5PLANTS RESPOND TO THEIR ENVIRONMENT Three cuttings are taken from the same plant and grown in different environments.Deep waterShallow waterLandThe plant grows long, ribbon-like leaves.The plant grows large, round leaves.The plant grows arrow-shaped leaves.The leaves of the arrowleaf plant take on dramatically different forms depending on the environment in which the plant grows.
6PLANT HORMONES HORMONE FUNCTION LOCATION Increase the speed of seed germination; promote stem elongation; induce early blooming of flowers; increase fruit sizeShoot and rootapical meristems;seedsGibberellinsStimulate stem elongation; control seedling orientation; stimulate root branching; promote fruit developmentApical meristems; immature plant tissueAuxinsIncreases the speed at which fruit ripens; stimulates leaf dropping and the death of flowersAll parts of the plant including the fruitsEthyleneInhibits growth and reproduction; inhibits seed germination; stimulates closure of stomataLeaves; fruits; root tips; seedsAbscisic acidCause rapid cell division, in conjunction with auxin; induce seed germination; initiate new branches from lateral budsRoots and fruits,primarilyCytokinins
8THE EFFECTS OF GIBBERELLINS SPEEDING SEED GERMINATIONGibberellins initiate the production of enzymes that help break down nutrients stored within the seed’s endosperm, allowing quicker and more efficient use of the seed’s energy reserves.STEM ELONGATIONGibberellins affect stem elongation by increasing the distance between nodes, thus spacing the branch points farther apart.INDUCING EARLY BLOOMING OF FLOWERSGibberellins can cause flower production in the absence of a triggering event from the external environment.ENLARGEMENT OF FRUITSSeedless grapes sprayed with large amounts of gibberellins grow larger and, due to the stem-elongation effects, have more space between the grapes on the bunch.
9Gibberellins are powerful growth stimulators and, when applied in unnaturally large concentrations, can produce giant plants!
11THE EFFECTS OF AUXINS STIMULATE SHOOT ELONGATION Auxins enhance the effect of gibberellins in shoot elongation.CONTROL SEEDLING ORIENTATIONAuxins direct the growth of shoots and roots, making sure the correct ends are up and down.STIMULATE ROOT BRANCHINGAuxins induce the formation of roots.PROMOTE FRUIT DEVELOPMENTAuxins produced within an embryo promote the maturation of the ovary wall and development of the fruit.
12AUXINS’ INFLUENCE ON PLANT ORIENTATION 1SunlightAuxin molecules231Auxins are produced near the growing tips of shoot, roots, and branches.2The auxin molecules are directed downward by gravity and move away from light.3In regions of higher auxin concentration, cells elongate more rapidly than in regions of lower auxin concentration, causing the shoot to bend toward the light.
14ETHYLENEBananas picked before they are ripe are exposed to ethylene gas just prior to their delivery to market, initiating the ripening of all the fruit simultaneously.
15Some flower merchants briefly soak cut-flower stems in a chemical solution of silver salts, which inhibits the deteriorating effects of ethylene on a flower’s petals.
16ABSCISIC ACID THE PRIMARY EFFECTS OF ABSCISIC ACID Inhibits growth and reproductive activities when environmental conditions are stressfulSignals the stomata on a plant’s leaves to close, increasing water conservation
17CYTOKININS THE PRIMARY EFFECTS OF CYTOKININS Cause rapid cell division in conjunction with auxinsInduce seed germinationInitiate new branches from lateral budsRetard leaf death
19PHOTOTROPISMAuxin moleculesAuxins produced in the plant move away from the light source to the shaded side of a stem, stimulating a greater rate of growth than on the side with less auxin. The uneven growth causes the plant to bend toward the light.
21GRAVITROPISMAuxin moleculesStarches within the cells of the stem sink downward in response to gravity, triggering the movement of auxin toward them. Auxin then stimulates faster growth in the regions where it occurs in higher concentration, causing the stem to bend upward.
22THIGMOTROPISMClimbing plants produce tendrils, which are specialized thread-like leaves or stems that wrap around whatever they touch.
23THE BIOLOGICAL CLOCK IN PLANTS SunriseNoonSunsetMidnightPlants have internal methods of keeping time—influenced by the external environment—that enable them to initiate various actions at the appropriate time.
24When it comes to producing flowers—an energetically expensive task—a plant’s life can depend on choosing the right moment.
25PHOTOPERIODISM LONG-DAY PLANTS All flowering plants fall into one of three categories when it comes to regulating their flower production.Amount of daylightJFMAMJJASONDMonthLONG-DAY PLANTSFlower production is triggered by shorter periods of darkness (generally in spring).
26PHOTOPERIODISM SHORT-DAY PLANTS All flowering plants fall into one of three categories when it comes to regulating their flower production.Amount of daylightJFMAMJJASONDMonthSHORT-DAY PLANTSFlower production is triggered by longer periods of darkness (generally in late summer or fall).
27PHOTOPERIODISMAll flowering plants fall into one of three categories when it comes to regulating their flower production.Amount of daylightJFMAMJJASONDMonthDAY-NEUTRAL PLANTSFlower production is triggered by a sufficient state of maturity and not by periods of darkness.Some plants are triggered to produce flowers when the length of the nights is long (and the amount of daylight is relatively small). Others are triggered when nights are shorter, and the daylight lasts longer.
29MECHANICAL DEFENSESIN PLANTSTHORNS, SPINES, AND HAIRSStructures such as sharp spines or fine hairs can significantly reduce herbivory.
30MECHANICAL DEFENSESIN PLANTSWAXES AND SAPSLeaf secretions such as slippery waxy compounds or sticky saps significantly reduce herbivory.
31MECHANICAL DEFENSESIN PLANTSDEFENSIVE MOVEMENTSRapid movements, such as flattening leaves in response to touch, can decrease available surface area and significantly reduce herbivory.
32Monarch butterfly caterpillars feed on milkweed and are able to tolerate the cyanide-containing molecules produced by the plant that are toxic to most other insects. The caterpillars are then able to store the toxic chemical and, in turn, become poisonous to the animals that try to eat them.
33The chemical compounds produced by plants to reduce herbivory can also have medicinal effects in humans.
34Auxins produced in the plant move away from the light source to the shaded side of a stem, stimulating a greater rate of growth than on the side with less auxin. The uneven growth causes the plant to bend toward the light.
36SUCCULENT LEAVES AND STEMS METHODS OF SURVIVINGDRY HABITATSSUCCULENT LEAVES AND STEMSCacti and other succulent plants have thick, fleshy, water-storing tissue within their leaves and stems that helps minimize water loss due to evaporation.
37METHODS OF SURVIVINGDRY HABITATSDEEP TAPROOTSPlants such as mesquite send down unusually hardy and deep taproots that can utilize water far beneath the surface.
38METHODS OF SURVIVINGDRY HABITATSLONG-DORMANT SEEDSMany plants have seeds that can remain dormant for long periods of time, then quickly germinate and grow in response to brief periods of moisture.
39Mangroves are able to transport much of the salt absorbed through their roots and excrete it through their leaves. The salt sits on the leaf surfaces until it dries and blows away.
40Plants living in cold and windy habitats tend to grow close to the ground and have smaller-than- average leaves and shallow root systems.