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**Daylighting and Modeling SOURCE, SPACE, AND SENSORY EXPERIENCE**

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**Daylighting and Modeling**

LIGHT REVEALS STRUCTURE, FORM, AND MATERIALS… EMPHASIZES DEMATERIALIZES ALTERS COLOR SEPARATES INSIDE AND OUTSIDE FOCUSES ATTENTION

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**Daylighting and Modeling**

DIFFERENT QUALITIES OF LIGHT: categories defined by Marietta S. Millet 1.) FOCAL GLOW Strong Drop-Off Commands Attention / Attracts Interest Strong Sense of Contrast 2.) AMBIENT LUMINESCENCE Diffusion of Light Good light Distribution Able to see all the details 3.) PLAY OF BRILLIANCE Metaphor for Starry Sky or Reflections off Ocean Ripples Tiny points of Light Small distributed light output Looking at the Source gives visual delight

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**Daylighting and Modeling**

1.) FOCAL GLOW Strong Drop-Off Commands Attention / Attracts Interest Strong Sense of Contrast The sunburst through the clouds

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**Daylighting and Modeling**

SOURCE SKY - INDIRECT SUN - DIRECT MODIFIER RECEIVER PANTHEON, ROME, 128 A.D.

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2.) AMBIENT LUMINESCENCE Diffusion of Light Good light Distribution Able to see all the details Overcast Sky / Clouds Metaphor Surfaces become secondary light sources

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**Daylighting and Modeling**

BAGSVAERD KIRKE, DENMARK JORN UTSON

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3.) PLAY OF BRILLIANCE Metaphor for Starry Sky or Reflections off Ocean Ripples Tiny points of Light Small distributed light output Looking at the Source gives visual delight

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**Daylighting and Modeling**

CHAPEL AT RONCHAMP, FRANCE CORBUSIER

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**Daylighting and Modeling**

VARIABLES AFFECTING INTERIOR DAYLIGHT CONDITIONS SUMMER WINTER 1.) SITE ORIENTATION 2.) SEASON AND TIME OF DAY

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**Daylighting and Modeling**

VARIABLES AFFECTING INTERIOR DAYLIGHT CONDITIONS 3.) URBAN CONDITION

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**Daylighting and Modeling A BRIEF REVIEW OF SOLAR GEOMETRY**

ALTITUDE AZIMUTH

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**Daylighting and Modeling**

MARCH 21: SPRING EQUINOX Equator Parallel to the Sun’s Rays SEPTEMBER 21: FALL EQUINOX JUNE 21: SUMMER SOLSTICE Earth’s axis points toward the sun at 23.5 DECEMBER 21: WINTER SOLSTICE Earth’s axis points away from the sun at 23.5

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**Daylighting and Modeling**

Equinox = 46 Summer Solstice = 69.5 Winter Solstice = 23.5

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**Daylighting and Modeling DESIGNING FOR THE VARIABLES**

summer summer Western Sun EasternSun winter Southern Sun winter Frank Lloyd Wright Jacobs II House Madison, WI

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**Daylighting and Modeling EXAMPLES OF LIGHT DISTRIBUTION**

Reflectance = Ratio of Incident/Reflected Light I.R.C. (internal reflectance component) Reflectance Rule of Thumb: Walls should be less bright than the ceiling because directly in our field of vision CEILINGS % WALLS 40 – 60 % FLOORS 30 – 40 % FURNITURE % Golden Lighting Ratio: Not more than 3x brighter in areas of contrast so the eye can adjust

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**Daylighting and Modeling MANIPULATION OF THE OPENING**

Deep Well allows for a broader distribution of light Indirect Light is measured in LUMINANCE (Candelas / Sq.Ft.) Lower heat levels Zinc in paint absorbs ultraviolet in reflected light Shallow Well of a horizontal skylight allows more light in Direct Light is measured in ILLUMINANCE (Lumens / Sq.Ft.) Higher heat levels Infrared and ultraviolet components of light damage materials

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**Daylighting and Modeling**

DAYLIGHT MODELS

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**Daylighting and Modeling**

DAYLIGHT MODELS BEFORE AFTER

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**Daylighting and Modeling**

DAYLIGHT FACTOR Daylight Factor is a percentage: D.F. = Lumens outside / Lumens interior

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DAYLIGHT MODELS

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ISOLUX CONTOURS Plot the D.F. on a regular grid Interpolate between the data points Generate Contours of light gradation much like topography

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29% Wall Reflectance 48% Wall Reflectance 84% Wall Reflectance

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**Daylighting and Modeling**

What is a ‘Heliodon’ ? aka: “sun machine”, “sun table”, “heliolux” simulates the sun’s position relative to an architectural scale model geometric relationship established for 3 variables 1. site location (latitude) 2. solar declination (time of year) 3. earth’s rotation (time of day)

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**Daylighting and Modeling**

Shadow Tracker Design Fixed sun / Moving earth Computer-controlled table 3 stepper-motor driven axis high step resolution Video software link analog to digital

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**Daylighting and Modeling**

Artificial sun: - Strand theater light with Fresnel lens Elmo MN34H Camera color 17mm CCD interchangeable lenses

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Control Software

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DAYLIGHT MODELS EXTERIOR INTERIOR

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