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Airpower Through WW I 2Overview Define Air and Space Power Competencies Distinctive Capabilities Functions Air and Space Doctrine Principles of War Tenets.

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Presentation on theme: "Airpower Through WW I 2Overview Define Air and Space Power Competencies Distinctive Capabilities Functions Air and Space Doctrine Principles of War Tenets."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Airpower Through WW I

3 2Overview Define Air and Space Power Competencies Distinctive Capabilities Functions Air and Space Doctrine Principles of War Tenets of Air and Space Power

4 3Overview Lighter-than-air Vehicles Military Use of Balloons and Dirigibles Heavier-than-air Vehicles Early Uses of Airpower Airpower in WWI The Battle of Air Supremacy American Participation in WWI

5 4Overview Close Air Support and Interdiction in WWI Development of Tactics in WWI Strategic Bombing Theorists CFD Review

6 “The synergistic application of air, space, and information systems to project global strategic military power.” ~ AFDD 1 Air and Space Power 5

7 6 Synergistic application Air, Space, and Information Systems To project global strategic military power

8 Fundamental qualities that enable the Air Force to develop and deliver air and space power – Developing Airmen – Technology-to-war fighting – Integrating Operations Core Competencies 7

9 Capabilities that the Air Force does better than any other service – Air and Space Superiority – Information Superiority – Global Attack – Precision Engagement – Rapid Global Mobility – Agile Combat Support Distinctive Capabilities 8

10 9Functions Functions = Missions Broad, fundamental, and continuing activities of air and space power not unique to the Air Force a.Strategic Attack b.Counterair c.Counterspace d.Counterland e.Countersea f.Information Operations g.Combat Support h.Command and Control (C2) i.Airlift j.Air Refueling k.Spacelift l.Special Ops m.Intelligence n.Surveillance and Reconnaissance o.Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) p.Navigation and Positioning q.Weather Services

11 10Doctrine A belief in the best way to implement/use air and space power Based on: – History – Technology – Future Threats – Leaders’ Experiences Provides guidance Must NOT stagnate

12 WWI – Armies vs. machine gun WWII – Daylight, high altitude, unescorted precision bombing Doctrine Examples 11

13 12 Time Period Distinctive Capabilities Functions (missions) Doctrinal Emphasis Pre- WW I  Information Superiority  Surveillance & Reconnaissance  Artillery Spotting  Gathering Military Info to support land forces CFD Model

14 13 “…those aspects of warfare that are universally true and relevant.” ~ Joint Publication 1 Principles of War

15 14 Historically tested Apply equally to all US Armed Forces Unity of Command, Objective, Offense, Mass, Maneuver, Economy of Force, Security, Surprise, Simplicity Principles of War

16 15 UNITY OF COMMAND: Ensures unity of effort for every objective under one responsible commander OBJECTIVE: Directs military operations toward a defined and attainable objective that contributes to strategic, operational, or tactical aims OFFENSIVE: States that we act rather than react and dictate the time, place, purpose, scope, intensity, and pace operations. The initiative must be seized, retained, and fully exploited Principles of War

17 16 MASS: Concentrates combat power at the decisive time and place MANEUVER: Places the enemy in a position of disadvantage through the flexible application of combat power Principles of War

18 17 ECONOMY OF FORCE: Creates usable mass by using minimum combat power on secondary objectives. Makes fullest use of forces available SECURITY: Protects friendly forces and their operations from enemy actions which could provide the enemy with unexpected advantage Principles of War

19 18 SURPRISE: Strikes the enemy at a time or place or in a manner for which he is unprepared SIMPLICITY: Avoids unnecessary complexity in preparing, planning, and conducting military operations Principles of War

20 19 Restraint: Limits collateral damage and prevents unnecessary or unlawful use of force Perseverance: Ensures commitment necessary to attain desired end state Legitimacy: Develops and maintains the will necessary to attain desired end state Other Principles

21 20 Fundamental truths that are unique to the air and space environment. – Centralized Control and Decentralized Execution – Flexibility/Versatility – Synergistic Effects – Persistence – Concentration – Priority – Balance Tenets

22 21 Centralized Control/Decentralized Execution – Air power must be controlled by Airmen (JFACC) – Delegation of execution authority Flexibility and Versatility – Exploit mass, maneuver simultaneously – Parallel attacks at strategic, operational, and tactical levels Synergistic Effects – Higher effectiveness than sum of individual contributions Tenets

23 22 Persistence – Continuous efforts – May need to hit targets more than once…do not need to remain in close proximity to do so Concentration – At a point where it will be decisive – Avoid spreading air and space power to thin Priority – Prioritize applications to have greatest impacts – Must consider finite force structure Balance – Principles of war and Tenets – Offensive and defensive application of power – Strategic, operational, and tactical impacts Tenets

24 23 Early Years of Flight—Introduction Man first flew aloft in a balloon in 1783 Airpower did not have an immediate impact Flying machines were not readily accepted by land oriented officers Airpower’s first major impact was not until World War I

25 24Balloons Montgolfier Brothers flew first hot-air balloon in 1783 Ben Franklin saw first balloon flight and immediately he saw military potential First used for military purposes by the French in 1794 at Maubege. Union and Confederate forces employed balloons during the American Civil War

26 25 Adolphus W. Greely, the grandfather of military aviation in the United States; revived interest in military capability of balloons in 1891 – 1898: Greely balloon used to direct artillery fire during the Battle of San Juan Hill Interest in balloons dropped quickly with the development of heavier- than-air vehiclesBalloons

27 26 Steerable balloons, often called “Airships” 1884: first successful flight in a dirigible Ferdinand Von Zeppelin—person most readily identified with dirigibles – Zeppelins first flown in 1900 – German dirigibles bombed England in WW I – German dirigibles flew surface fleet observation in WW I Vulnerable to winds and ground fireDirigibles

28 27 The Early Years of Flight Uses of Balloons and Dirigibles – Reconnaissance – Artillery spotting – Bombing (extremely limited prior to WWI) – Morale Booster/Escape Means – Air transport of supplies

29 28 Early Pioneers of Flight Otto Lilienthal—Studied gliders and first to explain the superiority of curved surfaces Percy Pilcher—Built airplane chassis Octave Chanute—Developed a double winged-glider/wrote history of flight to1900 Samuel P. Langley—First to secure government support to develop an airplane – Failed twice to fly from houseboat in 1903 – Congress withdrew monetary support

30 29 First to fly a heavier-than-air, power-driven machine—17 December 1903 – Flight traveled 120 feet and lasted 12 seconds Approached flying scientifically and systematically Used experience of Lilienthal, Pilcher, and Chanute Built a glider in Dayton in 1899 – Moved to Kitty Hawk, N. Carolina in 1900 Orville & Wilbur Wright

31 30 Wright Brothers Video

32 31 US government was very skeptical at first – Not interested because of Langley’s failures Britain and France were very enthusiastic President Roosevelt directed the Secretary of War, W. H. Taft, to investigate the Wright brothers’ invention in 1906 Dec.1907—Chief Signal Officer, BG James Allen, issued Specification #486 calling for bids to build the first military aircraft Reaction to the Airplane

33 32 Established the requirements for the first military aircraft. Aircraft must be able to: – Carry two persons – Reach speed of 40 mph – Carry sufficient fuel for 125 mile nonstop flight – Be controllable in flight in any direction – Fly at least 1 hour – Land at take-off point, without damage – Be taken apart and reassembled in one hour – No military operational requirements specified Signal Corp Spec. #486

34 33 41 proposals were received, only 3 complied with specifications US Army signed contract with Wright brothers on 10 Feb 1908 Wright brothers delivered the first military aircraft on 20 Aug 1908 US Army accepted the first operational aircraft on 2 Aug 1909 Signal Corp Spec. #486 (Cont)

35 34 The Early Years of Flight Until WWI balloons, dirigibles, and aircraft were primarily reconnaissance vehicles Early on, the flying machines were not seen as weapons of war Few believed the flying force was ready to separate air force The potential uses of the airplane would evolve considerably during WWI

36 35 World War I—Missions Reconnaissance – Collecting visual and photographic information Counterair – Air-to-air combat Close Air Support – Support of ground forces Interdiction – Striking enemy resources close to the battlefield Strategic Bombing – Strikes deep into enemy territory to destroy war making capabilities

37 36 WWI—Early Uses of Airpower Reconnaissance and artillery spotting – Took away the element of surprise – Hampered by weather / unserviceable aircraft Pursuit Aviation (Air superiority) – Grew out of attempts to deny reconnaissance – 1st air-to-air kill occurred in Oct – Developed rapidly in WWI – Key to winning the air war

38 37 Roland Garros (French): Developed metal strips for propellers so machine gun bullets would not shatter the props Anthony Fokker (Dutch): Designed synchronizing gear so bullets would pass through the spinning propeller blades Technological Developments

39 38 Nieuports and Spads (French): Most reliable and flexible aircraft in 1916 Fokker Triplanes: German aircraft that put the Germans back on top in 1917 Technological Developments

40 39 Rickenbacker Video

41 40 American Participation in WWI When United States. entered the war in April 1917, US Air Service was totally unprepared – Aviation Section had 56 pilots and less than 250 airplanes; none ready for combat Congress approved $640 million in July 1917 to raise 354 combat squadrons At the end of WWI, Air Service had 183,000 personnel and 185 squadrons

42 41 Mitchell Video

43 42 Strategic Bombing in WWI Limited in scope and intensity Had a negligible outcome on the war Laid the foundation for future thought

44 43 Bombing of Britain Germans conducted daylight bombing raids against Britain using Zeppelins— – Stopped because of poor results Germans reinitiated daylight raids using Gotha bombers in 1917 – ineffective Germans begin night bombing using Zeppelins and Reisen bombers— —Primarily terror raids Strengthened British morale; destroyed little war making capacity

45 44 Began in 1914; generally ineffective British bombed German cities and airfields in retaliation for German strikes Allies created the Inter- Allied Independent Air Force (IAIAF) in 1919 for the purpose of bombing Germany. – War ended before the IAIAF was used British Handley Page Bomber Allied Bombing of Germany

46 45 Strategic Bombing Theorists Sir Hugh Trenchard Giulio Douhet Lt Col Edgar Gorrell

47 46 Commander of the Royal Air Force Primary target should be civilian morale Believed allies should attack German homeland Attack around the clock Sir Hugh Trenchard

48 47 General in the Italian Army Believed airpower was supreme after WWI Believed bombers would win all wars Air weapon would be used against ports, railroads and economic structures Best way to gain air superiority was to destroy the enemy’s ground organization Giulio Douhet

49 48 Once air superiority was achieved, bombers would concentrate on cities to destroy industry and morale Influenced by Italian geography where there was little threat of a ground invasion His doctrine led to a total war concept—war on the nation as a whole, not just military forces Giulio Douhet (cont’d)

50 49 Theories mirrored Trenchard, but felt bombing should concentrate on one city at a time until destroyed Ignored during war, ideas recognized in 1930s Believed best way to stop Germans was to destroy production Stressed continuous day/night bombings to deprive Germans of rest and repair time Proposed attacks of single to target to complete destruction Lt Col Edgar S. Gorrell

51 50 Review of CFD Model Distinctive Capabilities: Air and space expertise, capabilities, and technological know-how that produces superior military capabilities Functions: Broad, fundamental and continuing activities of air and space power Doctrine: Fundamental principles which military forces guide their actions in support of national objectives

52 51 Time Period DistinctiveCapabilitiesFunctions(missions) Doctrinal Emphasis Pre- WW I  Information Superiority  Surveillance & Reconnaissance  Artillery Spotting  Gathering Military Info to support land forces Post WW I  Information Superiority  Precision Engagement  Surveillance & Reconnaissance  Counter Air  Strategic attack  Strategic attack, of military targets Review of CFD Model

53 52Summary Define Air and Space Power Competencies Distinctive Capabilities Functions Air and Space Doctrine Principles of War Tenets of Air and Space Power

54 53Summary Lighter-than-air vehicles Military Use of Balloons and Dirigibles Heavier-than-air vehicles Early Uses of Airpower Airpower in WWI The Battle of Air Supremacy American Participation in WWI

55 54Summary Close Air Support and Interdiction in WWI Development of Tactics in WWI Strategic Bombing Theorists CFD Review


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