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Where do cosmic rays come from? The Royal High School, Bath Image (Courtesy of the Hubble Space Telescope): HST Mystic Mountain, Carina Nebula. The correlation.

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Presentation on theme: "Where do cosmic rays come from? The Royal High School, Bath Image (Courtesy of the Hubble Space Telescope): HST Mystic Mountain, Carina Nebula. The correlation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Where do cosmic rays come from? The Royal High School, Bath Image (Courtesy of the Hubble Space Telescope): HST Mystic Mountain, Carina Nebula. The correlation between the number of cosmic ray events and Right Ascension.

2 Celestial Measures of Location A mapping system for the night sky. RRight Ascension: Longitude measured along the celestial equator. Measured eastward from the vernal equinox. Expressed in hours, minutes and seconds. DDeclination: Latitude for the night sky. Measured from the celestial equator. Expressed in degrees. ZZenith: The imaginary point located directly above a particular location.

3 Graph: Percentage Change from the Mean No. Events by Right Ascension

4 Graph Observations  Stations with almost complete sets of data chosen. Reduces possibility of variation. Eliminates seasonal effects. Multiple sources improve reliability and validity of conclusion.  Observations: Pattern found within data sets of 5 detectors. Highest +ve change at 18h RA. Lowest –ve change at 6h RA. Only station 7001 around mean Amsterdam; St Ignatius Gymnasium 0305 Kennemerland; Gemeentehuis Castricum 1003 Utrecht; Museum Sterrenwacht Sonnenborogh 3102 Zwijndrecht; Walburg College (Hendrik Ido Ambacht) 7001 Enschede; Universiteit Twente Panningen; Bouwens van der Boije College

5 Sky Map  Possible areas consisting of supernovae (dying stars) around 51.5° declination (facing direction in night sky in Bath) and 18hrs RA.  Non-conclusive evidence of sources.

6 Graph: Percentage Change from the Mean No. Events by Right Ascension

7 0hrs RA; Spring Equinox 12hrs RA; Autumn Equinox 18hrs RA; Winter Solstice 6hrs RA; Summer Solstice Position of the Earth in Orbit

8 Graph: Percentage Change from the Mean No. Events by Right Ascension

9 What do we already know? MMajority of cosmic radiation received by detectors are from the zenith (51.5° declination). At zenith, least obstruction from the atmosphere for cosmic rays to travel through. SSummer: Sun rises closer to the zenith. More daylight hours. WWinter: Sun rises further away from zenith. Shorter daylight hours. 51.5° N

10 Graph: Percentage Change from the Mean No. Events by Right Ascension

11 Our Hypothesis? The Sun may have a blocking effect on cosmic radiation from beyond the Solar System.

12 Supporting Evidence Mean Average of Hourly Data (RHS Data)

13 Supporting Evidence Mean Average of Hourly Data (RHS Data)

14  For both graphs, the no. cosmic ray events detected are at a minimum at noon. At noon, the sun is nearer to the zenith and within range of the detectors.  Confidence intervals to show ranges of uncertainty in data values. Range of values of y-axis is small; higher chance of error.  RHS: Trend is present with 95% confidence.  Station 305: Trend is also present, but 99% confidence means this trend is more reliable. Also shows that minimum observed at noon is likely to be a real effect. Mean Average of Hourly Data for 2013 RHS Station 305

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16 Outside Research  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series 1, Mathematical and Physical Sciences © 1975 The Royal Society. ‘…the basic cosmic ray sources in galactic models are supernova explosions and particularly cosmic ray acceleration by pulsars arising from these explosions.  American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); ‘Science: Evidence Shows That Cosmic Rays Come From Exploring Stars’ (13 February 2013). ‘Data collected by the Fermi Space Telescope provide conclusive evidence that supernovae are the source’ of cosmic rays… ‘ general consensus among scientists that supernova remnants (the leftovers of a supernova explosion) are the sources of cosmic rays.’  Science Magazine; Issue 25 November 2011: Vol ‘[A group of researchers led by M. Ackermann] report observations with NASA's Fermi Large Area Telescope that are directly related to the origin of cosmic rays. They identified distributed emission of gamma-rays over the energy range of 1 to 100 GeV in the Cygnus X region of the sky with a “cocoon” of freshly accelerated cosmic rays.’

17 What can we say about what we already know? If the sun is nearer to the zenith, then it is likely to be within range of the detectors. In the summer, we experience more hours of daylight. Thus, the sun is within the range of the detectors for a greater length of time. If this is so, then the sun would be obstructing more cosmic radiation from being detected. This means that in the summer, the sun causes less events to be detected.

18 Conclusions The sun may be a primary obstruction in the detection of cosmic radiation. However, the sources of cosmic radiation detected by stations in the Netherlands may be found within areas of the Universe, in the range of 51 – 52° declination and 17 – 19 hours Right Ascension. Images are featured in this presentation in courtesy of Wikipedia, Google Images, Sky-Map.org and the Hubble Space Telescope.

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