are sensitive to detect changes in the functions or processes of concern; i.e., sensitive to land management practices Translating Missouri USDA-ARS Research and Technology into Practice A training session provided by USDA-ARS-CSWQRU, October 2012, Columbia, MO

5 Soil Management Assessment Framework “SMAF” - site-specific interpretation for soil quality assessment results measured soil indicator data (scores) integrated into a “soil quality index” index often correlates with value of other soil properties Translating Missouri USDA-ARS Research and Technology into Practice A training session provided by USDA-ARS-CSWQRU, October 2012, Columbia, MO

6 Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF) Soil Quality Index Translating Missouri USDA-ARS Research and Technology into Practice A training session provided by USDA-ARS-CSWQRU, October 2012, Columbia, MO Quantitative index using algorithms to calculate non-linear scores for each indicator variable ranging from 0-1 Scores are summed and averaged across indicators 13 available indicators representing 4 soil function groups: Physical – aggregate stability, bulk density Chemical – EC and pH Nutrient – P, K and mineralizable N Biological – SOC, microbial biomass-C, β -glucosidase

7 Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF) Soil Quality Index Translating Missouri USDA-ARS Research and Technology into Practice A training session provided by USDA-ARS-CSWQRU, October 2012, Columbia, MO Uses Site-Specific Characteristics to Parameterize the Algorithms: OM Class (WSA, SOC, β -GLU, P…) Texture Class (WSA, SOC, BD, K, β -GLU, P…) Fe 2 O 3 Class (WSA…) Climate Class (SOC, β -GLU…) Mineral Class (BD…) Slope Class (P…) Weathering Class (P …) Crop Optima (pH, P…) Crop Optima (pH, P…)

8 Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF) Soil Quality Index Translating Missouri USDA-ARS Research and Technology into Practice A training session provided by USDA-ARS-CSWQRU, October 2012, Columbia, MO

9 Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF) Soil Quality Index Translating Missouri USDA-ARS Research and Technology into Practice A training session provided by USDA-ARS-CSWQRU, October 2012, Columbia, MO Water Stable Aggregates Algorithm: Y= a + b * cos (cx – d) d = d 1 *d 2 *d 3 d 1 based on OM class d 2 based on textural class d 3 based on Fe 2 O 3 class a, b & c are fixed x = WSA (%)

10 Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF) Soil Quality Index Translating Missouri USDA-ARS Research and Technology into Practice A training session provided by USDA-ARS-CSWQRU, October 2012, Columbia, MO pH Algorithm: Y = a * exp ((-(x-b) 2 ) / 2*c 2 ) a = 1 (fixed) b = optimum pH § c = pH range § x = pH § crop dependent

11 Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF) Soil Quality Index Translating Missouri USDA-ARS Research and Technology into Practice A training session provided by USDA-ARS-CSWQRU, October 2012, Columbia, MO Example using Centralia Plots (3 reps each) – Fall 2010 Minimum Till Corn – No Till Soy (MTC-NTS) No Till Corn – No Till Soy (NTC-NTS) Integrated Crop Mgt - Wheat (cover) - Corn (cover) – Soybean (ICM-WCS) Switchgrass (SG) Cool-season grass/legume (CRP)

12 Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF) Soil Quality Index Translating Missouri USDA-ARS Research and Technology into Practice A training session provided by USDA-ARS-CSWQRU, October 2012, Columbia, MO SMAF Variables Selected (6) Soil Phosphorus Extractable Potassium Water pH Bulk Density Soil Organic Carbon Water Stable Aggregates

13 Centralia SMAF Scores by Cropping System and Landscape Position Translating Missouri USDA-ARS Research and Technology into Practice A training session provided by USDA-ARS-CSWQRU, October 2012, Columbia, MO

14 Centralia SMAF Scores by Cropping System (averaged across landscape positions) Translating Missouri USDA-ARS Research and Technology into Practice A training session provided by USDA-ARS-CSWQRU, October 2012, Columbia, MO

15 Sanborn Field SMAF Example Translating Missouri USDA-ARS Research and Technology into Practice A training session provided by USDA-ARS-CSWQRU, October 2012, Columbia, MO

16 Selected SMAF References Translating Missouri USDA-ARS Research and Technology into Practice A training session provided by USDA-ARS-CSWQRU, October 2012, Columbia, MO Stott, D.E., C.A. Cambardella, R. Wolf, M.D. Tomer, and D.L. Karlen A soil quality assessment within the Iowa River South Fork Watershed. Soil Science Society of America Journal 75: doi: /sssaj Stott, D.E., S.S. Andrews, M.A. Liebig, B.J. Wienhold, and D.L. Karlen Evaluation of β -glucosidase activity as a soil quality indicator for the Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF). Soil Science Society of America Journal 74: doi: /sssaj Karlen, D.L., G.E. Varvel, J.M.F. Johnson, J.M. Baker, S.L. Osborne, J.M. Novak, P.R. Adler, G.W. Roth, and S.J. Birrell Monitoring soil quality to assess the sustainability of harvesting corn stover. Agronomy Journal 103:288. doi: /agronj s.

17 Active C Assay Active carbon fraction:  microbial biomass carbon  particulate organic matter  soil carbohydrates Drives the soil food web; influence nutrient cycles and biological soil properties Active carbon fractions indicate soil rresponse to different management systems Compared to total organic C, active C may be more sensitive to management practices and more closely related to soil productivity and biological soil properties such as respiration, microbial biomass and aggregation. See “Active C & SOC – Sanborn Field” pdf for comparison analyses of soils from long-term management plots at Sanborn Field – Tables 2 &3 Active Carbon Analysis Translating Missouri USDA-ARS Research and Technology into Practice A training session provided by USDA-ARS-CSWQRU, October 2012, Columbia, MO

18 18 ‘Conventional Cultivation’ ‘Grass Pasture’‘Native Prairie’ SOIL QUALITY ASSESSMENT ‘Biologically-active soil C’ better describes SQ than total SOM; Detected via oxidation of C by dilute permanganate, thus reagent color disappearance indicates higher C Development of easy, quick, in-field test, based on color difference when reagents mixed with soils, for use by farmers is underway. Soils collected from fields under different management within the watershed will be assessed for effects on biologically-active C and, thus, Soil Quality.

19 19

20 Active Carbon Analysis Translating Missouri USDA-ARS Research and Technology into Practice A training session provided by USDA-ARS-CSWQRU, October 2012, Columbia, MO Active C in soil extract can be quantitatively measured in field using a hand-held meter (spectrophotometer) Hach Company Instruments


Download ppt "SOIL QUALITY ASSESSMENT Bob Kremer & Kristen Veum USDA-ARS Cropping Systems and Water Quality Research Unit Columbia, MO Translating Missouri USDA-ARS."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google