2Explain how biomes are characterized Describe how net primary production varies among biomesExplain how organisms are adapted to the conditions of their biomesDescribe the criteria ecologist use to classify aquatic systemsList the major categories of freshwater ecosystemsExplain the ecological importance of estuariesList the three major zones of the oceanDefine the following terms: biome, climate, weather, climatograph, net primary production, canopy, emergent layer, understory, epiphyte, deciduous, estivation, coniferous, hibernation, permafrost, salinity, photic zone, aphotic zone, benthic zone, littoral zone, limnetic zone, wetland, flood plain, estuary, upwelling, Chapter 6:
3and what it means for us in the Northern Hemisphere. Do Now Turn INExplain in words and or a diagram the transition between winter and spring on the earthand what it means for us in the Northern Hemisphere.Do you know exactly what time spring starts?
4On March 20, there are twelve hours of daylight and twelve hours of darkness at all points on the earth's surface. Sunrise is at 6 a.m. and sunset is at 6 p.m. local (solar) time for most points on the earth's surface. (This varies, of course, based on time zones, which are much broader regions than local solar time.)Equinoxes occur when the axis of rotation of the earth (i.e. the line form the N to S poles) is exactly parallel to the direction of motion of the earth around the sun. This happens on just two days of the year, the spring and autumn equinoxes. This means that day length is exactly the same (12 hours) at all points on the earth's surface on these days (except right at each pole, where it will be about to change from permanent light to dark, or vice versa).
5During an equinox, the Earth's North and South poles are not tilted toward or away from the Sun and the length of the day is the same at all points on Earth's surface
7What is FOG? What causes Fog? Do Now 2 types of fog: Advection a thick cloud of tiny water droplets suspended in the atmosphere at or near the earth's surface that obscures or restricts visibility – basically it is a ground level CLOUD2 types of fog:AdvectionRadiation
8Do NowAdvection FogAdvection fog occurs when moist air passes over a cool surface by advection (wind) and is cooled.It is most common at sea when moist air encounters cooler waters.
9Do NowRadiation Fog?The cool ground produces condensation in the nearby air by heat conduction.Radiation fogs occur at night, and usually do not last long after sunrise, though can persist all day in the winter months
10What are the differences What are the differences? Climate, Biology, Limiting Factors, Adaptations?
11Things Change?Fossil evidence suggests that the frozen continent of Antarctica was once covered in temperate forest.
12Earth’s BiomesGroups of terrestrial ecosystems that share biotic and abiotic conditions10 primary biomes:tropical rain forestdry forest savannaSavannadeserttemperate rain foresttemperate foresttemperate grasslandchaparralboreal foresttundra
19Climate: Average conditions, including temperature and precipitation, over long periods of time in a given areaWeather: Day-to-day conditions in Earth’s atmosphereClimatographs: Diagrams that summarize an area’s average monthly temperature and precipitationEach biome has a set of characteristic organisms adapted to its particular climate conditions.
21ProductivityNet primary production: The amount of organic matter (biomass) that remains after primary producers use some to carry out cellular respirationEcosystems vary in their net primary productivity, the rate at which primary producers convert energy to biomass.Warm, wet biomes generally have higher net primary productivity than cold, dry biomes.
25Aquatic Ecosystems (Wet Biomes) 75% of Earth’s surface is covered by water.
26Salinity: the amount of dissolved salt present in water Salinity: the amount of dissolved salt present in water. Ecosystems are classified as salt water, fresh water, or brackish depending on salinity.Photosynthesis tends to be limited by light availability, which is a function of depth and water clarity.Aquatic ecosystems are either flowing or standing.Aquatic ecosystem zones: photic, aphotic, benthic
27Aquatic Ecosystem Limiting Factors Limiting factors may include:SalinityPhSunlightDissolved oxygenTemperature
28Freshwater Ecosystems: Ponds, Lakes, Inland Seas Salinity is less than 0.5 ppt (parts per thousand) Diagram is in book on page 183
29Freshwater Ecosystems: Wetlands Areas of land flooded with water at least part of the yearInclude freshwater marshes, swamps, bogs, and fens
30Freshwater Ecosystems: Rivers and Streams Bodies of surface water that flow downhill, eventually reaching an ocean or inland seaDelaware Water Gap
31Estuaries Occur where a river flows into the ocean or an inland sea Coastal estuaries are brackish ecosystems; organisms must tolerate wide salinity and temperature ranges.Coastal estuaries are home to salt marshes and mangrove forests.
38Review Explained how biomes are characterized Described how net primary production varies among biomesExplained how organisms are adapted to the conditions of their biomesDescribed the criteria ecologist use to classify aquatic systemsListed the major categories of freshwater ecosystemsExplained the ecological importance of estuariesListed the three major zones of the ocean
39Chapter 6 Review Explain what biomes and aquatic ecosystems are Explain how biomes are characterized.Describe how net primary productivity varies among biomes.