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Unit 1 review By: Makoto Bowering and Nick Ennen.

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1 Unit 1 review By: Makoto Bowering and Nick Ennen

2  Anions (has excess electron)– Has a negative charge  Most common -1 charge : H-, F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, OH- -2 charge : O, O2, S -3 charge : N Charges

3  Cations (has a less electrons) Has a positive charge  Most common 1+ : H, Li, Na, K, Cs, Ag 2+ : Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cd 3+ : Al Charges

4  Covalent 2 non-metals Ex: FO H2O CH4 HCl Bonds

5  Ionic 1 metal and 1 non-metal EX: NaCl NaF MgO Bonds

6  Metallic 2 Metal EX: Diamond Bronze Copper Bonds

7  1 = meth-  2 = eth-  3 = prop-  4 = but-  5+ = a normal binary scale  Alcohols have suffix ol and are and O-H bond Organic compounds

8  CH2O C= 40% H= 6.72% O= 53.28% Assume that the percent can be changed into grams and perform stoichiometry to get it to Moles. Once in moles divide by the lowest value to get the empirical forulma. Percent composition

9  PV=NRT P=Pressure (1.000 atm) V=Volume (L) N=Moles R=constant (0.08206 L*atm/Mol*K) T= Temperature (K = Tc + 273.15) Universal Gas Law

10  STP- 273.15 k 1.00 atm 1 mole of gas 22.4 L Standard temperature and pressure

11  (P+a(n/V)’2)(V-bn)= nRT  First part = The factor that the regular PV=nRT value is off because of the fact that IMFA was not included  Second part = The factor that the regular PV=nRT value is off because it now does not include the molecules themselves Real gas equation

12  P(molecule)=(n(a)/n(total)) Partial Pressure

13  This is the speed at which a molecule is moving.  Urms= 3RT/M (all under a square root sign) M=Molar mass (Kg/mol) R= constant (8.314 J/Mol*K) T= Temperature (K) Root-Means-Square Speed

14  The limiting reagent limits the reaction from producing the greatest it can. The limiting reagent runs out before the excess reagent does.  To find the value of the limiting reagent and excess reagent, all that is needed is stochiometery Limiting Reagent

15  EX: A 2.00g sample of ammonia is mixed with 4.00g of oxygen. Which is the limiting reactant and how much excess reactant remains after the reaction has stopped? Limiting Reagent

16  Step 1: write a balanced reaction  4NH3 + 5O2  4NO + 6H2O Limiting Reagent

17  Step 2: finding which is limiting Use stoichiometry to calculate how much product is produced by each reactant. You can start with either reactant, and you can calculate for either product, but the product must be the same for both in order for the amounts to be compared. Limiting Reagent

18  Step 3: finding the excess To find the amount of excess reactant, we must calculate how much of the non-limiting reactant actually did react with the limiting reactant. Limiting Reagent

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