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Limiting Reagent and Theoretical Yield 1 http://members.aol.com/profchm/limits.html

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Here is a general procedure to follow for limiting reagents: Check to be sure you have a balanced equation Convert the amount of reagent one that was given into the amount of product that you could form if that reagent was completely consumed. Convert the amount of reagent two that was given into the amount of product that you could form if that reagent was completely consumed. Determine which of the answers in step 2 and 3 produced the LEAST amount of product and that will be your limiting reagent. Also the LEAST amount of product will be your theoretical yield.

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Example: Let's say that I was given 6 grams of H 2 and 160 grams of O 2. What is the limiting reagent and what is the theoretical yield in grams? If 20 grams of water is actually formed, what would be the Percent Yield? H 2 + O 2 -----> H 2 O check for balance 2H 2 + O 2 ----> 2H 2 O Convert grams of given to moles of given H2 6 grams H 2 X 1 mole H 2 / 2 grams H 2 = 3 moles H 2 Determine the moles of H 2 O formed if all 3 moles of H 2 was consumed: We know from the balanced equation (coefficients) that: 2 moles H 2 produces 1 mole H 2 O or 2 moles H 2 = 2 mole H 2 O so 3 moles H 2 X 2 mole H 2 O / 2 moles H 2 = 3 moles H 2 O produced

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Convert the grams of O 2 given to moles of O 2 160 grams O 2 X 1 mole O 2 / 32 grams O 2 = 5 moles O 2 Determine the moles of H 2 O formed if all 5 moles of O 2 was consumed: We know from the balanced equation that for every 1 mole of O 2 that is consumed then 2 moles H 2 O is produced or 1 mole O 2 = 2 moles H 2 O so 5 moles of O 2 X 2 moles H 2 O / 1 mole O 2 = 10 moles H 2 O Compare the answers in step 3 and 5 and the one that produced the LEAST amount of water is the limiting reagent: H 2 produced 3 moles water and O 2 produced 10 moles H 2 O so H 2 is the limiting reagent and 3 moles of H 2 O is the theoretical yield. Convert the moles of H 2 O theoretical yield to grams H 2 O 1 mole H 2 O = 18 grams 3 moles H 2 O X 18 grams H 2 O / 1 mole H 2 O = 54 grams H 2 O Determine the Percent Yield The Actual Yield was given as 20 grams in the problem Percent Yield = (Actual Yield / Theoretical Yield) 100 = (20 grams / 54 grams) 100 = 37%

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5g of Mg reacts with 5g of oxygen. What mass of MgO is expected to form?

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10g of lead(11) oxide is heated with 10g of C. What theoretical mass of lead should be produced?

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Chemical Quantities Chapter 9

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