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World War I (1914-1917) How did a murder in a small city in Eastern Europe start a “World War”? World War I (1914-1917) How did a murder in a small city.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I (1914-1917) How did a murder in a small city in Eastern Europe start a “World War”? World War I (1914-1917) How did a murder in a small city."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I ( ) How did a murder in a small city in Eastern Europe start a “World War”? World War I ( ) How did a murder in a small city in Eastern Europe start a “World War”?

2 I- World War I Causes Nationalism –(1) national “pride”, –(2) self-determination/self-government –(Old Ottoman Empire – BALKANS) Imperialism-competing for colonies in international trade ($ = power) Militarism-stockpiling weapons/ increasing military strength Systems of Alliances:

3 Triple Entente ( Allies ) France, Great Britain, Russia Triple Alliance ( Central Powers ) Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey Assassination Sparks “World War” June 28,1914 Sarajevo Archduke Franz Ferdinand July 28- Austria-Hungary >Serbia “The Systems of Alliances then go into effect”

4 Schlieffen PlanSchlieffen Plan (win a 2 Front War) Attack France quickly by surprise –Go thru neutral Belgium where France would have limited defenses Maginot LineAvoid French “ Maginot Line ” Had 6 weeks to defeat France –That’s how long they thought it would take Russia to fully prepare Once France is defeated, move troops via railroad to Russian border and attack Aug. 3,1914 Germany attacks Belgium (N)

5 Maginot Line – French Defense System on border with Germany

6 Sept Allies stop Germans (Marne R.) –“Miracle at the Marne” River French in constant retreat – German invincibility French General –Joffre “best defense…” Saved by taxis German Army Split – confusion – retreat Deaths? trenchwarfaretrenchwarfare / “ stalemate ” –Why?

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8 By Spring of 1915 “Trench Stalemate” -How to break things open? ‘new’ weaponsBoth sides design ‘new’ weapons Bigger Cannon Poison Gas Tanksflame throwersMachine GunsAirplanesBigger Cannon Big Bertha Poison Gas (Chlorine, Mustard) Tanks, flame throwers, Machine Guns, Airplanes U-BoatsU-Boats (submarines) British Blockade/German Counter Blockade –American Trade Ships caught in the middle LusitaniaMay 7,1915 Lusitania sunk (128 u.s.) OUTRAGE –Should U.S. go to war? 1915 more ships Arabic/Sussex Attacked1915 more ships Arabic/Sussex Attacked Sussex PledgeSussex Pledge – put Restrictions on German Submarine attacks – Keep us out of the war U.S. Ships

9 President Wilson comments on the Sussex Incident: "...I have deemed it my duty, therefore, to say to the Imperial German Government, that if it is still its purpose to prosecute relentless and indiscriminate warfare against vessels of commerce by the use of submarines, notwithstanding the now demonstrated impossibility of conducting that warfare in accordance with what the Government of the United States must consider the sacred and indisputable rules of international law and the universally recognized dictates of humanity, the Government of the United States is at last forced to the conclusion that there is but one course it can pursue; and that unless the Imperial German Government should now immediately declare and effect an abandonment of its present methods of warfare against passenger and freight carrying vessels this Government can have no choice but to sever diplomatic relations with the Government of the German Empire altogether.

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11 Wilson (Jan. 1917) calls for “Peace Meeting” –War has gone long enough – Death & Destruction France, Britain Open Germany sees Weakness Unrestricted Submarine WarfareJan. 30 German calls for “ Unrestricted Submarine Warfare ” Zimmerman Note-breaking of the Sussex Pledge by Germany -Sinking of 4 unarmed ships (36) - Zimmerman Note (Germany-Mexico) U. S. DECLARES WARApril 6, 1917 “ U. S. DECLARES WAR ” Russian RevolutionMarch 1917 “ Russian Revolution ” (Russia will LEAVE the War- EFFECTS????) 1 st v. CZAR – Democratic Republic (Whites) 2 nd – Communist Revolution(Bolsheviks – REDS)

12 Brest-Litovsk TreatyMarch 3, 1918 Brest-Litovsk Treaty R-G –Russia leaves the War (violates her treaties) which allows Central Powers - Turn All Force on West Convoy System“ Convoy System ” defeats German U-boats Doughboys“ Doughboys ” prove themselves in Battle John J. “Blackjack” PershingJohn J. “Blackjack” Pershing –American Expeditionary Force

13 Military Mobilizes 200,000 to 10 mill by June 5, 24 mill by ‘18 Selective Service Act 9 mth training 6 in U.S./ 2 in Europe & 1 mth on the Front 369thBlack Regiments (369th) Harlem Hell Fighters Very Patriotic Attitude by “Everyone Doing There Duty” Very Patriotic Attitude by “Everyone Doing There Duty”

14 The War in the Trenches Rats Diseases Lice, Polluted Water Constant Bombardments –Shell Shock Poison Gas Attacks

15 Edward V. Rickenbacker (ace) Sgt. Alvin York (Army) 1918 battles1918 battles 2 nd Battle of Marne2 nd Battle of Marne - STOP Germans Meusse-Argonne BattleMeusse-Argonne Battle – Major Allied Offensive NO More Major German Offensives to win the war Allied Blockade “starves & weakens Germany

16 The Other Fronts on the War Genocide - organized killing of an entire people (ARMENIANS Christians by the Ottoman Turk) thru 1920 – NEVER been acknowledged)

17 Nov. 3, 1918 Austria-Hungary Surrenders –German sailors mutinied –Soldiers & Workers form “Revolutionary Councils” – Communist November 11, 1918 ARMISTICENovember 11, 1918 (at 11am) ARMISTICE (Cease Fire) “All Quiet on the Western Front”

18 World War I Casualties 17,698,00011,552,000 Allies Central Powers Military Dead ……….4,889,000 …….3,132,000 Military Wounded ….12,809,000 …….8,420,000 Total Casualties 17,698,000 11,552,000 29,250,000 -

19 Journal Writing (1 full page = 100) Should Schenck have been arrested? Why or Why Not? How do we balance “freedom of speech” with the governments responsibility of protecting us from “clear and present dangers”, especially during times of war? Should all speech be protected at all times? Should groups be limited from influencing or manipulating public opinion? Should Nazi groups be allowed to influence public opinion? Should Radical Imams be allowed to preach “Jihad” and preach justifying terrorist bombings and even encourage these acts? Where do we draw the line between freedom of Speech and Protection or especially National Defense?

20 III- WAR at HOME Congress Gives Power to WilsonCongress Gives Power to Wilson –War Industries Board –War Economy –Food Administration Selling the WarSelling the War –War Financing –Committee on Public Information Propaganda Attacks on Civil LibertiesAttacks on Civil Liberties –Anti-Immigrant Hysteria –Espionage & Sedition Acts War Encourages Social ChangeWar Encourages Social Change –African Americans & the war –The Great Migration –Women in the war –Flu Epidemic

21 Military Mobilizes 200,000 to 10 mill by June 5, 24 mill by ‘18 Selective Service Act 9 mth training 6 in U.S./ 2 in Europe & 1 mth on the Front Black Regiments (369th) Very Patriotic Attitude “Everyone Doing There Duty” Very Patriotic Attitude “Everyone Doing There Duty”

22 INDUSTRY - Congress gave Wilson Special power to “Regulate Industry” & Set Price Controls War Industry Board (set quotas / allocated materials) National War Labor Board “work or fight” Daylight Savings Time –The change to Daylight Saving Time allows us to use less energy in lighting our homes by taking advantage of the longer and later daylight hours. Daylight Saving Time was instituted in the United States during World War I in order to save energy for war production by taking advantage of the later hours of daylight between April and October Need more workers W omen / Afr. Americans –Long Term Effects (Women’s Suffrage/ Civil Rights) Great Migration to North / North East for JOB also fleeing Jim Crow Laws in South

23 very PATRIOTIC –feeling of doing duty FOODFOOD -Herbert Hoover - Food Administration -voluntary sacrifices Victory GardensVictory Gardens? Grow Your Own Victory Bonds “ Victory Bonds ” groups will do “DRIVES” Flu Epidemic-1918 Flu Epidemic-1918 –500,000 (US) –30 million (world)

24 Restrict Immigrants Limit Speech Discrimination v. German-Americans Committee on Public Education rallies, popular support for the war with films, posters, and pamphlets

25 Patriotism Turns into a “Witch Hunt” for some Super Patriotism turns into “prejudice against German-Americans (Germany = Enemy) Prohibition passes 18th Amendment FEAR –“We are vulnerable” Enemy Espionage Terrorism attacks Enemy Influences –Public Opinion Control Political Radicals Anti-War (foreign) Socialists /Communists Labor Union Leaders

26 Restrict Immigrants Limit Speech Discrimination v. German-Americans Committee on Public Education rallies, popular support for the war with films, posters, and pamphlets Literacy Tests (immigrants) law leads to restrictions & anti German feelings (NATIVISM) Espionage Act of 1917 Opinions that “threaten national security” & interfere/obstruct/incite weaken/undermine Sedition Act of new offenses that are illegal to make “disloyal” statements about the government or the war

27 SUPREME COURT CASE (pg. 602) Schneck v. United States ( 1919 ) Legal Reasoning 1) The Espionage Act (15 June 1917), enacted quickly by Congress following the U.S. declaration of war on Germany, authorized federal officials to make summary arrests of people whose opinions “threatened national security.” The measure prohibited willfully making false reports with intent: * to interfere with the success of the military or naval forces, * inciting insubordination, disloyalty, or mutiny in the military, * obstructing recruitment or the enlistment service of the U.S. 2) Congress augmented it with the Sedition Act on 16 May This set forth eight new criminal offenses, including uttering, printing, writing, or publishing any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language intended to cause contempt, scorn, contumely, or disrespect for the U.S. government or the Constitution.

28 Origins of the Case –Charles Schenck/Socialist Party/Anti-Draft Leaflets convicted of Sedition/argues violates his “free Speech” Legal Reasoning –Defines “Free Speech” – Clear & Present Danger Doctrine –Peace Time v. War Time / “Fire in crowded movie theatre” Legal Sources –Legislation ( Sedition Act ) Cases (Convictions of cases) Why it Mattered –2,000 prosecutions during the war –“Truth will eventually win out in the marketplace of Ideas” Historical Impact –1950’s Communism / 1960’s Vietnam / Students in Schools –Symbolic Speech (FLAG BURNING LAW) –Constitutional Amendment Debate / Constitutional Convention

29 Section 4: Wilson Fights for Peace PEACE or REVENGE PeaceRevenge When a WAR is over - you can have Peace or Revenge, but you Can’t Have Both The Price of Both is HIGH * What does Wilson Want? BIG FOUR * What do the BIG FOUR WANT?

30 PeaceRevenge What Kind of Peace Treaty? “Do we want Peace or Revenge ” Practical Politics v. Wilson’s “Idealism” The BIG FOUR –(F) Clemenceau “lived through 2 attacks by Germany – Make Sure CAN’T happen again” –(E) Lloyd George “make Germany PAY” –(US) Wilson – create lasting Peace –(I) Orlando Results of the “Treaty of Versailles” France Germany

31 Global Peacemaker (Wilson) 14 Points of PeaceWilson’s 14 Points of Peace First “5” Points- Remove Causes of War Next “8” Points- Boundary Changes (based on principle of “self-determination”) League of NationsLast Point-formation of a League of Nations (to keep World Peace-protect other nations) Meeting at “Versailles” to decide Peace terms

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33 TOTAL WAR –Civilians Women, Jobs, Resources –Government Economy, Materials –Propaganda One sided View WEST –Battle of Somme Valley EAST –Tannenberg Ottoman Front Italian Front Asia & Africa –Germany loses colonies

34 July 30- Russia Mobilizes it’s Army Aug 2- Germany declares war>Russia Aug 3-Germany declares war>France Aug 4-G. Britain declares >Germany

35 Section 4: Global Peacemaker (Wilson) 14 Points of PeaceWilson’s 14 Points of Peace First “5” Points- Remove Causes of War –No secret treaties – Freedom of Seas / Trade – Reduced Arms – Fair colonial practices Next “8” Points- Boundary Changes (based on principle of “self-determination”) League of NationsLast Point-formation of a League of Nations (to keep World Peace-protect other nations) Meeting at “Versailles” to decide Peace terms

36 PeaceRevenge What Kind of Peace Treaty? “Do we want Peace or Revenge ” Practical Politics v. Wilson’s “Idealism” The BIG FOUR –(F) Clemenceau “lived through 2 attacks by Germany – Make Sure CAN’T happen again” –(E) Lloyd George “make Germany PAY” –(US) Wilson – create lasting Peace –(I) Orlando Results of the “Treaty of Versailles” France Germany

37 PeaceRevenge What Kind of Peace Treaty? “Do we want Peace or Revenge ” 9 New Nations created9 New Nations created –Ottoman Empire broken up –Mandates created *British *French ArmyG. Army drastically reduced (100,000 troops) Germany loses Alsace-Lorraine War ReparationsGermany > $33 Billion- War Reparations

38 (Weakness of the “Versailles Treaty”) Does NOT create a “Lasting Peace” Germany ) (Treatment of Germany ) – Germany alone is responsible for starting the war (Unfair)War Guilt Clause – Germany alone is responsible for starting the war (Unfair) –GERMANY is Evil / militaristic / war monger –Kaiser forced out / Democracy “forced” on them Economy Weak –Reparations (worse) –They can’t possibly pay the Reparations German territory losses (anger) –Alsace-Lorraine –Polish Corridor (separates Germany-E. Prussia) –Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia) –Forbid ANSCHLUSS with Austria (Unify with Germany)

39 Weakness of the “Versailles Treaty” Russia (Treatment of Russia ) fought for 3 years, (over 90% casualties but is “excluded” from Versaillesfought for 3 years, (over 90% casualties but is “excluded” from Versailles lost more territory than Germanylost more territory than Germany –(new) Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland

40 Weakness of the “Versailles Treaty” (The BALKANS) Austria-Hungary (Broken Up) Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia Bulgaria Treaty (other Balkan Changes) –Land change: Romania, Bulgaria, Greece Ethnic – Racial –Tribal – Religious – Historic hatreds & prejudices NOT SOLVED with the New the Boundaries/Countries

41 OLD Ottoman Empire - Turkey Treaty - Turkey established Old Ottoman Empire Broken ( MANDATES temporary colonies ) Iraq, Syria, Transjordan, Lebanon, and Palestine (Israel)

42 Weakness of the “Versailles Treaty” Colonies ” left-out ” self-determination ex. South East Asia: Ho Chi Minh (Vietnam)Colonies ” left-out ” self-determination ex. South East Asia: Ho Chi Minh (Vietnam) U.S. Senate “Rejects” the Treaty (why)U.S. Senate “Rejects” the Treaty (why) too harsh on Germany Isolationist Fears“Isolationist Fears” Henry Cabot Lodge League of Nations controlling our Foreign Policy –FEAR of League of Nations controlling our Foreign Policy Wilson “dies” fighting to the Treaty 1921 U.S. signs a Treaty w/ Germany

43 Legacy of the War for UNITED STATES (pg CHART) Accelerated America’s emergence as the world’s Greatest Industrial Power Contributed to the movement of African Americans to Northern Cities (Great Migration) Intensified Anti-Foreigner and Anti-Radical sentiments among many mainstream Americans Brought one million women into the work force

44 TEST ESSAY QUESTION Describe the Causes and Effects of World War I. Specifically include the Treaty of Versailles and the lasting effects of the war on attitudes and how the components of the Treaty, in many ways will encourage another war.

45 CAUSES -Imperialism leads to rivalries (competition) -Nationalism between & within countries grows -Military buildup in Europe grows -Europe develops complicated system of alliances -Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated -Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia EFFECTS -Wilsons Goals at the Treaty of Versailles -Map of Europe is redrawn (self determination) -League of Nations is formed -Specific Components of Treaty to Germany -HOW these will encourage another war

46 UNIT POSTER PROJECT DUE Next Friday

47 What Could We Have Done To Prevent Another World War ? Should the United States have joined the League of Nations? Could we have “prevented” another World War if we had joined?


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