Presentation on theme: "The Five Pillars: taking it further. The Five Pillars (1) Muslims follow the Five Pillars, which are visible signs of their way of life and the unity."— Presentation transcript:
The Five Pillars (1) Muslims follow the Five Pillars, which are visible signs of their way of life and the unity of the Ummah.
The Five Pillars: taking it further The Five Pillars (2) Many textbooks put the Five Pillars into a certain order:
The Five Pillars: taking it further The Five Pillars (3) This order is traditional and is generally said to start with the most frequently observed pillar and ends with hajj, which only needs to be once in a lifetime. However, there is no particular provenance for this order and it does not appear anywhere in the Qur’an. So, if you are referring to a Pillar in an examination answer you should name it and not just say ‘the Third Pillar’, for example.
The Five Pillars: taking it further Shahadah (declaration of faith) ‘There is no god but Allah; Muhammad is the messenger of Allah’
The Five Pillars: taking it further Salah (1) Compulsory prayer five times a day: Fajr (between dawn and sunrise) Zuhr (after mid-day) Asr (between late afternoon and sunset) Maghrib (between sunset and the end of daylight) Isha (night, until dawn).
The Five Pillars: taking it further Salah (2) Although the Qur’an mentions different prayers at different times of the day, nowhere does it prescribe prayer five times a day. This is found in the Hadith.
The Five Pillars: taking it further Salah (3) Then the prayers were enjoined on me: They were fifty prayers a day. When I returned, I passed by Moses who asked (me), 'What have you been ordered to do?' I replied, 'I have been ordered to offer fifty prayers a day.' Moses said, 'Your followers cannot bear fifty prayers a day, and by Allah, I have tested people before you, and I have tried my level best with Bani Israel (in vain). Go back to your Lord and ask for reduction to lessen your followers' burden.' So I went back, and Allah reduced ten prayers for me. Then again I came to Moses, but he repeated the same as he had said before. Then again I went back to Allah and He reduced ten more prayers. When I came back to Moses he said the same, I went back to Allah and He ordered me to observe ten prayers a day. When I came back to Moses, he repeated the same advice, so I went back to Allah and was ordered to observe five prayers a day….
The Five Pillars: taking it further Salah (4) When I came back to Moses, he said, 'What have you been ordered?' I replied, 'I have been ordered to observe five prayers a day.' He said, 'Your followers cannot bear five prayers a day, and no doubt, I have got an experience of the people before you, and I have tried my level best with Bani Israel, so go back to your Lord and ask for reduction to lessen your follower's burden.' I said, 'I have requested so much of my Lord that I feel ashamed, but I am satisfied now and surrender to Allah's Order.' When I left, I heard a voice saying, 'I have passed My Order and have lessened the burden of My Worshipers.’ (Sahih Al-Bukhari 5.227)
The Five Pillars: taking it further Saum (sawm) Fasting in the month of Ramadan during the hours of daylight. Abstinence is required from all food and drink (including water) as well as smoking and conjugal relations. The discipline also includes not indulging in idle chatter and not gossiping. Cleaning teeth and using eye drops are allowed and so are intramuscular injections. Intravenous nutritional injections are not allowed. Unintentional acts such as swallowing water when taking a shower are excused. A Muslim who breaks the fast for no good reason must give a meal for 60 people or fast for a further 60 days. Muslims remember that Allah sees every action. Children under the age of puberty; women who are menstruating, pregnant or breastfeeding; the aged; the sick; travellers; and soldiers are exempt. However, apart from the elderly and the young, others must make up the missing days as soon as possible.
The Five Pillars: taking it further Zakat (1) Purification of wealth by payment of annual welfare due, usually 2.5% of surplus income given annually. Zakat began in al-Madinah where there were widows and orphans to be looked after. Muslims regard wealth as a gift from Allah for the benefit of humanity and it should be shared. It is a sign of brotherhood and unity. It also benefits the givers in that it frees them from greed, selfishness, materialism and hypocrisy. It also helps their spiritual growth, so zakat is often linked with salah.
The Five Pillars: taking it further Zakat (2) The rules about zakat are complicated, although in general it is said to be 2.5% (one-fortieth) when paid on money and savings. For produce from land, Muslims pay 10% if the land is irrigated naturally and 5% if it is irrigated by hand or by machinery. Livestock is calculated using detailed charts.
The Five Pillars: taking it further Hajj Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah) is made during the month of Dhul-Hijjah. This duty must be observed once in a lifetime by all Muslims who are physically and mentally able to do so and who have sufficient money to take care of their dependants while they are away from home. Umrah is the lesser pilgrimage, which can be carried out at any time. Muslims who are too ill to make the journey can give their Hajj savings to charity or they can pay for a substitute to go to Makkah in their place. However, the substitute person must already have made the pilgrimage on their own behalf. People who really cannot make the journey declare their niyyah or intention and the duty is considered to have been fulfilled. Women on Hajj should have a close male relative as their mahram or wakil (guardian) to protect them.