4 The 3 Pillars of Energy Efficient Lighting Visual TaskVisual TaskWATTSLUMENSF O O T C A N D L E SMeet target lightlevelsEfficiently produceand deliver lightAutomaticallycontrol lightingoperationMost Important Slide in Today’s Seminar!44
5 Lighting Fundamentals - Illumination Light OutputMeasured at the lamp surface.Measured in lumens.Illuminance or Light Level.Measured at the working surface.Measured in foot-candles.Luminance or Brightness.Measured at an angle to the working surface.Measured in footlamberts.
6 Targeted Illumination Levels Targeted illumination level is determined by:Tasks being performed (detail, contrast, size).Ages of the occupants.Importance of speed and accuracy.Example of (Potential) Over Illumination: Textile Mills.Fluorescent Fixtures usingHigh Output (2x output of standard).Very High Output (3x output of standard).
7 Recommended Illumination Levels ActivityIllumination Foot-candlesOffices: Average Reading and Writing50-75Offices: Hallways10-20Offices: Rooms with Computers20-50Auditoriums / Assembly Places15-30Hospitals: General Areas10-15Labs / Treatment areas50-100Libraries30-100Schools30-150NCSU GUIDELINES
8 Quality of Illumination Quality of illumination may affect worker productivity.Quality is affected by:Glare. Too bright.Uniformity of illumination.Color rendition. Ability to see colors properly.Scale is 0 to 100 (100 is best = daylight).Color Temperature. Warm to Cool.Measured in degrees kelvin is warm (yellowish); 5000 is cool or “daylight”.
9 Color Rendering Index (CRI) A relative scale indicating how perceived colors illuminated by the light source match actual colors. The higher the number the less color distortion from the reference source.CRI = Excellent color renditionCRI = Very Good color renditionCRI = Good color renditionCRI = Fair color rendition0 – 55 CRI = Poor color rendition
10 Color Rendition cool source is used enhancing blues and greens warm light source is used, enhancing reds and orangesneutral light source is usedColor rendering, expressed as a rating on the Color Rendering Index (CRI), from 0-100, describes how a light source makes the color of an object appear to human eyes and how well subtle variations in color shades are revealed. The higher the CRI rating, the better its color rendering ability.
11 Color Temperature (K˚) A measure of the “warmth” or “coolness” of a light source.≤ 3200K = “warm” or red side of spectrum≥ 4000K = “cool” or blue side of spectrum3500K = “neutral”5000K = “Daylight”
12 Color Temperature Scale North Sky KColor Temperature ScaleDaylight Fluo KCool White KHalogen – 3100KWarm White KIncandescent – 2700KHPS K12
13 EfficiencyLighting efficiency (efficacy) is expressed as lumens output/wattage input.Ranges from 4 to 200 lumens/watt.Measures how efficiently a lamp converts electrical energy into light.Similar to mpg.
15 Lamp Lumen Depreciation - LLD As lamps age, they lose a certain amount of output.Old T12 fluoresecents can lose up to 30% of output over their life.New T8 fluorescents maintain up to 95% of original lumens.This depreciation must be accounted for when installing new lighting system.Depreciation is also a result of dirt accumulation
19 Luminaires Luminaire = Lighting fixture LampsLamp socketsBallastsReflective materialLenses, refractors, louversHousingDirects the light using reflecting and shielding surfaces.LUMINAIRE IS THE IES (ILLUMINATING ENGINEERING SOCIETY) DESIGNATION FOR FIXTURES.KEY IS THAT THE LUMINAIRE AFFECTS HOW THE LUMENS GENERATED ARE DIRECTED AND DISTRIBUTED.
20 Luminaires (cont’d) Luminaire Efficiency Percentage of lamp lumens produced that actually exits the fixtureTypes of luminairesDirect (general illumination).Indirect (light reflected off the ceiling/walls; “wall washers”).Spot/Accent lighting.Task Lighting.Outdoor/Flood Lights.
21 Typical Linear Fluorescent Fixture – Direct Note “cave effect”
22 Typical Linear Fluorescent Fixture – Indirect More uniform distribution INDIRECT LIGHTING AT 60% OF FOOT-CANDLES OF DIRECT IS AS EFFECTIVE AS DIRECT.
23 Types of Lighting Incandescents/Halogens. Fluorescents. High Intensity Discharge (HID).Inductive.Light Emitting Diode.MOST COMMON:INCANDESCENTFLUORESCENTHID – HPS AND METAL HALIDELED MAKING MAJOR INROADS
24 Incandescent Lamps One of the oldest electric lighting technologies. Light is produced by passing a current through a tungsten filament.Least efficient – (4 to 24 lumens/watt).Lamp life ~ 1,000 hours.NOTE THAT EFFICIENCY IS FROM 4 TO 24 LUMENS / WATT
25 Incandescent Lamps (cont’d) High CRI (100) – Warm Color (2700K)Halogen 2900K to 3200K)InexpensiveExcellent beam controlEasily dimmed – no ballast neededImmediate off and onNo temperature concerns – can be used outdoors100, 75, 60 and 40 watt lamps will be going away in 2012 per 2007 lawCOLORS ARE WARM – USED IN HIGH END RETAILBIG ADVANTAGE FOR DIMMINGHOWEVER, LED IS ALSO DIMMABLE WITH STANDARD BALLASTS
26 Tugnsten-Halogen Lamps A type of incandescent lamp.Encloses the tungsten filament in a quartz capsule filled with halogen gas.Halogen gas combines with the vaporized tungsten and redeposits it on the filament.More efficient.Lasts longer (up to 6,000 hrs.)ADVANTAGES OVER STANDARD INCANDESCENTSLIGHTLY MORE EFFICIENT 10% to 20% LESS ENERGY THAN STANDARD INCANDLONGER LIFE
27 Fluorescent Lamps Most common commercial lighting technology. High Efficacy: up to 100 lumens/watt.Most common fluorescent lamps.T12: 1.5 inch in diameter million, or 63% of fluorescents in the U.S. are still T12T8: 1 inch in diameter.~30% more efficient than T12.T5: 5/8 inch in diameter.~40% more efficient than T12.Improvements have been made in the last 15 years.T5s MINIMUM 20 FT HEIGHTT8s USE ABOUT 1/5 THE ENERGY THAT INCANDESCENTS DONOTE THAT 63% OF LAMPS IN THE U.S. ARE T12
28 Fluorescent Lamps (cont’d) ConfigurationsLinear (8 ft., 4 ft., 2 ft., 1 ft.)Ubend (fit in a 2 ft. x 2 ft. fixture).Circular (rare, obsolete).Fixtures can be 4, 3, 2, or 1 lamp per fixture.Output CategoriesStandard Output (430 mA).High Output (800 mA).Very High Output (1,500 mA).
29 Schematic of Fluorescent Lamp Phosphor crystals Mercury atom Electron Electrode
30 Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) Fluorescent lamp that is small in size (~2 in. diameter, 3 to 5 in. in length).Developed as replacement for incandescent lamps.Two Main TypesBallast-integrated.Ballast non-integrated (allows only lamp to be replaced).
31 Compact FluorescentExcellent color available – comparable to incandescentMany choices (sizes, shapes, wattages, output, etc.)Wide Range of CRI and Color TemperaturesEnergy Efficient (3.5 to 4 times incandescent)Long Life (generally 10,000 hours –lasts 12 times longer than standard 750 hour incandescent lamps)Less expensive dimming now available (0-10v dimming to 5%)Available for outdoor use with amalgam technologyGREATEST ADVANTAGES:HIGHER EFFICIENCYLONGER LIFE, ABOUT 10,000 HOURSBEST $$ OVER THE LIFE WHEN ENERGY COSTS CONSIDEREDINSTANT START – CAN BE USED WITH OCCUPANCY SENSORSGOOD CRIDISADVANTAGES:DIFFICULT TO DIMMORE COSTLY THAN INCANDESCENTMOST HAVE A 60 SECOND WARM-UP TIME
32 Compact Fluorescent Lamps (cont’d) Use ¼ the power of an incandescent for an equivalent amount of light. (an 18-watt CFL is equivalent to a 75-watt incandescent.)10,000 hour life. (10x an incandescent).Saves about $30 over the life of the CFL.
33 Ballasts Auxiliary component that performs 3 functions: Provides higher starting voltage.Provides operating voltage.Limits operating current.Old type ballasts were electromagnetic.New ballasts are electronic.Lighter, less noisy, no lamp flicker, dimming capability).HOW TO DETERMINE IF A BALLAST IS ELECTRONIC OR MAGNETICMAGNETIC BALLASTS WILL NO LONGER BE ABLE TO BE PRODUCED AS OF 2012ELECTRONIC ADVANTAGES:LONGER LIFE THAN MAGNETICELIMINATES THE FLICKER
34 Ballast FactorDEFINITION: The fraction of rated lamp lumens produced by a specific lamp-ballast combinationAPPLICATIONS: High Ballast Factor Increases output( ) AND energy consumptionTypical Ballast Factor Comparable light output in( ) one-to-one replacementLow Ballast Factor Decreases light output( ) AND energy consumptionFor optimal efficiency lamps and ballasts must be properly matched.Maximize energy savings by selecting electronic ballasts with ballast factor that provides target illuminance.FIXTURE WATTAGE INPUT IS NORMALLY PROPORTIONAL TO BALLAST FACTORNOTE – THIS IS IMPORTANT FOR HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
35 Ballast Circuit TypesInstant Start Ballast – starts lamp instantly with higher starting voltage. Efficient but may shorten lamp life.Rapid Start – delay of about 0.5 seconds to start; supplies starting current to heat the filament prior to starting and continues during operation. Uses 2 to 4 watts more than an instant start ballast.Programmed Rapid Start - delay of about 0.5 seconds to start; starting current heats the filament prior to starting, then cuts off during operation.PROGRAMMED START BEST FOR OCCUPANCY SENSORS WITH MORE ON/OFFPROGRAMMED START SLIGHTLY MORE WATTAGE THAN INSTANT STARTINSTANT START DEGRADES MORE WITH STOPS AND STARTS
38 High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps produces light by means of an electric arc between tungsten electrodes housed inside a translucent or transparent fused quartz or fused alumina (ceramic) arc tube filled with special gases.
39 High Intensity Discharge Lamps (cont’d) Arc tube can be filled by various types of gases and metal salts.HID lamps are used in industrial high bay applications, gymnasiums, outdoor lighting, parking decks, street lights.Efficient (up to 150 lumens/watt).Long Life (up to 25,000 hours).Drawback – take up to 15 minutes to come up to full light after power outage.ADVANTAGESEFFICIENT, ESPECIALLY ELECTRONIC PULSE STARTDISADVANTAGES
40 High Intensity Discharge Lamps (cont’d) Types of HIDsMercury Vapor (obsolete)Sodium VaporHigh pressureLow pressureMetal HalideArc tube contains argon, mercury, and metal halides.Gives better color temperature and CRI.MOST COMMON ARE:OLD MERCURY VAPOR – BLUE/GREENHPS – YELLOWISH – POOR CRI BUT HIGH EFFICIENCY.GOOD FOR SECURITY LIGHTING WHERE COLOR RENDITION IS NOT IMPORTANTMETAL HALIDE – GOOD CRIBIGGEST DRAWBACK START AND RESTART DELAY
41 Metal Halide Lamps Most common HID in use today. Recent Improvements. Allow higher pressure & temperature.Better efficiency, better CRI and better lumen maintenance.Pulse Start vs. older Probe StartCeramic vs. older Quartz arc tube.MOST COMMON ARE:OLD MERCURY VAPOR – BLUE/GREENHPS – YELLOWISH – POOR CRI BUT HIGH EFFICIENCY.GOOD FOR SECURITY LIGHTING WHERE COLOR RENDITION IS NOT IMPORTANTMETAL HALIDE – GOOD CRIBIGGEST DRAWBACK START AND RESTART DELAY
42 Light Emitting Diodes (LED) Latest Lighting Technology.Invented in 1962.In the past, used as indicator lights, automotive lights, and traffic lights; now being introduced for indoor and outdoor lighting.LED is a semiconductor technology.Electroluminescence. Electrons recombine with holes in the semiconductor, releasing photons.
43 Light Emitting Diodes (cont’d) Lower energy consumption.Longer lifetime (50,000 to 100,000 hrs).Smaller size.Faster switching.Greater durability and reliability.Cycling.Dimming.VERY DIRECTIONAL AND THEREFORE VERY EFFICIENT
44 LED Replacement Lamps for a 4-ft. Fluorescent Fxture THERE IS A TRIAL ON NCSU CAMPUS IN THE HALLWAY OF A DORM NEAR FOUNTAIN DINING HALL
45 Comparison of LED with a Fluorescent Lamp EverLED-TRPopular T8 Brand FluorescentWatt Rating, typical B.F. = 0.822W34WLumens, initialEquivalent2850CRI85Color Temperature5000KLife Expectancy 12 hrs per start / 3 hrs per start 10 years/10 years hours/16000 hoursLight output at 0° C20% increase50% decrease
46 LED Applications Successfully used today for many markets Signs & Traffic signals (most common)Displays (change colors for attention)Exit Signs (most common)Vehicle IndicatorsFlashlightsUnder Counter & CovesAccentParking Garage & OutdoorDownlightsFood Freezers
47 LED vs. HPSNOTE THE SUPERIOR COLOR RENDITION OF THE LED47
48 Comparison: LED to Ceramic Metal Halide Cree LED Lighting LRP38 – Total Wattage = 36WMETAL HALIDE USES 6 TIMES AS MUCH ENERGY AS THE LEDCeramic Metal Halide – Total Wattage ~ 158 to 237W484848
49 Induction LightsLight source in which the power required to generate light is transferred from the outside of the lamp envelope by means of electromagnetic fields.Type of fluorescent lamp – uses radio waves rather than arc to excite phosphor coating on lamp to glowLong lifespan due to the lack of electrodes - between 65,000 and 100,000 hours depending on the lamp model;High energy conversion efficiency of between 62 and 90 Lumens/Watt [higher wattage lamps are more energy efficient];High power factor due to the low loss of the high frequency electronic ballasts which are typically between 95% and 98% efficient;Minimal Lumen depreciation (declining light output with age) compared to other lamp types as filament evaporation and depletion is absent;“Instant-on” and hot re-strike, unlike most conventional lamps used in commercial/industrial lighting applications (such as Mercury-Vapor lamp, Sodium Vapor Lamp and Metal Halide Lamp);Environmentally friendly as induction lamps use less energy, and use less mercury per hour of operation than conventional lighting due to their long lifespan.
50 Induction LightingType of fluorescent lamp – uses radio waves rather than arc to excite phosphor coating on lamp to glowAdvantages:QL and Icetron: 60,000 to 100,000 hours – if used 12 hours each day will last 20 years!Good for hard to maintain locationsDisadvantages:Large light source – difficult to control beam of light making it inefficient for delivered and task lumensExpensive - $200+ adder to HIDNo industry standards for InductionDON’T SEE A LOT OF THIS TECHNOLOGY
51 Induction Applications Applications where maintenance is expensive and/or difficult24 hour a day, 7 day a week applicationsBridgesLow Bay IndustrialSelect Outdoor Lighting ApplicationsLong burning hour applicationsBIGGEST ADVANTAGE – LONG LIFE FOR DIFFICULT MAINTENANCE LOCATIONS
52 Exit SignsOld incandescent exit signs used (2) 20-watt incandescent lamps.At $0.08/kWh, energy cost for 1 sign = $28/yr.CFL exit signs use 10 to 12 wattsEnergy cost for 1 sign = $7 to $8.50/yr.LED exit signs use 3 to 4 wattsenergy cost for 1 sign = $3 to $4/yr.Photoluminescent sign uses 0 watts, but may have (slightly) radioactive material.New technology claims completely non-toxic and recyclable.INCANDESCENT USES ABOUT 6 TIMES AS MUCH ENERGY AS LED
53 Outdoor Lighting Older technology for outdoor lighting High pressure sodiumMetal HalideNewer technologyCompact fluorescentsLEDsNOTE: Solar street lights offer significant savings by eliminating costly electric conduit and cable runsSIDE NOTE:SOLAR CAN PAY FOR ITSELF BY ELIMINATING COSTLY WIRING
55 Hazardous Waste Disposal Hazardous Waste Lamps will now be regulated under the Federal Universal Waste Rule which was first developed to regulate the disposal of other widely generated wastes that contain toxic materials, such as batteries and pesticidesState Rule supersedes Federal RuleUnder current federal law, mercury-containing lamps (fluorescent, HID) may be hazardous wasteThe rule applies only to lamps that fail the TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) test which is used to determine if a waste is hazardous.
56 Mercury Content of Lamps TYPICAL MERCURY CONTENT OF VARIOUS LAMPS250 watt Metal Halide lamp 38 mg250 watt High Pressure Sodium lamp 15 mgPre 1988 T12 Fluorescent 45 mgPost 1988 T12 Fluorescent 12 mgTypical T8 Fluorescent Tube 4-5 mgTypical Compact Fluorescent (CFL) 4-5 mg4-5 mg is less mercury than a coal fired power plant will emit while producing the additional energy to power an equivalent incandescent lamp.Lamps containing mercury that fail the TCLP test must be recycled!EPA encourages responsible disposal practices to limit the release of mercury into the environment.EPA encourages lamp recycling
57 LIGHTING ECONOMICS Simple Payback Return on Investment (ROI) Internal Rate of Return (IRR)Net Present Value (NPV)MOST PRIVATE CORPORATIONS REQUIRE 2 YEAR OR LESS PAYBACK
58 SIMPLE PAYBACK = TOTAL PROJECT COST / ANNUAL SAVINGS Simple Payback is the number of years it takes an energy saving measure to repay the initial investment for the new system. It does not account for the time value of money and it also does not consider the savings that occur after the payback point.Most private companies require a simple payback of 2 years or less.For energy saving measures, they will sometimes accept a 3 to 5 year payback.Government agencies can accept longer paybacks than private companies.SIMPLE PAYBACK = TOTAL PROJECT COST / ANNUAL SAVINGS
59 Return on Investment - ROI ROI is the inverse of Simple Payback and has all of the qualifiers of a simple payback. It does not account for the time value of money and also it does not consider the savings that occur after the payback point. It is sometimes called Rate of Return.ROI is expressed as a percentage. It is often compared to other investment yields.
60 Internal Rate of Return (IRR %) IRR is a hurdle rate. The IRR is the discount rate of return at which a project’s NPV=0. IRR accounts for life-cycle cash flows and time-value of money, but the percentages alone should not be compared for ranking (choosing one alternative over another) still use the NPV results as well.IRR is the discount rate that delivers a net present value of zero for a series of future cash flows. IRR is expressed as an interest yield. Any interest yield equal to or less than the IRR for a project is a “yes” decision (i.e. the IRR is greater than the cost of capital).
61 Net Present Value ($)NPV adjusts for the time value of money by discounting incremental future cash flows to the present time using a discount rate appropriate to those cash flows. NPV ($) is a profitability measure and can be used to rank one lighting alternative over another. The higher the $ profit NPV, the better the alternative. The NPV, to be appropriately used, should be calculated by applying the after tax cost of capital to the after tax cash flows.
62 Example: Simple Payback & ROI A lighting upgrade is estimated to save $5,000 a year and cost $25,000. What are the simple payback and return on investment (ROI)?Simple payback = Cost / Annual Savings= $25,000 / $5,000= 5 yearsROI = 1 / Simple Payback= 1/5= 20%
63 Example: Energy & Cost Savings Existing lighting in the Method Road Greenhouse consists of 10 fixtures containing ten 4’, 4 lamp T12 fixtures that consume 154 watts of electrical power. At $0.09/kWh, what is the annual cost of operating these fixtures 2,000 hours a year?10 x 154 watts x 2,000 hours/1,000 = 3,080 kWh3,080 x $0.09 = $2,772 per yearThese fixtures are replaced by fixtures containing 25 watt T8 lamps with low BF ballasts which only consume 89 watts per fixture. What is the annual cost of operation?10 x 89 watts x 2,000 hours/1,000 = 1,780 kWh1,780 x $0.09 = $1,602 per yearCost savings = $1,170 per year
64 Other Benefits from Energy Efficient Lighting Retrofit Improved Color Rendition/Visibility in SpaceLonger Lamp LifeLess Maintenance (Normally a result of longer lamp life)Adjust to target light levels (IES)Improved ControlsHVAC Savings – Typically 5% above lighting savings for cooled spacesTax Incentives – Generally tax deductionsIncentive from Utility Rebates – Both Progress & Duke have programs
65 HVAC Savings from a Lighting Retrofit 1 watt saved = 3,412 BTUs of heat removedHeat removed with Efficient Lighting is:A savings when cooling (A/C is on)A cost when heating is onRules of Thumb to count HVAC savingsUnitary Equipment: Lighting Savings x .1 to .2Chiller Equipment: Lighting Savings x .05 to .1Example: Lighting Savings = $2,000.00$2,000 x .1 = $200 savings from Unitary HVAC
66 Change from Old to New and Save Energy and $$ OLD TECHNOLOGY =>T12 Fluorescent – 4’ and 8’ Systems In U.S. today 63% are still T12Magnetic BallastsIncandescentHalogenProbe Start Metal Halideand Mercury VaporNeonManual ControlsNEW TECHNOLOGYT8, T5 and T5HO Fluorescent SystemsElectronic BallastsHalogen, CFL, & LEDMetal Halide, CFL, and LEDPulse Start and Ceramic Metal Halide, T8 or T5 FluorescentLEDAutomatic Controls, Bi-Level and Continuous Dimming Systems
67 Ballast FactorDEFINITION: The fraction of rated lamp lumens produced by a specific lamp-ballast combinationAPPLICATIONS: High Ballast Factor Increases output( ) AND energy consumptionTypical Ballast Factor Comparable light output in( ) one-to-one replacementLow Ballast Factor Decreases light output( ) AND energy consumptionMaximize energy savings by selecting electronic ballasts with ballast factor that provides target illuminance.
69 Types of Lighting Controls Occupancy SensorsBi-level SwitchingTime ClockPhoto SensorsDimmersLighting Control SystemsBuilding Management Systems
70 Occupancy SensorsAutomatically turn lights off when spaces are unoccupied.Ceiling or Wall Mounted.Adjustments for sensitivity and time delay.Proper selection, location, and adjustment of sensors is key to reliable operation.Wireless technology is available.Ultrasonic, Infrared, Dual-Technology.
71 Ultrasonic SensorsDetect movement by sensing disturbance in reflected ultrasonic frequency patternLine-of-sight is not required if hard surfaces exist in enclosed spaceMost sensitive to motion toward/away from sensorSensitive to air movement vibration
72 Ultrasonic Wall Sensor Automatic ControlUse in areas where there arelarge periods of unoccupied timeExcellent for bi-level control tomaximize energy savingsDoes not require direct line of sightAdjust sensitivity and time delayfor best results
73 Passive Infrared Sensors (PIR) Detect movement of heat-radiating sources between radial detection zones.Line-of-sight is required (30’ max).Larger motion is required to trigger sensor at greater distance.Most sensitive to motion lateral to sensor.Coverage pattern can be modified to minimize false triggers.
74 Dual-Technology Sensors Greater reliability from using both infrared (IR) and ultrasonic (US) sensing technologiesTypical operation settings:IR and US signals for lights to turn onIR or US signals for lights to stay onAbsence of IR and US signals for lights to turn off
75 Energy Savings Potential With Occupancy Sensors Application Energy SavingsOffices (Private) %Offices (Open Spaces) %Rest Rooms %Corridors %Storage Areas %Meeting Rooms %Conference Rooms %Warehouses %Source: CEC/DOE/EPRISavings can be determined with datalogger installed in room or area for 1 to 2 weeks
76 Warehouse Lighting with Occupancy Sensors Each fixture is controlled by its own occupancy sensor.
77 Bi- and Multi-Level Switching Top shows switching for 50% of lamps on.Bottom shows switching for 1, 2, or 3-lamp operation.
78 Photo Sensors Turn lights off when daylight is adequate. Outdoor lighting.Dusk to dawn.Indoor lightingDims lights as daylight increases.Can work with occupancy sensors.
79 ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND COST SAVINGS Lighting energy savings are possible while improving lighting comfort.
80 Benefits from Energy Efficient Lighting Retrofit Improved Color Rendition/Visibility in SpaceLess MaintenanceAdjust to target light levels (IES)Longer Lamp LifeImproved ControlsHVAC SavingsTax IncentivesIncentive from Utility Rebate Programs
81 HID Upgrade to Fluorescent Lamps 400-Watt Metal Halide = 455 watts input6-Lamp T8 Fixture = 234 watts
82 Older Lighting Technology Subject to be Changed Out T-12 Fluorescent-4’ and 8’ SystemsFluorescent Magnetic BallastsIncandescentStandard Metal HalideMercury VaporNeonManual Controls
83 New Energy Efficient Lighting Replacements T8, T5 and T5HO Fluorescent SystemsElectronic BallastsHalogenPulse Start and Ceramic Metal HalideLEDBi-Level and Continuous Dimming SystemsNew Fixtures
84 Change from Old to New and Save Energy and $$ OLD TECHNOLOGY =>T12 Fluorescent – 4’ and 8’ SystemsMagnetic BallastsIncandescentHalogenProbe Start Metal Halideand Mercury VaporNeonManual ControlsNEW TECHNOLOGYT8, T5 and T5HO Fluorescent SystemsElectronic BallastsHalogen IR, MH & LEDMetal Halide and LEDPulse Start andCeramic Metal HalideLEDAutomatic Controls, Bi-Level and Continuous Dimming Systems
85 Fluorescent Change-out Existing: 4-lamp 2’x4’ Fixture with F34T12CWES lamps and EE magnetic ballasts – lowest efficiency allowed by code today.Replacement: 4-lamp 2’x4’ Fixture with F32T8/835 lamps and electronic ballasts BF=0.88 (standard BF)What is wrong with this energy efficient change-out?
86 We did not use correct new technology to Maximize Energy Savings and meet target light levels! Best options for replacing 34-watt T12 fluorescent systems:Low Power electronic ballasts (BF=0.78)Energy saving 4’ lamps (30,28, or 25w)Fewer lamps per fixture (3 instead of 4)Minimal additional cost and can Lock-in maximum energy savings with low power ballasts and fewer lamps per fixtureUse with Extra Performance or Energy Savings lamps ad correct ballast factor to meet target light levels and maximize energy savings!
87 “Super T8” Fluorescent System Older T8s called “700 series”Newer Super T8s called “800 series”3000K, 3500K, or 4100K versions30,000 to 40,000 hour lamp life.initial lumensUniversal Voltage ( V)4-foot lamp: 30, 28 or 25 watts; Low input wattage (4-lamp: 93/89 watts)95% lumen 8000 hoursLow Temperature Starting (0˚F)Lamp/Ballast System Warranty 5 Years85 CRIProgram Start BallastsTCLP-compliant
88 Instant Start Super T8 vs. Standard T8 800-series Super T8s have 96% of system lumens of 700-series lamps with standard ballasts19% reduction in powerDouble lamp life (3 hrs. per start)Maximum life on occupancy sensors
89 25 Watt T8 Advantage Long Life Lamp from Philips Lighting Also available from General Electric, Sylvania, Westinghouse, others.Long lamp life (40,000 hours of rated average life at 12 hours per start on Optanium™ Instant Start ballasts and 46,000 hours of rated average life at 12 hours per start on Optanium™ Programmed Start Ballasts)2400 lumens with 95 percent lumen maintenanceSuperior color rendering (a CRI of 85)Low mercury (Philips ALTO® lamps average 70% less mercury than the 2001 industry average for fluorescent lamps up to 60 inches, which are not TCLP compliant) 1.7 mg Mercury per 4’ lamp
90 Fluorescent Lamp/Ballast Change-out vs. New Fixture “Rules of Thumb” Install new fixtures when:Existing fixtures are over 20 years oldLamp holders are worn outMultiple components are failingDesign requires change in fixture typeRetrofit existing fixtures with lamps & ballasts when:Existing fixtures are less than 20 years oldLamp holders and other components are still goodBudget is very tightExpensive/Difficult/Environmental Conditions Present(i.e. asbestos or excessive piping and ducts in ceiling, etc.)
91 T5 and T5HO SystemsT5s are used for high bay (>25 ft. applications).One T5HO lamp provides similar maintained lumen output to two T8 lamps(4750 vs maintained lumens)Maintained lumens are higher – fixtures are smallerPeak light output at 95˚F ambient air temperature instead of 77˚F withT8 and T12Amalgam technology has been added to provide a more constant lumen output across a broad range of ambient temperatures!
92 T5 and T5HO Systems Disadvantages T5 and T5HO lamp life is less than T8sThe bulb wall surface of the T5 is very bright. Care must be exercised in using T5 lamp in direct lighting applications.Costs higher than T8 – cost can be balanced by a reduction in the number of luminaries used.Lead times may be longer – T5s require compete fixture replacement.In cooler temperatures or high CFM air distribution the T5 or T5HO may not perform well (peak light output at 95 °F).May not work well with occupancy sensors due to slow lumen run-up with cold start.
93 T5HO vs. T8 Application Rules of Thumb ≤ 20’ – use T8≥ 20’ – use T5 or T5HO18’ to 25’ – either T8 or T5s can be used successfullyOver 50 types of 4’ T8 lamps availableTwo T5 lamps: 28w T5 and 54w T5HOTo get T5HO performance out of T8 lamps, use high-lumen/high performanceT8 lampsTypical T8 electronic ballast factors range from 0.72 to 1.2.
94 T5HO vs. T8 for Warehouse Aisles Rule of Thumb In general for warehouse aisles, T5HO will perform better in non-air-conditioned spaces and T8 performs better in air-conditioned spaces.Reason: Ambient temperature of T5HO rating for peak performance is 35 degrees C (95F) and T8 is rated at 25C (77F).Source: Warehouse aisle lighting – p. 16 – LD&A Feb 2009-article by Siva K. Haran, PE, LEED, AP, IES
95 HVAC Savings from Lighting Retrofit 1 watt saved = 3,412 BTUs of heat removedHeat removed with Efficient Lighting is:A savings when cooling (A/C is on)A cost when heating is onRules of Thumb to count HVAC savingsUnitary Equipment: Lighting Savings x .1 to .2Chiller Equipment: Lighting Savings x .05 to .1Example: Lighting Savings = $2,000.00$2,000 x .1 = $200 savings from Unitary HVAC
96 An Increase in Quality Can Improve Worker Productivity 1% increase in productivity is about equal to one sick dayImprove employee satisfaction and reduce turnover/replacement expensesfor new employees.Improves Company bottom lineIndirect Lighting is preferred by many today!
98 Daylighting Advantages Excellent light source for almost all interior spaces – offices, homes, retail, schools and more; People prefer it!Field research indicates that with daylighting:Learning is enhancedRetail sales increase (Wal-Mart study)Employee satisfaction increasesEnergy Savings is realized when controls are used (photo sensors).
99 Conducting a Lighting Survey Why Conduct a Lighting Survey? – to identify improvement opportunities. It is a systematic exam and appraisal of building lighting systems.Step 1 – Establish a base line of performanceStep 2 – Identify opportunities for improvementStep 3 – Calculate savings and potential paybackThe quality of the information collected in the survey has a direct impact on steps 2 and 3
100 Instruments Top: Light Meter Bottom: Ballast Discriminator Measures lumens (ft.-candles).Bottom: Ballast DiscriminatorIndicates whether a fixture has a electronic or electromagmetic ballast.
101 Suggestions for a Lighting Survey Ask the right questions to meet the client’s goalsGather ALL the right informationDon’t assume – check the existing equipment to obtain accurate informationDetermine Economic Calculations RequiredIs a test installation needed?Lighting FixturesControlsConsider all drivers to reduce the paybackUse a pre-printed form or spreadsheet template
102 Information and Data to Collect in a Lighting Survey Floor plan of the building/space with dimensions if availableElectric bills for 1 year to determine average cost per kWh over the yearTasks being performed in each area – Talk to occupants in the areaType (fixture input wattage and lamps/ballasts type), quantity, mounting height, and control of fixtures in each spaceLighting operating hours per year and footcandle levels for each spaceCircuit VoltageExit signs (light source)Talk with building occupants about operating practices and satisfaction with the level and quality of lightingTalk with maintenance staff about equipment condition and any recurring problems.
103 Lighting Survey Results Baseline: current lighting energy use (typical lighting energy = 0.5 to 1.5 watts per sq. ft.)Recommendations for Lighting Upgrades.Estimated Costs with Incentives/Rebates.Energy and Cost Savings. Bottom Line: Payback Period.
104 LEGISLATION AFFECTING THE USE OF LIGHTING TECHNOLOGIES
105 Energy Legislation and Incentive Programs for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Energy Policy Act of 2005 – EPAct 2005North Carolina Tax CreditsNorth Carolina Senate Bill 3 – Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (REPS) of 2007Utility Incentives – Progress Energy, Duke EnergyAmerican Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009, ARRA or Stimulus PackageNC Greenpower
106 Highlights of the Federal Energy Policy Act of 2005 30% tax credit for residential solar thermal or photovoltaic energy systems up to a credit of $2,000Does not apply to pool heating systems30% tax credit up to $500 for energy efficient windows, doors, heating & cooling equipment, and insulation.Tax deductions up to $1.80 per square foot for total energy efficiency improvements in commercial buildings.Tax deductions up to $0.60 per sq. ft. for lighting efficiency improvements.
107 EPAct 2005 Tax DeductionsThe Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 1331, provides a tax deduction of up to $1.80/ft2 for energy efficiency in commercial buildings. Systems covered include:Interior lighting systems Max. $0.60/ft2Heating, cooling, ventilation, and hot water systems Max. $0.60/ft2Building envelope Max. $0.60/ft2
108 EPAct 2005 Tax DeductionsTo qualify for an EPAct 2005 tax deduction for lighting, the following must be met:Surpass the ASHRAE LPD StandardBi-level switching must be installed for most buildings (exceptions identified) and all controls provisions (new buildings) in the Standard must be met.Must meet the minimum requirements for calculated light levels as set forth in the 9th Edition of the IESNA Lighting Handbook.Consult a tax expert to see if you qualify
109 EPAct 2005 Critical Dates and Proposed Increase in Tax Deduction For commercial (for profit) enterpriseAny new system that exceeds ASHRAE standards by the required amount must be placed into service between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2013 for tax deduction.Proposed 2009 Senate Bill 1637 would increase tax credit for $1.80 to $3.00 per square foot for whole building or from $0.60 to $1.00 per square foot for partial allowance (such as lighting measures only).
111 The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) President Bush signed into law on 12/19/07Lighting Sections include:Sec. 321 – Efficient Light BulbsSec. 322 – Incandescent Reflector LampEfficiency StandardsSec. 324 – Metal Halide Lamp FixturesSec. 65 – Bright Tomorrow Light Prizes
112 Maximum Wattages and Efficiency Requirements There are new efficacies for general service incandescent lamps expressed as a new maximum wattage.Generally, the lamps must be 30% more efficient by , with larger lamps covered first.Compliance: Today’s typical incandescent and halogen general service screw-base lamps do not comply with the new efficiency requirements.
113 Dates and Lamps to be Phased Out Examples of General Service Lamps that will become obsolete:January 1, 2012 – 100W A19 incandescent lampsJanuary 1, 2013 – 75W A19 incandescent lampsJanuary 1, 2014 – 40W A19 and 60W A19 incandescent lampsJanuary 1, 2020 – All general purpose lamps must be a minimum of 45 lumens/watt (similar to current CFLs). Some exceptions allowed (specialty bulbs).
114 Better Use of Light Bulbs Act - 2011 Legislation introduced to repeal the EISA lamp efficiency requirements.Jobs lost to China.Mercury in CFLs.Did not pass in July 2011.Issue has become politically-charged.
115 Super Incandescents?GE just announced "advancements to the light bulb that potentially will elevate the energy efficiency of this 125-year-old technology to levels comparable to compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), delivering significant environmental benefits. Over the next several years, these advancements will lead to the introduction of high-efficiency incandescent lamps that provide the same high light quality, brightness and color as current incandescent lamps while saving energy and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions." The bulbs will come out at 30 lumens per watt (twice a conventional incandescent) and top out at 60 lumens per watt.From ;
116 Effective 7/14/2012 - less than 1 year away DOE 2009 RulingEffective 7/14/ less than 1 year awayThese lamps will be obsolete:Majority of F40T12 and F34T12 ES 4-ft. lampsMajority of FB40T12 and FB34T12 ES 2-ft. U-lampsAll 75W F96T12 Slimline 8-ft. lampsMajority of 60W F96T12 Slimline 8-ft. ES lampsAll 110W F96T12HO 8-ft. lampsMajority of 95W F96T12HO 8-ft. ES lampsAll T8 basic 700 series 4-ft. lamps with 2800 lumens (requires 2850 to pass)Majority of T8 basic 700 series 2-ft. U-lamps
117 Older Lighting Technology Subject to be Changed Out T-12 Fluorescent - 4’ and 8’ SystemsFluorescent Magnetic BallastsIncandescentStandard Metal HalideMercury VaporNeonManual Controls
118 New Energy Efficient Lighting Replacements T8, T5 and T5HO Fluorescent SystemsElectronic BallastsHalogen IRPulse Start and Ceramic Metal HalideLEDBi-Level and Continuous Dimming SystemsNew Fixtures
119 North Carolina Senate Bill 3 (SB3) Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (REPS) of 2007 SB3 requires a Percentage of Electrical Generation from Renewable Sources. Of these amounts, 25% can be achieved by Energy Efficiency.Solar PVSolar ThermalWindHydroelectricWave EnergyBiomassLandfill Gas (LFG)Waste Heat fromRenewablesHydrogen from RenewablesUTILITIES HAVE RESPONDED WITH SIGNIFICANT INCENTIVES IN THE AREAS OF LIGHTING, HVAC, MOTORSUTILITIES HAVE SOLICITED PROPOSALS FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY WITH LIMITED SUCCESS.READ THE FINE PRINT
120 * Renewable Portfolio Standards 29 states & DC have an RPS † / November 2009WA: 15% by 2020*ME: 30% by 2000New RE: 10% by 2017VT: (1) RE meets any increase in retail sales by 2012; (2) 20% RE & CHP by 2017MN: 25% by 2025(Xcel: 30% by 2020)MT: 15% by 2015NH: 23.8% by 2025ND: 10% by 2015MI: 10% + 1,100 MW by 2015*MA: 15% by % annual increase (Class I Renewables)OR: 25% by 2025 (large utilities)*5% - 10% by 2025 (smaller utilities)SD: 10% by 2015WI: Varies by utility; 10% by 2015 goalNY: 24% by 2013RI: 16% by 2020NV: 25% by 2025*CT: 23% by 2020IA: 105 MWOH: 25% by 2025†CO: 20% by 2020 (IOUs)10% by 2020 (co-ops & large munis)*PA: 18% by 2020†WV: 25% by 2025*†IL: 25% by 2025NJ: 22.5% by 2021CA: 33% by 2020UT: 20% by 2025*KS: 20% by 2020VA: 15% by 2025*MD: 20% by 2022MO: 15% by 2021AZ: 15% by 2025DE: 20% by 2019*NC: 12.5% by 2021 (IOUs)10% by 2018 (co-ops & munis)DC: 20% by 2020NM: 20% by 2020 (IOUs)10% by 2020 (co-ops)TX: 5,880 MW by 201529 states & DC have an RPS6 states have goalsHI: 40% by 2030State renewable portfolio standardMinimum solar or customer-sited requirement*State renewable portfolio goalExtra credit for solar or customer-sited renewables†Solar water heating eligibleIncludes non-renewable alternative resources120
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