4AldehydesA compound in which the carbonyl group is connected to a hydrogen and an alkyl group or aromatic ring ( or to two hydrogens ).
5KetonesA compound in which the carbonyl group is connected to two alkyl groups or aromatic rings ( or one of each ).
6IUPAC Nomenclature of Aldehydes Find the longest continuous chain that includes the aldehyde groupFollow all the IUPAC naming rules for alkanes.The carbonyl carbon is always at the end of the chain, so it is carbon number 1.Replace the final -e ending of the alkane with -al.Locate and name any other groups attached to the chain.Aldehydes containing two aldehyde groups are called dials.
7IUPAC Nomenclature of Aldehydes The aldehyde group is abbreviated by CHO.The IUPAC retains the common names benzaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde, as well formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.
8IUPAC Nomenclature of Ketones Because ketones have the general formula, the shortest ketone chain length is 3 carbons.The carbonyl group cannot be at the end of the chain; it must be in the middle.
9IUPAC Nomenclature of Ketones Find the longest continuous chain that includes the carbonyl groupFollow all the IUPAC naming rules for alkanes.The chain is numbered from the end closest to the carbonyl group.Replace the final -e ending of the alkane with -one.Locate and name any other groups attached to the chain.
13Physical PropertiesWhat kind of intermolecular forces are possible between carbonyl groups?Is H-bonding possible?How do you think the boiling point of aldehydes and ketones compares to alkanes and alcohols?Alkanes – very weak forcesAlcohols – H-bonds
14Physical PropertiesA C=O bond is polar, with oxygen bearing a partial negative charge and carbon bearing a partial positive chargetherefore, aldehydes and ketones are polar molecules
15Dipole/Dipole Interactions The electronegativity number (E.N.) of carbon is The E.N. of oxygen is 3.5.As a result of unequal sharing, the carbonyl bond is polar covalent and the oxygen acquires a partial negative charge.Dipole/dipole interactions aren’t as strong as hydrogen bonds, but they do cause aldehydes and ketones to boil at higher temperatures than alkanes.d+d-d+d-dipole/dipole interactiond+d-
16Lack of Hydrogen Bonding Because aldehydes and ketones lack a hydrogen on the oxygen, they cannot form hydrogen bonds between other aldehyde or ketone molecules.Thus, their boiling points are lower than those of alcohols with similar molecular weights (which have extensive hydrogen bonding).AldehydeKetone
17SolubilityEven though it cannot H-bond with other carbonyls, the carboxyl group can accept H-bonds from waterformaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone are infinitely soluble in waterAs the hydrocarbon portion of the molecule increases in size, solubility in water decreasesLarger ketones and aldehydes are soluble in organic solvents
18Water SolubilityAldehydes and ketones form strong hydrogen bonds with water:As a result, low-molecular weight aldehydes and ketones show appreciable solubilities in water. Acetone and ethanal are soluble in water in all proportions.
19Oxidation Aldehydes are oxidized to carboxylic acids Change the –H to an –OHKetones are not oxidized further
20Oxidation of Primary Alcohols General equation:oxidizeoxidizeRCH2OHRCHORCOOHPrimary alcoholAldehyde(in anhydrous media)Carboxylic acid(when water is present)(O)+H2O(O)
21Oxidation of Primary Alcohols Examples:(O)(O)CH3CH2OHethanolethanalethanoic acid(O)(O)CH3(CH2)5CH2OH1-heptanolheptanalheptanoic acid
22Tests for AldehydesTollens’ reagent and Benedict’s reagent are two common chemical reagents used to test for the presence of aldehydes.Both are mild oxidizing solutions.
23Tollens’ ReagentTollens’ reagent is a solution of aqueous silver nitrate (AgNO3) with aqueous ammonia (NH3).All aldehydes give a positive Tollens’ test. In general, ketones don’t react with the Tollens’ reagent except a-hydroxy ketones.NH3, H2O+ Ag+(aq)+ Ag(s)heat+1 oxidation state0 oxidation state
24Tollens’ Reagent (Silver Mirror Test) If the rate of reaction is slow and the test tube or flask is clean, metallic silver deposits on the sides as a mirror.
25Benedict’s ReagentBenedict’s reagent is a solution containing blue, Cu2+ ions.The copper is reduced from the +2 oxidation state to the +1 oxidation state. Red Cu2O is precipitated, giving a positive test.+ Cu2++ Cu2O+2 oxidation state+1 oxidation state
26with adjacent alcohol group with adjacent alcohol group Benedict’s ReagentAldehydes and one type of easily oxidized ketone give a positive test result. The structural features necessary are:AldehydeAldehydewith adjacent alcohol groupKetonewith adjacent alcohol groupThese features are found in a number of sugars.
27Benedict’s ReagentBenedict’s reagent is the key material in a test kit available from drugstores that permits individuals to monitor the glucose levels in their urine.
28Nucleophilic Reaction Reagents that attack the electron-rich d- end of the C=O bond are called electrophiles (literally, "lovers of electrons"). Electrophiles include ions (such as H+ and Fe3+) and neutral molecules (such as AlCl3 and BF3) that are Lewis acids, or electron-pair acceptors.Reagents that attack the electron-poor d+ end of this bond are nucleophiles (literally, "lovers of nuclei"). Nucleophiles are Lewis bases (such as NH3 or the OH- ion).
29Nucleophilic Addition A strong nucleophile attacks the carbonyl carbon, forming an alkoxide ion that is then protonated.A weak nucleophile will attack a carbonyl if it has been protonated, thus increasing its reactivity.Aldehydes are more reactive than ketones.=>
30Reaction Themes, Nu attack at C One of the most common reaction themes of a carbonyl group is addition of a nucleophile to form a tetrahedral carbonyl addition compound.
31Reaction Themes, O attack at H A second common theme is reaction with a proton or other Lewis acid to form a resonance-stabilized cation.protonation increases the electron deficiency of the carbonyl carbon and makes it more reactive toward nucleophiles.
32Addition of C Nucleophiles Addition of carbon nucleophiles is one of the most important types of nucleophilic additions to a C=O group.a new carbon-carbon bond is formed in the process.we study addition of these carbon nucleophiles.
33A. Grignard ReagentsGiven the difference in electronegativity between carbon and magnesium ( ), the C-Mg bond is polar covalent, with C- and Mg+.in its reactions, a Grignard reagent behaves as a carbanion.Carbanion: an anion in which carbon has an unshared pair of electrons and bears a negative charge.a carbanion is a good nucleophile and adds to the carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones.
34Grignard Reagents, 1o alcohols addition of a Grignard reagent to formaldehyde followed by H3O+ gives a 1° alcohol.these reactions require two steps.
35Grignard Reagents, 2o alcohols addition to any other aldehyde, RCHO, gives a 2° alcohol (two steps).
36Grignard Reagents, 3o alcohols addition to a ketone gives a 3° alcohol (two steps).
37B. Organolithium Compounds Organolithium compounds, RLi, give the same C=O addition reactions as RMgX but generally are more reactive and usually give higher yields.Lithium is monovalent and does not insert between C and X like Mg.Like the Grignard this requires two steps.
38C. Salts of Terminal Alkynes Addition of an alkyne anion followed by H3O+ gives an acetylenic alcohol.
39Salts of Terminal Alkynes Addition of water or hydroboration/oxidation of the product gives an enol which rearranges.
40D. Addition of HCNHCN adds to the C=O group of an aldehyde or ketone to give a cyanohydrin.Cyanohydrin: a molecule containing an -OH group and a -CN group bonded to the same carbon.OOHCH3+HCNCH3-NH2-Hydroxypropanenitrile(Acetaldehyde cyanohydrin)
41Addition of HCN Mechanism of cyanohydrin formation: Step 1: nucleophilic addition of cyanide to the carbonyl carbon.Step 2: proton transfer from HCN gives the cyanohydrin and regenerates cyanide ion.
42Cyanohydrins The value of cyanohydrins: 1. acid-catalyzed dehydration of the alcohol gives an alkene.2. catalytic reduction of the cyano group gives a 1° amine.
43Cyanohydrins The value of cyanohydrins: 3. acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the nitrile gives a carboxylic acid.OHacidcatalystOHCH3NCH3-COOHH2O2-Hydroxypropanenitrile(Acetaldehyde cyanohydrin)2-Hydroxypropanoic acid
44Mechanism of Aldol Reactions Aldol reactions, like all carbonyl condensations, occur by nucleophilic addition of the enolate ion of the donor molecule to the carbonyl group of the acceptor moleculeThe addition intermediate is protonated to give an alcohol product
45Conditions for Condensations A small amount of base is used to generate a small amount of enolate in the presence of unreacted carbonyl compoundAfter the condensation, the basic catalyst is regenerated