Presentation on theme: "Geography Chapter 2 Earth in Space. Section 1 Discussion Questions What is the Earth’s position in the solar system? How do rotation and revolution affect."— Presentation transcript:
Geography Chapter 2 Earth in Space
Section 1 Discussion Questions What is the Earth’s position in the solar system? How do rotation and revolution affect the Earth?
Section 1 The Solar System I.Space and the Universe I.Stars=galaxies= The Milky Way A. Planets 1. Solar System - sun and group of bodies that revolve around it (planets, dwarf planets, small solar system bodies like asteroids and comets.) 2. 8 planets- Pluto considered dwarf planet in 2006 (International Astronomical Union) has a small rocky core. 3. Earth and other planets are shaped like a oblate spheroid -flattened at poles and bulging at equator 4. Moons are natural satellites that orbit planets
B. The Sun, Earth and Moon 1. Diameter of Earth is 8,000 miles * 3 rd from sun and 5 th largest * Has an elliptical (oval Shaped Orbit ) 2. Diameter of Sun is 865,000 miles 3. Moon orbits Earth every 29.5 days and is ¼ the size of earth. 4. All exert gravitational forces on each other which affect physical processes on Earth like tides.
Tides geography Asteriod photo is the WWII bombing of Japan and comparable to an asteriod
Earth’s Rotation, Revolution and Tilt II.A. Solar Energy-energy from sun in form of heat and light. It impacts life in many ways. B. Rotation 1. Earth spins on axis- allows equal heat and cooling 2. One complete spin is called rotation (24 hours) 3. Rotates from west to east - sun rises in the east and sets in the west
C. Revolution- Earths elliptical orbit 1. Earth makes one trip around the sun in 365 ¼ days in an ellipse. 2. Feb. 29 th is added every 4 years to make that year 366 (leap year)
D. Tilt 1. Tilted at 23 ½ degrees as it orbits 2. The tilt affects the amount of solar energy hitting the earth Reading Check: How do rotation, revolution and tilt affect the amount of solar energy received at different locations on the Earth?
Section 2 Discussion Questions How does the angle of the Sun’s rays affect the amount of solar energy received at different locations on Earth? What are solstices and equinoxes?
Section 2-Earth-Sun Relationships I.Solar Energy and Latitude A. Low latitudes near Equator receive lots of solar energy year round (tropics)-rays more direct. B. Rays are direct in tropics and indirect in mid-latitudes. C. Polar regions receive the least- North and South poles
II. The Seasons A. 4 seasons B. Summer-rays are stronger, winter-rays are weaker in northern hemisphere. C. Northern and southern hemispheres are opposites
D.Solstices 1. Dec. 21 and June Earth is tilted closest to or furthest from sun 3. Dec. 21 has fewest daylight hours…marks 1 st day of winter in Northern Hemisphere. The north pole is tilted the furthest from the sun 4. June 21 is opposite longest day during the summer and the south pole is tilted furthest from the sun. 5. Rays shine from Tropic of Capricorn to Tropic of Cancer hours of daylight at north pole during June solstice…24 hours of daylight at south pole during Dec. solstice.
E.Equinoxes- poles not pointed towards or away from sun 1. March 21 and Sept Day and night are equal 3. Earth is at 90 degrees with sun 4. March 21-beginning of Spring- Northern Hemisphere 5. September 22-beginning of Fall- southern hemisphere
Section 3 Discussion Questions What are Earth’s four spheres? How is Earth’s environment unique in the solar system?
Section 3-The Earth System I.Earth’s Four Spheres A. Atmosphere 1. envelope of gases surrounding the Earth 2. 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen and 1% CO2, ozone and others 3. Filters sun’s harmful rays, provides oxygen and regulates proper heat.
B. Lithosphere-Earth’s crust ( forming the continents, islands, and ocean floors.
C. Hydrosphere-Earth’s water 1. 70% is water (liquid, solid, gaseous forms) 2. Oceans, surface water, in sky and in glaciers 3. Essential for living
D. Biosphere-plants and animals and covers all three of the other spheres. It goes from the ocean floor all the way to the atmosphere.
II.Earth’s Environment A. “surroundings” or environment B. Includes biological, chemical and physical conditions that interact and affect life on earth. C. Ours is the most complex. Venus and Mars only have atmospheres and lithospheres. D. Focus on citizenship- many geographers work for the government evaluating policies that might effect the environment. One way they gather support for changes they want is through lobbying.