# The Methods of Science Vocabulary. A statement to investigate a claim or the cause(s) or effect(s) of an observed phenomenon through experimentation.

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The Methods of Science Vocabulary

A statement to investigate a claim or the cause(s) or effect(s) of an observed phenomenon through experimentation. Example 3: What effect does zero gravity have on bone density? Example 2: What is causing the massive fish kill off of the Oregon coastline? Example 1: Does Jolly fruit juice contain the 100% daily value of Vitamin C as claimed. 1

Process of noticing and describing events or processes in a careful and orderly way. Senses: Smell, Taste, Touch, Sight, Sound 2

Logical conclusions based on available information. Observe Infer State Cause & Effect 3

Based on logical reasoning, it is a possible explanation for a set of observations that can be tested. Fairy Rings 4

Based on logical reasoning, it is a possible explanation for a set of observations that can be tested. H 1 : Cooler temperatures trigger the color change. 4 H 2 : Decreasing daylight triggers the color change. Observation: Leaves change color in the Fall, when daylight steadily decreases and temperatures get cooler.

A statement of what outcomes to expect prior running an experiment. Before After 5 Counterintuitive result: Time to rethink the Hypothesis!

The proposition that implies any effect or relationship between phenomena is purely accidental and is not due to systematic causes. H o : There is no significant difference in the way boys and girls carry books. 6

The independent variable. The factor in a controlled experiment that is deliberately changed. Fertilizer concentration 7 What might be the manipulated variable?

The dependent variable. The variable that is observed and changes in response to the manipulated variable. 8 Rate of growth What might be the Responding variable?

AKA constants. Factors that do not change when other variables change. 9 -type of container -amount of water -kind of soil -species of plant -amount of light -temperature All of these samples have the same …

An experiment in which only one variable is changed. 10 Fertilizer concentration

AKA experimental group. The part of a controlled experiment which contains the manipulated variable. 11 Mutant strain Arabidopis seedlings Normal strain

AKA control group or experimental control: The part of an experiment that is exposed to the same conditions as the experimental set-up except for one independent variable. 12 Mutant strain Normal strain Arabidopis seedlings

A detailed, step-by-step set of directions to recreate the experiment for anyone. 13

The values of a factor to be sampled in an experiment. 14 How many levels are in this experiment? Five: There appear to be five different levels or concentrations of fertilizer used.

The act of running an experiment and collecting data. 15 Look carefully. How many trials are in this experiment? Two. There are two rows of pots.

Equipment used in a laboratory or elsewhere for experiments or scientific study. 16

This refers to any error that can occur in an experiment. 17 Parallax Sample size Reaction time Instrument precision Instrument calibration

Data which can be measured and expressed as a number. 18

Data which can be observed and described, but not measured. 19

The process of using data to make calculations. 20

Displaying data in the form of tables and charts. 21 TablesCharts

Describing trends and observations in data by comparing and contrasting charts. 22 As time continues, what trend is evident?

Interpreting data for cause and effect relationships. This involves accepting, rejecting, or modifying hypotheses. 23 What conclusion can be made if the experiment below were based on a null hypothesis? Air present Air removed

Assessing the procedure and methods used, identifying sources of error, and suggesting modifications to improve the investigation. 24

Used to represent an idea, an object, or event that is too big, too small, too complex, or too dangerous to observe and test directly. 25 Too big Too dangerous Too complex Too small

A well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations and hypotheses, and enables scientists to make accurate predictions about new situations. 26 Inactive TAS 1 R 2 “Sweet tooth” gene House cat 10.8 mya Cougar Tiger Lion BobcatCheetah 7.2 mya 6.7 mya Cat Evolution

A statement or description about what happens in nature that seems to be true all the time; does not explain why or how something happens. 27 Laws of Motion Law of Gravity Laws of Planetary Motion Law of Segregation Law of Natural Selection

The application of scientific knowledge to solve practical problems, especially in industry and commerce. 28

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