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The Accelerating Universe Walid J. Azzam Department of Physics College of Science University of Bahrain

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Outline A Little Cosmology Supernovae – the tool The Accelerating Universe The Nobel Prize

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Historical Perspective of Cosmology

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Anaximander

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Plasma Universe

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Functional Universe

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The Official Story Modern Cosmology Assumptions: 1- Homogeneity 2- Isotropy 3- Universality of the Laws of Physics Cosmological Principle

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Big Bang Theory The Universe “exploded” from a singularity of infinite density, about 13.7 billion years ago, and has been expanding ever since.

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Any Evidence, Sir? Doppler shift of the spectral lines of galaxies. Percentage of H and He (and trace elements). Cosmic Background Radiation

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Will the Universe Expand Forever? We need to compare the current density (matter + energy) to the critical density. > c ( 0 > 1) : expansion will stop; this will be followed by contraction = c ( 0 = 1) : expansion stops asymtotically at infinity < c ( 0 < 1) : expansion continues

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Supernovae Historical Supernovae Types Remnants Use in Cosmology

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Historical SNe SN 1006 Around April 30. Read by its light at night. Faded after 1 yr. Seen in: Egypt, Iraq, Europe, China, Japan. Visible in daylight.

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SN 1054 July 4, “guest star”. China, Japan, Korea, and Arabic medical textbook. Visible by daylight.

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SN 1572 (Tycho’s SN)

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SN 1604 (Kepler’s SN)

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Types of SNe

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Remnants

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Use in Cosmology

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