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**Limiting and Excess Reagents**

In a chemical reaction an insufficient quantity of any of the reactants will limit the amount of product that forms. A limiting reagent determines the amount of product that can be formed by a reaction. The reactant that is not completely used up is called the excess reagent.

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**Grilled Cheese Sandwiches!**

A typical grilled cheese sandwich needs 2 pieces of bread and 1 piece of cheese. If you have 10 slices of bread and 3 pieces of cheese, you would only be able to make 3 sandwiches even though you have enough bread to make 5. In this example, the cheese is the limiting reagent and the bread is the excess reagent.

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**Determining the Limiting Reagent in a Reaction**

Copper reacts with sulfur to form copper (I) sulfide according to the following balanced equation. 2Cu (s) + S (s) → Cu2S (s) What is the limiting reagent when 80.0 g of Cu reacts with 25.0 g S?

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**Using a Limiting Reagent to Find the Quantity of a Product**

What is the maximum number of grams of Cu2S that can be formed when 80.0 g Cu reacts with 25.0 g of S? 2Cu (s) + S (s) → Cu2S (s)

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**Theoretical and Percent Yields**

The theoretical yield is the maximum amount of product that could be formed from given amounts of reactants. In contrast, the amount of product that actually forms is the when the reaction is carried out is called the actual yield. The percent yield is the ratio of actual yield to the theoretical yield expressed as a percent. Percent yield = Actual Yield x 100% Theoretical Yield The percent yield is the measure of the efficiency of a reaction carried out in the laboratory.

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**Calculating the Theoretical Yield of a Reaction**

Calcium Carbonate, which is found in seashells, is decomposed by heating. The balanced equation for this reaction is CaCO3 (s) → CaO (s) + CO2 (g) What is the Theoretical yield of CaO if 24.8 g of CaCO3 is heated?

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**Calculating the Percent Yield of a Reaction**

What is the percent yield if 13.1 g of CaO is actually produced when 24.8 g of CaCO3 is heated? CaCO3 (s) → CaO (s) + CO2 (g)

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12.3 Limiting Reagent and Percent Yield

12.3 Limiting Reagent and Percent Yield

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