Presentation on theme: "Lecture 5: Peptides Quiz available for pickup Jahn 119"— Presentation transcript:
1Lecture 5: Peptides Quiz available for pickup Jahn 119 Tutoring for biochemistryMore amino acid chemistryPrimary structure of polypeptidesPeptide synthesis
2Nomenclature Glx can be Glu or Gln Asx can be Asp or Asn Polypeptide chains are always described from the N-terminus to the C-terminusAmino acid residues in polypeptides are named by dropping of the suffix -ine and replacying it by -ylThe C- terminus is given the name of the parent amino acid.So this compound is called alanyltyrosylaspartylglycine. We can replace this by Ala-Tyr-Asp-Gly or AYDG
3NomenclatureNonhydrogen atoms of the amino acid side chain are named in sequence with the Greek alphabetGreek letter used to identify the atoms in the glutamyl and lysyl R groups
4Peptide bonds + + H2O H C R1 H3N + O OH N H C R2 O- O H C N R1 H3N + O Proteins are sometimes called polypeptides since they contain many peptide bondsHCR1H3N+OOHNHCR2O-O+HCNR1H3N+OR2O-+ H2O
5Structural character of amide groups Understanding the chemical character of the amide is important since the peptide bond is an amide bond.These characteristics are true for the amide containing amino acids as well (Asn, Gln)Amides will not ionize but will undergo resonance-OORCNH2RCNH2+Resonance forms
6Amide has partial charge & double bond We can also look at the partial charge and double bond of an amide as shown below.Since the free electrons of the N atom are tied up in forming the partial double bond, the N atom can not accept a proton (H+).This N also has a partial positive charge which will repel protons and prevent them from binding to the nitrogen (thus no ionization).RCONH2
7Amide character in the peptide bond Since the peptide bond is also an amide it also undergoes resonance.HCNR1H3N+OR2O-Therefore, peptides are rigid due to resonance around the amide bond, having ≈ 40% double-bond character.This restricts the rotation due to delocalization of electrons and overlap of the O-C-N orbitals.
8Amide character in the peptide bond The double bond character results in a planar form around the peptide bond.
9Structural hierarchy in proteins Primary structure (1º structure)-for a protein is the amino acid sequence of its polypeptide chain(s).Secondary structure (2º structure)-the local spatial arrangement of a polypeptide’s backbone atoms without regard to the conformations of their side chains.Tertiary structure (3º structure)-refers to the 3-dimensional structure of an entire polypeptide (close to secondary structure).Quaternary structure (4º structure)-The spatial arrangement of a protein’s subunitsMost protein is made up of two or more polypeptide chains (subunits) associated through noncovalent interactions.
11Primary structure (1º structure) of proteins Primary structure (1º structure)-for a protein is the amino acid sequence of its polypeptide chain(s).Amino acid sequence of a protein determinesthree-dimensional conformation.Resulting functional specificity (molecular mechanism of action)Sequence comparisons among analogous proteins are important in comparing how proteins function and have indicated evolutionary relationships among proteinsAmino acid sequence analyses have important clinical applications because many diseases are caused by mutations that lead to an amino acid change in a protein.Therefore, amino acid sequence analysis is an important tool for research.
12General approach for the analysis of the amino acid sequence of a protein Purify protein to homogeneityBreak disulfide bondsDetermine the aa compositionIdentify the N-terminal sequenceIdentify the C-terminal sequenceBreak the polypeptide into fragments by internal cleavage (Trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin, CNBr).Determine the amino acid sequence of each fragment.Repeat using different enzymes or CNBr.Overlap and align fragments.
13Breaking disulfide bonds Recall that cysteine (Cys-SH HS-Cys) can convert to cystine (Cys-S-S-Cys) in the presence of air (oxidation) and will convert back if reduced.We can also prevent the formation of the disulfide bond by modifying the SH group of Cys.C-OOCHCH2H3N+S-SCOO-CystineC-OOCHCH2H3N+Cysteineox.SHred.
14Cysteine reactions + + C -OOC H CH2 H3N + S-S COO- 2 HS CH2 CH2 OH C Cystine2HSCH2 CH2OH+-mercaptoethanolC-OOCHCH2H3N+SHCysteineN-ethylmaleimideS-CH2-CH2-OH2+S-CH2-CH2-OH
15Cysteine reactions + + C -OOC H CH2 H3N + S-S COO- HS CH2-CH-CH-CH2 SH CystineHS+CH2-CH-CH-CH2SHOHOHDithiothreitolDithioerythritolCleland’s reagentC-OOCHCH2H3N+SHCysteineDoesn’t smell as bad as the b-mercaptoethanol. Prevents the formation of the disulfide bond in the presence of air.HOS2+HOS
16Cysteine reactions + H ICH2COO- -OOC C CH2 SH H3N + C -OOC H CH2 H3N + R-groupICH2COO-+-OOCCCH2SHIodoacetateH3N+CysteineC-OOCHCH2H3N+SCH2COO-HIN-ethylmaleimideCarboxymethylcysteine
17General approach for the analysis of the amino acid sequence of a protein Purify protein to homogeneityBreak disulfide bondsDetermine the aa compositionIdentify the N-terminal sequenceIdentify the C-terminal sequenceBreak the polypeptide into fragments by internal cleavage (Trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin, CNBr).Determine the amino acid sequence of each fragment.Repeat using different enzymes or CNBr.Overlap and align fragments.
19Sanger’s reagent - (fluorodintrobenzene) FDNB HCR1ONR2O-..O2NF+HNNO2HFDNBHFbasepolypeptideThe reaction with FDNB is an aromatic nucleophillic substitution reaction.The reaction with FDNB is an aromatic nucleophillic substitution reaction.Sanger’s reagent will also react with other amino groups (epsilon amino group in-lysine). But only one alpha amino group will be labeled by this reagent. Aromatic amino groups are more stable than the peptide bond.HCR1ONR2O-HO2NNNO2Sanger’s reagent will also react with other amino groups (epsilon amino group in-lysine). But only one alpha amino group will be labeled by this reagent. Aromatic amino groups are more stable than the peptide bond.
20Reaction with Dansyl Chloride H3CHCR1ONR2O-..Cl+HNOHDansyl ChlorideHClbasepolypeptideSONH3CThis reaction is similar to Sanger’s reagent but dansyl amino acid is now fluroescent (intense yellow color). Dansyl chloride will also react with primary amines. This can be used to sequence picomole amounts of material.Both of these methods are used prior to hydrolysisHCR1ONR2O-HNO
21From this we know the N-terminal amino acid and the amino acid composition but not the sequence.
23Amino acid composition of proteins Amino acid analysis yields a protein’s amino acid composition (amounts of each amino acid in the protein).Free amino acids can be obtained from proteins by strong acid hydrolysis:6 N HClProteinAmino acids100 ºC, 24 h, in vacuo3 of the standard aas are lost during acid hydrolysis treatment:AsnAspAmides go to acidsGlnGluTrpDecomposed
24Edman degradation I. Condensation II. Cyclization III. Conversion Mild baseII. CyclizationIII. ConversionH+Phenylisothiocyanate (PITC) reacts under mildly alkaline conditions to form phenylthiocarbamyl polypetide (PTC) adduct.The PTC polypeptide is treated with an anhydrous strong acid such as trifluoroacetic acid which cleaves the N- terminal residue as its thaizolinone derivative but does not hydrolyze the other peptide bonds.So the N-terminal amino acid is released but the rest of the polypeptide chain is intact.The thizolinone-amino acid is selectively extracted into an organic solvent and is converted to the more stable pheynylthiohdantion (PTH derivative) by treatment with a weak acid. This PTH amino acid is identified by comparing its retention time on HPLC with those of known PTH-amino acids.Weak acidPossible to repeat up to 60 times using an amino acid analyzer
25Edman degradationAllows the determination of the N-terminal residue identification.Also allows us to determine the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide chain from the N-terminus inward by subjecting the polypeptide to repeated cycles of the Edman degradation and after every cycle identifying the newly liberated PTH-amino acid.
26Carboxy terminus identification No reliable chemical procedure comparable to Edman degradation for the sequential end group analysis from the carboxy terminus of a polypeptide.C-termini can be determined by hydrazine cleavage
27Exopeptidases cleave the ends of polypeptides Exopeptidases recognize the ends of peptides and can be used for end group analysisCarboxypeptidases are exopeptidases that recognize the carboxy terminal amino acids.Carboxypeptidase A recognizes all aas except Arg/Lys/Pro; Rn-1 cannot be ProCarboxypeptidase B recognizes Arg/Lys; Rn-1 cannot be ProAminopeptidases are exopeptidases that recognize the amino terminal amino acids.See table 7-1 in your text.
28Figure 7-5a The hypothetical rate of the carboxypeptidase-catalyzed release of amino acids. (a) All bonds cleaved at the same rate.
29Page 165Figure 7-5b The hypothetical rate of the carboxypeptidase-catalyzed release of amino acids. (b) Ser slow, Tyr fast, and Leu intermediate.
30Hydrazine cleavage + + + O R1 R2 O- C N NH2-NH2 H O R1 R2 O C NH-NH2 polypeptideCR1OR2O-+NH2-NH2hydrazine90 ºC, h, in the presence of mildly acidic ion exchange resinHCR1ONH-NH2H3N+Aminoacyl hydrazidesH3NHCR2OO-C-terminal residues with a preceding Pro residue are not subject to cleavage by carboxypeptidases A and B so we use chemical means. One way is treat with anhydrous hydrazine.++HCR0ONH-NH2H3N++Free carboxy terminal amino acid
31Amounts of aas present are determined fluorescent intensities. Amino acids are pre- or postcolumn derivatized with dansyl chloride, Edman’s reagent, or o-phtalaldehyde (OPA) + 2-mercaptoethanol form fluorescent adducts.The aas are identified are identified according to their retention times on HPLCAmounts of aas present are determined fluorescent intensities.Sensitive: can detect less than 1 pmol of each amino acid.Amino acid analysis has been automated by amino acid analyzer. Uses ion exchange chromatography or reverse phase high performance liquid chromatogrpahy HPLCOPA-amino acid analysis using reverse-phase HPLC*note OPA does not react with proline so another reagent must be used (FMOC)
32Specific Peptide Cleavage Reactions Polypeptides longer than 40 to 100 residues cannot be directly sequenced.Therefore these larger polypeptides must be cleaved into smaller fragments that are small enough to be sequenced.
33Endopeptidases cleave polypeptides internally Endopeptidases catalyze the hydrolysis of internal peptide bondsTrypsin cleaves specifically after (C-side)positively charged amino acids; Arg or Lys (basic aas)Chymotrypsin cleaves specifically after (C-side) Trp, Phe, Tyr (aromatic aas) and slowly at Leu, Met, Asn, His.Pepsin cleaves before (N-side) Trp, Phe, Tyr, Met, Leu and all others under acidic conditions.Thermolysin cleaves before (N-side) Leu, Ile, Phe, Trp, Tyr, Val and sometimes for all others.There are others.See table 7-2 in your text.
34Methionine and CNBr-Internal Cleavages CH3CH3S:Cyanogen bromide+SNCCNCH2CH2Br-BrCH2CH2ONCHOONCHOCCHCyanogen bromide is specific for met residues to form peptidyl homoserine lactone.The reaction is performed in acidic solvent (0.1 M HCl or 70% formic acids) which denatures most proteins so that cleavage normally occurs at all Met residuesHNCHCONCHCOHR2HOR2O
35Methionine and CNBr-Internal Cleavages Methyl thiocyanatePeptidyl homoserine lactoneCH3ONHCHCH2CSNCH2O+CH2CH2NCHOOC+HNAminoacyl peptideCHCO+HH3NR2CHCOOR2O
36Figure 7-7 The amino acid sequence of a polypeptide chain.
37To make trypsin even more versatile you can modify side chains of amino acids Lys specific reaction to hide basicitySee p. 170 in your book-especially the reactions with citraconic anhydride so trypsin won’t cleave at Lys residues.Also on p. 170 conversion of Cys side group with 2-bromoethylamine to make a basic group to cleave at Cys with trypsin.
38Lysine reactions + + + H C H O + -OOC C CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 NH3 R’ H3N + H aldehydeHCHON-ethylmaleimide-OOCCCH2CH2CH2CH2N+H2O+H+H3N+Schiff base
39Lysine reactions + + C O H2C H + -OOC C CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 NH3 O H3N + SuccinicanhydrideHCO-OCH2CH2CH2CH2NCCH2CH2+-OOCC2H+H3N+O
40Determining primary structure of polypeptides Deduce the amino acid sequence of a simple polypeptide from the following results:Acid hydrolysis: (Ala2, Arg, Lys2, Met, Phe, Ser2)Carboxypeptidase A: (Ala)Trypsin: (Ala,Arg), (Lys,Phe,Ser), (Lys), (Ala, Met, Ser)CNBr: (Ala, Arg, Lys2, Met, Phe, Ser), (Ala, Ser)Thermolysin: (Ala, Arg, Ser), (Ala, Lys2, Met, Phe, Ser)Where do we start?First, from A. (acid hydrolysis) we know how many amino acids are in the polypeptide: 9Second from B. (carboxypeptidase A), we know the last amino acid is one of the Ala.
41AlaWe know trypsin cleaves at the carboxy side of basic aas (Lys and Arg)Trypsin: (Ala,Arg), (Lys,Phe,Ser), (Lys), (Ala, Met, Ser), so we can rearrange the amino acids as follows:Ala-Arg, either Phe-Ser-Lys or Ser-Phe-Lys, Arg-Lys or Lys-Lys, and either Lys-(Ala, Met, Ser) or Arg-(Ala, Met, Ser).For CNBr, we got two fragments (Ala, Arg, Lys2, Met, Phe, Ser) and (Ala, Ser). We know that cleavage occurs on the carboxy side of Met. So we know that Met-(Ser-Ala) or Met-(Ala-Ser).
42AlaFor thermolysin, we know it cleaves N-terminal to Ile, Met, Phe, Trp, Tyr, Val. So (Ala, Arg, Ser) are before MetFrom trypsin: Ala-Arg, Phe-Ser-Lys or Ser-Phe-Lys, Arg-Lys or Lys-Lys, and either Lys-(Ala, Met, Ser) or Arg-(Ala, Met, Ser).WE know that one Ala is the carboxy terminal amino acid, so Ala-Arg cannot be the carboxy terminus. Therefore, the only other possibility is the last sequence (Ala, Met, Ser) where Ala is the carboxy terminal amino acid. So the order at the carboxy terminus is basic aa-Met-Ser-Ala or basic aa-Ser-Met-Ala
43For CNBr, we know that cleavage occurs on the carboxy side of Met For CNBr, we know that cleavage occurs on the carboxy side of Met. So, combined with the trypsin result we get basic aa-Met (Ser-Ala).For thermolysin, we know it cleaves N-terminal to Ile, Met, Phe, Trp, Tyr, Val. So (Ala, Arg, Ser) are before Met or Phe.We know from the CNBr cleavage that the Met must be before Ser-Ala, so for the (Ala, Lys2, Met, Phe, Ser) Phe must be the 1st aa in this sequence. We also know that a basic aa precedes Met from the trypsin experiment. Since the only basic aas in this fragment are Lys, the order must be : Phe-Lys-Lys-Met-Ser-Alabasic aa - Met - Ser -Ala
441 - 2 - 3 - Phe - Lys - Lys - Met - Ser -Ala Remember for thermolysin, we know it cleaves N-terminal to Ile, Met, Phe, Trp, Tyr, Val. So (Ala, Arg, Ser) are before Met or Phe.We know from the trypsin digest that Ala-Arg are in a specified order so the final sequence must be Ala-Arg-SerAla - Arg - Ser - Phe - Lys - Lys - Met - Ser -Ala