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The Underground Railroad

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1 The Underground Railroad
A WebQuest for 4th Grade (Social Studies) Designed By Audrey Andrews

2 Introduction Have you ever heard of the Underground Railroad? The Underground Railroad could be considered a mystery, a huge secret, even a crime. Who or what kind of people were involved? Where did it take place? Was it really a train? We are going on a journey back in time to the 1800’s to discover all of the secrets of the Underground Railroad.

3 The Task As a group we are going to fill in a KWL Chart to find out what we think the Underground Railroad is. We will revisit the KWL Chart when the WebQuest is to finished and discuss what you have learned. Once this is complete, working independently, you are going to investigate key elements of the Underground Railroad. There will be 6 activities. Websites are provided to help you complete your research. For activity 5 you will be placed in a group to compare the information you gathered, and prepare a presentation for the class. Activity 6 requires you to write a 5 paragraph essay describing the journey of a runaway slave to freedom. “Daddy” Hall ( ) Escaped on the Underground Railroad and went to Canada.

4 Good luck! If you have any problems, please see your teacher!!
The Process Before you get started, watch the following video. After you watch the video there will be 4 activities for you to complete independently. You will be given an activity folder to keep your work in. Each day you will return your folder to your teacher. Included in your activity folder will be a Learning Log for you to complete during the last 5 minutes of the class each day. When all four activities are completed, look for the group list to find out which group you are in. You will then meet with your group. Please make sure you have your folder. Activity 5 will be completed with your group. This activity is a group presentation to the entire class. For the final activity, activity six, you will individually write a 5 paragraph essay. Good luck! If you have any problems, please see your teacher!! Harriet Ross Tubman Conductor of the Underground Railroad for runaway slaves

5 Learning Log Included in your folder will be a Learning Log for you to complete each day. In this log you will write a short reflection on the material that you researched / learned that day. Be sure to discuss how the information you learned relates to what you originally thought about the Underground Railroad. Is it different from what you expected? Did you know this information already? Does it change your opinion or outlook on the Underground Railroad? This is a daily activity – you have the last 5 minutes of class to write. NOTE: If anything that you researched is confusing you, please feel free to write about it in your Learning Log.

6 Activity One Terms Underground Railroad Slavery Quilt Safe House Conductor North Star Drinking Gourd Lantern Spiritual Songs Passengers Stations To get started we need to know the terms used with the Underground Railroad. Using the Gipe Technique look up the following terms and write the definition in a 4 sentence paragraph. Four sentence paragraph Sentence 1 – word is properly used Sentence 2 – provides attributes of a word Sentence 3 – defines word Sentence 4 – personal connection to the word PATROLS Patrols were groups of white men who caught runaway slaves for money. They were people who did not own land and whose only job was to patrol the roads to catch runaways for their masters. Once they were caught patrols would get a good reward. This is how they made living.

7 Activity Two You have decided that you want to help runaway slaves find freedom. You have a friend who owns a station house on the Underground Railroad. He tells you that another station house is needed between his house and the next stop. He says that your house is in a perfect spot for a station house. You and your family have decided to accept the challenge. You need to find a spot in your house to hide the runaway slaves while they are there. Your assignment is to draw a diagram of the floor plan of the house you live in. Use the graph paper in your folder and a black pencil. Find a spot to hide the slaves. (You may need to move or add a few walls.) Add the changes to your floor plan with a red pencil. Write a paragraph explaining the details of your hiding spot. Be sure to include how it is hidden, how you get into the spot and how many people it will hold.

8 Activity Three Since you have decided to become a station master, you need to identify your house as a safe station to the conductor. Look up the symbols used by the station houses using the links below. Write a paragraph identifying the symbols. Design a quilt square with a hidden message using this website: Draw it on the paper provided in your folder. On the back, write another paragraph explaining the hidden message in your quilt square.

9 Travel safe and Good Luck!!
Activity Four You are a conductor for the Underground Railroad. You need to pick a state where you want to gather runaway slaves to lead them north. You are going to guide them to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Using Google maps identify the path you are going to take. Calculate the distance you will travel each day. Mark the total distance you are going to be traveling on your worksheet. Using Microsoft Excel, create a line graph showing how many miles you travel each week of your journey and how long the journey will take. Your worksheet will explain how to calculate this information. Please Note: The average person walks 3-4 miles per hour in the daylight on a clear path. Remember you are trying to not get caught, so you need to travel only at night. Also, do not forget that you will most likely be traveling in the woods or on pathless territory – so this might increase the time. Do not forget that some of the slaves might not be in the best of health or might be injured – so remember to take that into consideration. Finally, write a short paragraph about what you will be using for your guide on this journey. Travel safe and Good Luck!!

10 Activity Five Group Activity
In this activity you will be working with a group of 4 people. Make sure that you find out who is in your group from your teacher. Each person in your group has to choose a role to complete this task. Only 1 role per person. The role “Discussion Director/Presenter” is a mandatory role which one member must choose. The other roles can be chosen at your discretion.

11 Activity #5 Group Activity cont.
Roles Description Discussion Director/ Presenter You will keep the discussion going, the group on task and you will make the presentation to the class. Illustrator You will put the quilt squares together to make a quilt. Write a short paper explaining the hidden message. Investigator You will look up slave songs which talk about how slaves escape. After you have researched this, the group will write a song telling how to escape. Summarizer Pick 1 of the following topics and write a summary about it. One slave is sick or has a baby on the journey. What do you, as a conductor, do? Your are a conductor traveling north with your group. The weather changes ( ex. cloud covers the skies, it snows or gets very cold). How do you accommodate for the changes. You are a station master. What supplies do you need for your station? Why? Researcher You will research 3 or 4 constellations which you should recognize. On a sheet of black paper you will draw 3 of these constellations that are easy to identify in the night sky. ; ttp:// ; Game Master As a runaway slave you spend a lot of time hiding and waiting for a safe time to travel. To pass the time while you wait, you make up a game. You have 3 round stones, 3 sticks and 1 piece of string. Design a game that you can play with these things. Provide directions and purpose for the game. (Make sure this is a game that you can play.)

12 Activity 6 Individual Assignment
You are a runaway slave. Write a 5 paragraph essay telling about your journey north. Don’t forget to include details you learned from this Web Quest.

13 Activities Rubric Points Criteria Score 4 3 2 1
Hands in folder with all 4 activities completed inside on time. Everything relates to the topic. Work is completed neatly. Completes role with group and receives favorable reviews from peers in group. 3 Hands in folder with most activities complete. Most work relates to the topic. Completes most of the role with the group and receives neutral reviews from peers in group. 2 Hands in folder with a few activities complete. Work relates to topic a little. Does not really work on role with group. Receives unfavorable reviews from peers in group. 1 Does not hand in folder. Work does not relate to the topic. Work is sloppy. Does not work with group or complete a role. Receives negative reviews from peers in group.

14 Essay Rubric Points Criteria Score 4 3 2 1
5 or more complete paragraphs. First paragraph is an opening, last paragraph is a closing. Essay is on topic. Essay uses excellent ideas from activities. No punctuation or spelling errors. Essay is neat and handed in on time. 3 Essay is not 5 paragraphs. Few punctuation or spelling errors. Most of the essay relates to topic. Some ideas are from the activities. 2 Essay is less then 3 paragraphs. There is not an opening or a closing. Essay relates somewhat to topic. Few ideas are from topic. Few punctuation or spelling errors. Essay is sloppy or not on time. 1 1 paragraph essay. There is no opening or closings. Essay is not on topic and no ideas from activities are used. Punctuation and spelling errors. Essay is not neat and is late.

15 Conclusion Congratulations! You have completed the Underground Railroad Web Quest. You have worked very hard and I am sure it shows. As a result of this hard work, you can now have an educated discussion about the Underground Railroad. You know what it is, who traveled on it, the key terms and symbols for the railroad, and how the journey was made. I hope you had as much fun completing this Quest as I had making it!! Now go tell everyone what you have learned so you never forget!! If you would like to learn more about the Underground Railroad feel free to investigate some of the books on the next slide.

16 Additional Resources Online Sites Books to Read
Information on Harriet Tubman: Information sites on Underground Railroad, Slavery and Frederick Douglas: Books to Read Aunt Harriet's Underground Railroad in the Sky By: Faith Ringgold Meet Addy: An American Girl (American Girls Collection Series: Addy #1) By: Connie Rose Porter, Melodye Rosales Henry’s Freedom Box By: Levine Dear Austin, Letters from the Underground Railroad By: Elvira Woodruff

17 Teacher Resource Page The Underground Railroad WebQuest uses three Literacy Strategies. It uses a KWL Chart to obtain prior knowledge (don’t forget to revisit this at the end to discuss what has been learned), the Gipe Technique for vocabulary and the Learning Logs for daily reflections on the information. This quest is a combination of two Taskonomies, the retelling and compilation. Students are basically gathering information and retelling how the Underground Railroad worked. They are doing activities which help them experience what some participants in the Underground Railroad did. They also have to compile information to create a presentation at the end of the quest. In addition to this, students will write an essay which should incorporate everything they learned in the quest. This WebQuest should take about six to eight class periods.

18 Teacher Resource Page Cont.
Additional text resources are: Aunt Harriet's Underground Railroad in the Sky By: Faith Ringgold. This is a story about a little girl who retraces the steps of the Underground Railroad with Harriet Tubman as her guide. Meet Addy: An American Girl (American Girls Collection Series: Addy #1) By: Connie Rose Porter, Melodye Rosales. This is story about the experiences of a little girl and her mother as they run away from slavery to freedom in Philadelphia. Henry’s Freedom Box By: Levine. This story is about a slave named Henry who mails himself to freedom in a crate. Dear Austin, Letters from the Underground Railroad By: Elvira Woodruff. This story is about a little boy who writes letters to his brother describing his experiences in Philadelphia and with the Underground Railroad.

19 PA Academic Standards/Anchors
Pennsylvania Academic Standards/Anchors PA Academic Standards/Anchors Geography 7.1.3.B Identify and locate places and regions. Human features 7.3.3.B Identify the human characteristics of places and regions by their cultural characteristics. Components of culture Ethnicity of people in the local community 7.3.3.C Identify the human characteristics of places and regions by their settlement characteristics. Factors that affect where people settle History 8.1.3.B Develop an understanding of historical sources. Data in historical maps Visual data from maps and tables Author or historical source 8.1.3.C Understand fundamentals of historical interpretation. The existence of multiple points of view Causes and results 8.1.3.D Understand historical research. Event (time and place) Facts, folklore and fiction Secondary sources Conclusions (e.g., storytelling, role playing, diorama) 8.3.3.D Identify conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in United States history. Ethnic and Racial Relations (e.g., treatment of minority groups in history)

20 PA Standards/Anchors (Cont.)
Writing 1.4.3.A Write narrative pieces (e.g., stories, poems, plays). Include detailed descriptions of people, places and things. Use relevant illustrations. 1.4.3.B Write informational pieces (e.g., descriptions, letters, reports, instructions) using illustrations when relevant. 1.5.3.A Write with a sharp, distinct focus identifying topic, task and audience. 1.5.3.B Write using well-developed content appropriate for the topic. Gather and organize information. Write a series of related sentences or paragraphs with one central idea. Incorporate details relevant and appropriate to the topic. 1.5.3.C Write with controlled and/or subtle organization. Sustain a logical order. Include a recognizable beginning, middle and end. 1.5.3.D Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of composition. Use sentences of differing lengths and complexities. Use descriptive words and action verbs. Speaking and Listening 1.6.3.A Listen to others. Ask questions as an aid to understanding. Distinguish fact from opinion. 1.6.3.D Contribute to discussions. Ask relevant questions. Respond with appropriate information or opinions to questions asked. Listen to and acknowledge the contributions of others. Display appropriate turn-taking behaviors. 1.6.3.E Participate in small and large group discussions and presentations. Participate in everyday conversation. Present oral readings. Deliver short reports (e.g., Show-and-Tell, field trip summary).

21 PA Standards/Anchors (Cont.)
Mathematics M.4.A.2 Understand the meanings of operations, use operations and understand how they relate to each other. M.4.A.3 Compute accurately and fluently and make reasonable estimates. M.4.B.1 Demonstrate an understanding of measurable attributes of objects and figures, and the units, systems and processes of measurement. M.4.B.2 Apply appropriate techniques, tools and formulas to determine measurements. Reading R.4.A.1.1 Identify and interpret the meaning of vocabulary. R.4.A.2.1 Identify and interpret the meaning of vocabulary in nonfiction. R.4.A.2.3 Make inferences and draw conclusions based on text. R.4.A.2.4 Identify and explain main ideas and relevant details. R.4.B.1.2 Make connections between texts. Science S.4.A.3.2 Use models to illustrate simple concepts and compare the models to what they represent. S.4.A.3.3 Identify and make observations about patterns that regularly occur and reoccur in nature.

22 Sources Photo Credits: Website Credits
Website Credits Quilts / Lantern/ Symbols Vocabulary Underground Website Station Houses Slaves Information Sites Escape Routes Songs Signals Video Writing Sites Stars

23 Dagen Audrey Andrews Spring 701025638 Dagen Rdng
Key Assessment #3: WebQuest Project Dagen Student Name Audrey Andrews Semester Spring Student ID Number Instructor Dagen Degree Code Rdng Total Points IRA Standards Indicator Not Met (1) Partially Met (2) Indicator Met (3) Standard 2. Instructional Strategies and Curriculum Materials 2.2 Use a wide range of instructional practices, approaches and methods, including technology-based practices, for learners at different stages of development and from differing cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Does not utilize a wide variety of instructional practices, approaches or methods in order to meet the needs of all students. Adequately incorporates a variety of instructional practices, approaches or methods. Skillfully integrates a variety of instructional practices, approaches and methods in order to best meet the needs of all students. 2.3 Use a wide range of curriculum materials in effective reading instruction for learners at different stages of reading and writing development and from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Does not use a wide variety of materials in order to meet the needs of all students Adequately incorporates a variety of materials throughout the process steps of the Webquest. Skillfully incorporates a variety of curriculum materials aiding student’s completion of the task. Standard 3. Assessment, Diagnosis and Evaluation 3.3 Use assessment information to plan, evaluate and revise effective instruction that meets the needs of all students including those at different developmental stages and those from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Does not collect or utilize assessment information gathered to meet the needs of all students. Provides some evidence of thoughtful evaluation planning. Uses a sophisticated well balanced rubric for student evaluation. Standard 4. Creating a Literate Environment 4.1 Uses students’ interests, reading abilities, and backgrounds as foundations for the reading and writing program. Does not take student interests, abilities and background knowledge into consideration in order to meet students’ needs. Adequately designs web quest taking into consideration students’ backgrounds and interests – attempts to make connections to everyday life. Designed a well written highly motivational Webquest. Students are able to make the connection between learning the material and everyday life. 4.2 Use a large supply of books, technology based information, and non-print materials representing multiple levels, broad interests and cultural and linguistic backgrounds Does not utilize a variety of teaching materials (books, technology, etc) to motivate students to best meet their needs. Provides some evidence of importance of using a variety of text, non-text and technology resources. Identifies and incorporates high quality supplementary materials for students at all reading levels. 4.4 Motivate learners to be life-long readers Does not motivate/encourage learners for lifetime learning. Provides adequate encouragement for students continued reading/learning. Skillfully designs WebQuest that encourages students to consider further investigation. Standard 5. Professional Development 5.3Work with colleagues to observe, evaluate, and provide feedback on each other’s practice. Does not demonstrate ability collaborate with peers. Effectively collaborates with colleagues. Skillfully collaborate through sharing, providing feedback and guiding discussion RDNG 622: Webquest Rubric Unacceptable Acceptable 1-3 Target 4 Score Introduction (The introduction both prepares and hooks the reader. The student is the intended audience.) Motivational Effectiveness of Introduction (4.1) The introduction is purely factual, with no appeal to relevance or social importance The introduction relates somewhat to the learner's interests and/or describes a compelling question or problem. The introduction draws the reader into the lesson by relating to the learner's interests and background and/or engagingly describing a compelling question or problem. Task (The task is the end result of student efforts- not the steps in getting there.) Cognitive Level of the Task Task requires simply comprehending or retelling of information found on web pages and answering factual questions. Task is doable but is limited in its significance to students' lives. The task requires analysis of information and/or putting together information from several sources. Task is doable and engaging, and elicits thinking that goes beyond rote comprehension. The task requires synthesis of multiple sources of information, and/or taking a position, and/or going beyond the data given and making a generalization or creative product. Task requires little thought or engagement in overall topic. Task is developed in such a manner that student view assignment as a “school” project only. Task is developed by taking into consideration the students’ interests, reading abilities and background. Process (The process is the step-by-step description of how students will accomplish the task.) Clarity of Process Process is not clearly stated. Students would not know exactly what they were supposed to do just from reading this. Some directions are given, but there is missing information. Students might be confused. Every step is clearly stated. Most students would know exactly where they are at each step of the process and know what to do next. Scaffolding of Process (2.2, 2.3, 4.2) The process lacks strategies and organizational tools needed for students to gain the knowledge needed to complete the task. Literacy Strategies and organizational tools embedded in the process are insufficient to ensure that all students will gain the knowledge needed to complete the task The process provides students coming in at different entry levels with literacy strategies and organizational tools to access and gain the knowledge needed to complete the task. Activities are of little significance to one another and/or to the accomplishment of the task. Some of the activities do not relate specifically to the accomplishment of the task. Activities are clearly related and designed to take the students from basic knowledge to higher level thinking No group time is built into process step. Group time interaction is limited. Includes steps throughout the process specifically designed for group meeting and discussion time within the steps Final product of the process steps is not clearly connected to the task description At the end of the process steps, the final product does not encourage students to think, reflect or expand their thinking; product is similar to other products that have been produced At the end of the process steps, the description of the final product is clearly and coherently presented, product is clearly related to task; product is unique and would clearly stretch the group's thinking. Web links are broken or inappropriate. Web links are partially functional; sites used are questionable, not helpful for completing task Web links are functional; sites used are reliable, appropriate for completing task. Evaluation (The evaluation section states the criteria needed to meet performance and content standards.) Clarity of Evaluation Criteria (3.3) Note: Once completed for each student, teacher should be able to use data collected to edit or modify Webquest. Criteria for successful completion of Webquest activities are not described. Criteria for successful completion of Webquest activities are at least partially described. Criteria for successful completion of Webquest activities are clearly stated in the form of a rubric. The evaluation instrument clearly measures what students must know and be able to do to accomplish the task. Conclusion (The conclusion brings closure and encourages reflection.) Motivational Effectiveness of Conclusion (4.4) Does little to summarize what the students have accomplished and does not encourage extended thinking into other content beyond this lesson. Summarizes what the students have accomplished but does little to encourage extended thinking into other content beyond this lesson. Summarizes what the learners have accomplished or learned by completing this lesson. Includes some rhetorical questions or additional links to encourage students to extend thinking beyond this lesson. Resource Page (This page includes information to help other teachers implement the Webquest, including: standards, materials needed, notes for teaching the unit.) Quality of Teacher Page Literacy Strategies (2.2) No strategies listed Three literacy strategies listed but with no direction of when/how they will be used Three literacy strategies listed and described. Written rationale makes it clear to teacher/reader why the strategies were chosen and where (in the process) they fit (Before, During or After) WV CSO’s (CA + RLA) West Virginia CSO’s not listed. WebQuest is not interdisciplinary and not clearly connected to the WV content standards and objectives. West Virginia CSO’s for reading/language arts OR content area listed. WebQuest is interdisciplinary; connects WV content standards and objectives standards but the relationship between stated standards and content is not appropriate. West Virginia CSO’s for reading/language arts AND content area listed. Webquest is interdisciplinary; connects WV content standards and objectives academic standards with developmentally appropriate grade level WebQuest. Duration & Taskonomy Duration and taskonomy elements not listed. Duration and taskonomy elements listed. Duration and taskonomy elements clearly defined; appropriate for Webquest. Text Resources (2.3, 4.2) No resources listed 1-5 points Supplemental resources listed; logical connection to topic NOT evident 6 points 4-5 supplemental resources listed; resources described with short summary of content; logical connection to topic evident Overall Aesthetics (This refers to the WebQuest page itself, not the external resources linked to it.) Overall Visual Appeal and Navigation/Flow 0 points 1-3 points 5 points There are few or no graphic elements. No variation in layout or typography. Background interferes with the readability. Getting through the lesson is confusing. There are more than 3 broken links, misplaced or missing images, badly sized tables. Graphic elements sometimes, but not always, contribute to the understanding of concepts, ideas and relationships. There is some variation in type size and color. There are places where the learner can get lost and not know where to go. Appropriate and thematic graphic elements are used to make visual connections that contribute to the understanding of concept. Navigation is seamless and always clear to the learner. No mechanical problems noted. ( Deliverable Product -3-5 points -1-2 points Late or incomplete Multiple errors Unclear writing Final product includes most of the required information – but not all. Few errors. Clear, organized writing Final product submitted on time. All materials are included- well organized and clearly labeled. Error-free, high-quality writing. Presentation – Face to Face 0 points 1-5 points 7-8 points Quality of Presentation (5.3) The activity chosen to engage the class fails to get everyone involved and lacks a clear association with Webquest topic. Does not meet time guidelines. Presenter does not engage class in follow up discussion. The activity chosen to engage the class gets everyone involved but lacks a clear association with the Webquest topic. Meets time guidelines. Following the presentation, the presenter attempts to facilitate a discussion, question and answer session. The activity chosen to engage the class gets everyone involved and shows a clear association with the Webquest topic. Meets time guidelines. Following the presentation, the presenter successfully facilitates a group discussion. Presentation – Online Author does not attach WebQuest to a post on discussion board. Does not engage class in follow up discussion. Author attaches WebQuest to a post on discussion board (late). Facilitates a surface level class discussion through collaborative posting and responses. Author attaches WebQuest to a post on discussion board on time. Successfully facilitates class discussion through collaborative posting/responses. Total Score

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