# Quick facts to Pass the SOL. 1. The same substance always has the same density regardless of size.

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Quick facts to Pass the SOL

1. The same substance always has the same density regardless of size.

2. As pressure increases, density increases

3. As temperature increases, density decreases 6. Water is most dense at 4 o C, when it is a liquid

4. Water expands when it freezes

5. Most changes are cyclic

7. The true shape of the Earth is an oblate spheroid, but from space it looks like a perfect sphere. 8. The best model of the earth is a sphere

9. The altitude of Polaris is equal to your latitude on Earth!

10. To determine the earth’s circumference, the altitude of the sun is needed at 2 locations.

11. Latitude lines run east-west, but measure distances N – S.

12. Longitude lines run N – S, but measure distances E – W.

13. Longitude is based on observations of the sun.

14. Use the REFERENCE TABLES!!!

15. The closer the isolines (isobars, isotherms, contours), the steeper the gradient!

16. The earth rotates from West to East (24 hours) or counterclockwise

17. The earth revolves counterclockwise around the sun (365 ¼ days)

18. All celestial objects appear to rise in the east and set in the west.

19. The moon has phases because of the angle at which we view it (Half is ALWAYS lit!).

20. Planets appear to go backwards (retrograde motion) as the earth passes them in space.

21. Summer Solstice is June 21 st 22. Winter Solstice is December 21 st 23. Equinoxes: March 21 st and September 21st

24. The equator always receives 12 hours of daylight.

25. The lower the altitude of the sun, the longer the shadow it casts.

26. Foucault’s pendulum and the coriolis effect prove the earth rotates.

27. Earth is closer to the sun in the winter. Winter

28. The closer the planet is to the sun, the faster it moves!

31.Black absorbs/white reflects. 41. Good absorbers are good radiators.

32. The half-life of a radioactive element cannot be changed! 33. Ocean crust is thin and made of basalt. 34. Continental crust is thick and made of granite!

35. Energy moves from source to sink (high concentration to low concentration).

36. Mountains form by uplift.

37. Chemical weathering occurs most rapidly in warm, moist climates and involves a change in chemical composition of the rock. 38. Physical weathering occurs most rapidly in cold, moist climates due to frost action.

39. A ir moves clockwise and outward around a high pressure system. 40. A ir moves counterclockwise and toward the center of a low pressure system.

44. As temperature increases, air pressure decreases. (Indirect) 45. As moisture increases, pressure decreases (Indirect). 46. Air pressure decreases with altitude.

47. High pressure is cool and dry; low is warm and wet!

48.Winds are due to air pressure differences. 49. Wind blows from areas of high pressure to low pressure

50. Wind is named from the direction it is coming!

52. The closer the air temperature and dew point temperature the greater the chance of precipitation (increased humidity).

53. Weather moves from West to East in the United States.

54. Cold Front 57. Cold fronts move the fastest! Cold fronts force warm air up and are associated with short narrow bands of heavy precipitation and thunder/lightning in advance of the front!

55. Warm Front Warm fronts ride up the back of cold air and produce longer periods of steady rain and occur both in front of and behind the advancing front.

56. Occluded Front

58. Porosity does NOT depend on particle size. 59. As particle size increases, permeability increases!

60. Capillarity increases when particle size decreases.

61. Potential evapotranspiration depends on temperature.

62. Dynamic equilibrium means balance.

63. Apparent diameter of objects (sun, moon) gets larger when the object is closer to Earth (perihelion/perigee)

64. Vertical rays (overhead sun) can occur between 23 ½ o N and 23 1/2 o S.

65. Index fossils are good time markers (widely spread, lived a short time).

66. Air cools as it rises.

67. Water bodies moderate temperature (cooler summers/warmer winters) along the coast.

68. Expansional cooling: Orographic effect!

69. Gravity is the primary force behind ALL erosional agents!

70. Streams are the number one agent of erosion. B/C there is so much of it on Earth! 71. Stream velocity depends on slope and discharge. 1. Increase in slope = increased velocity and increased discharge. 72. Velocity is fastest on the outside of a meander bend.

73. Heavy, round and dense particles settle out first (Graded bedding). 74. Bedding (vertical sorting): biggest sentiments are on bottom! Horizontal Sorting – Biggest is located near the shore

75. Glacial sediments are unsorted, unconsolidated, scratched, create U-shaped valleys!

76. Sedimentary rocks – strata – flat layers – most likely to have fossils 77. Igneous rock: cools fast, small crystals; cools slow, big crystals 78. Metamorphic – banding, foliation or distorted structure

79.Mineral properties depend on internal atomic arrangement. - it will determine the hardness, cleavage

80. Silicon + oxygen = tetrahedron

81. Isostasy: earth’s crust in equilibrium

82. Mid-ocean ridge – new earth being created – sea floor spreading.

83. Trenches – earth being destroyed – subduction zone

84. P waves travel faster than S waves. 85. P waves travel through liquid and solids – S waves only travel through solids. 86. Three (3) seismic stations are needed to locate the epicenter of an earthquake.

Locating the epicenter

87.In undisturbed strata – the bottom layer is the oldest LAW OF SUPERPOSITION

88. Intrusion and faults are younger than the rock they cut across!

89. Unconformity means erosion followed by deposition.

90. Arid landscape: steep slopes with sharp angles.

91. Humid landscape: smooth with rounded slopes.

92. When in doubt…. See if the reference tables will help! 93. Uranium 235 dates old rocks. 94. Carbon 14 dates recent living objects.

95. Convection currents in the mantle move plates.

99. Be familiar with this chart: Date Lat. of Sun’s direct rays Direction of sunrise and sunset Altitude of noon sun Length of Daylight Sept 21 (Autumnal Equinox) Equator Due east + Due west 48 o 12 hours Dec. 21 (Winter Solstice) Tropic of Capricorn (23 ½ o S) Rises S. of east + sets S. of West 24.5 o 8 hours (shortest daylight) March 21 (Vernal Equinox) Equator Due east + Due west 48 o 12 hours June 21 (Summer Solstice) Tropic of Cancer (23 1/2 o N) Rises N. of east + sets N. of west 71.5 o 16 hours (longest daylight)

97. When a rock is broken into smaller pieces, surface area increases and weathering increases.

Read introductory paragraphs and study diagrams before looking at questions. or hi-light key words!! Read introductory paragraphs and study diagrams before looking at questions. Look for helpful key words like always, never, none, except, most, least. Underline or hi-light key words!!

If certain words cause confusion, cross them out and substitute a different word, then read the question again.  Example: substitute the word “spin” for rotate or “orbit” for revolution.

Don’t leave any questions blank! Don’t leave any questions blank! Mark an answer for every question. You may lose credit by guessing incorrectly, but an unanswered question will cost you credit automatically.

Try to supply your own answer to a multiple choice question before you look at the alternatives. Then choose the response closest to your own answer.

If all else fails and you have to guess an answer, then and only then consider this advice: If two choices are very similar choose neither. If two choices are opposite, choose one of them. The most general alternative is frequently the right answer. Don't change your original answer unless you're completely sure it's wrong.

Skip over hard questions that are stumping you. Go back to them later. Something else in the test may give you a clue to the harder problems.