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Manual Subjectivity Analysis. EUROLAN July 30, 20072 Preliminaries What do we mean by subjectivity? The linguistic expression of somebody’s emotions,

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Presentation on theme: "Manual Subjectivity Analysis. EUROLAN July 30, 20072 Preliminaries What do we mean by subjectivity? The linguistic expression of somebody’s emotions,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Manual Subjectivity Analysis

2 EUROLAN July 30, Preliminaries What do we mean by subjectivity? The linguistic expression of somebody’s emotions, sentiments, evaluations, opinions, beliefs, speculations, etc. –Wow, this is my 4th Olympus camera. –Staley declared it to be “one hell of a collection”. –Most voters believe that he's not going to raise their taxes

3 EUROLAN July 30, Foci of this Talk Lower-level linguistic expressions rather than whole sentences or documents Developing an understanding of the problem rather than trying to implement a particular solution

4 EUROLAN July 30, Overview Annotate –Subjective expressions –material attributed to a source, but presented objectively

5 EUROLAN July 30, Overview Opinions, evaluations, emotions, speculations are private states. They are expressed in language by subjective expressions. Private state: state that is not open to objective observation or verification. Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, Svartvik (1985). A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language.

6 EUROLAN July 30, Overview Focus on three ways private states are expressed in language –Direct subjective expressions –Expressive subjective elements –Objective speech events

7 EUROLAN July 30, Direct Subjective Expressions Direct mentions of private states The United States fears a spill-over from the anti-terrorist campaign. Private states expressed in speech events “We foresaw electoral fraud but not daylight robbery,” Tsvangirai said.

8 EUROLAN July 30, Expressive Subjective Elements [ Banfield 1982 ] “We foresaw electoral fraud but not daylight robbery,” Tsvangirai said The part of the US human rights report about China is full of absurdities and fabrications

9 EUROLAN July 30, Objective Speech Events Material attributed to a source, but presented as objective fact The government, it added, has amended the Pakistan Citizenship Act 10 of 1951 to enable women of Pakistani descent to claim Pakistani nationality for their children born to foreign husbands.

10 EUROLAN July 30,

11 EUROLAN July 30, Nested Sources “The report is full of absurdities,’’ Xirao-Nima said the next day.

12 EUROLAN July 30, Nested Sources “The report is full of absurdities,’’ Xirao-Nima said the next day. (Writer)

13 EUROLAN July 30, Nested Sources “The report is full of absurdities,’’ Xirao-Nima said the next day. (Writer, Xirao-Nima)

14 EUROLAN July 30, Nested Sources “The report is full of absurdities,’’ Xirao-Nima said the next day. (Writer Xirao-Nima)

15 EUROLAN July 30, Nested Sources “The report is full of absurdities,’’ Xirao-Nima said the next day. (Writer Xirao-Nima) (Writer)

16 EUROLAN July 30, “The report is full of absurdities,” Xirao-Nima said the next day. Objective speech event anchor: the entire sentence source: implicit: true Direct subjective anchor: said source: intensity: high expression intensity: neutral attitude type: negative target: report Expressive subjective element anchor: full of absurdities source: intensity: high attitude type: negative

17 EUROLAN July 30, “The report is full of absurdities,” Xirao-Nima said the next day. Objective speech event anchor: the entire sentence source: implicit: true Direct subjective anchor: said source: intensity: high expression intensity: neutral attitude type: negative target: report Expressive subjective element anchor: full of absurdities source: intensity: high attitude type: negative

18 EUROLAN July 30, “The report is full of absurdities,” Xirao-Nima said the next day. Objective speech event anchor: the entire sentence source: implicit: true Direct subjective anchor: said source: intensity: high expression intensity: neutral attitude type: negative target: report Expressive subjective element anchor: full of absurdities source: intensity: high attitude type: negative

19 EUROLAN July 30, “The report is full of absurdities,” Xirao-Nima said the next day. Objective speech event anchor: the entire sentence source: implicit: true Direct subjective anchor: said source: intensity: high expression intensity: neutral attitude type: negative target: report Expressive subjective element anchor: full of absurdities source: intensity: high attitude type: negative

20 EUROLAN July 30, “The report is full of absurdities,” Xirao-Nima said the next day. Objective speech event anchor: the entire sentence source: implicit: true Direct subjective anchor: said source: intensity: high expression intensity: neutral attitude type: negative target: report Expressive subjective element anchor: full of absurdities source: intensity: high attitude type: negative

21 EUROLAN July 30, “The report is full of absurdities,” Xirao-Nima said the next day. Objective speech event anchor: the entire sentence source: implicit: true Direct subjective anchor: said source: intensity: high expression intensity: neutral attitude type: negative target: report Expressive subjective element anchor: full of absurdities source: intensity: high attitude type: negative

22 EUROLAN July 30, “The US fears a spill-over’’, said Xirao-Nima, a professor of foreign affairs at the Central University for Nationalities.

23 EUROLAN July 30, “The US fears a spill-over’’, said Xirao-Nima, a professor of foreign affairs at the Central University for Nationalities. (Writer)

24 EUROLAN July 30, “The US fears a spill-over’’, said Xirao-Nima, a professor of foreign affairs at the Central University for Nationalities. (writer, Xirao-Nima)

25 EUROLAN July 30, “The US fears a spill-over’’, said Xirao-Nima, a professor of foreign affairs at the Central University for Nationalities. (writer, Xirao-Nima, US)

26 EUROLAN July 30, “The US fears a spill-over’’, said Xirao-Nima, a professor of foreign affairs at the Central University for Nationalities. (writer, Xirao-Nima, US) (writer, Xirao-Nima) (Writer)

27 EUROLAN July 30, Objective speech event anchor: the entire sentence source: implicit: true Objective speech event anchor: said source: Direct subjective anchor: fears source: intensity: medium expression intensity: medium attitude type: negative target: spill-over “The US fears a spill-over’’, said Xirao-Nima, a professor of foreign affairs at the Central University for Nationalities.

28 EUROLAN July 30, The report has been strongly criticized and condemned by many countries.

29 EUROLAN July 30, Objective speech event anchor: the entire sentence source: implicit: true Direct subjective anchor: strongly criticized and condemned source: intensity: high expression intensity: high attitude type: negative target: report The report has been strongly criticized and condemned by many countries.

30 EUROLAN July 30, As usual, the US state Department published its annual report on human rights practices in world countries last Monday. And as usual, the portion about China contains little truth and many absurdities, exaggerations and fabrications.

31 EUROLAN July 30, Objective speech event anchor : the entire 1 st sentence source : implicit : true Direct subjective anchor : the entire 2 nd sentence source : implicit : true intensity : high expression intensity : medium attitude type : negative target : report As usual, the US state Department published its annual report on human rights practices in world countries last Monday. And as usual, the portion about China contains little truth and many absurdities, exaggerations and fabrications. Expressive subjective element anchor : little truth source : intensity : medium attitude type : negative Expressive subjective element anchor : many absurdities, exaggerations, and fabrications source : intensity : medium attitude type : negative Expressive subjective element anchor : And as usual source : intensity : low attitude type : negative

32 EUROLAN July 30, Corpus On my website (in transition due to network migration) English language versions of articles from the world press (187 news sources) Themes of the instructions: –No rules about how particular words should be annotated. –Don’t take expressions out of context and think about what they could mean, but judge them as they are used in that sentence.

33 direct subjective span: are happy source: attitude: inferred attitude span: are happy because Chavez has fallen type: neg sentiment intensity: medium target: target span: Chavez has fallen target span: Chavez attitude span: are happy type: pos sentiment intensity: medium target: direct subjective span: think source: attitude: attitude span: think type: positive arguing intensity: medium target: target span: people are happy because Chavez has fallen I think people are happy because Chavez has fallen MPQA corpus: Wilson PhD Dissertation 2008

34 34 As usual, the US State Department published its annual report on human rights practices in world countries last Monday. GATE_objective-speech-event (2, 2) nested-source=w implicit=true [] GATE_agent (46, 108) id=report ['its', 'annual', 'report', 'on', 'human', 'right', 'practice', 'in', 'world', 'country'] And as usual, the portion about China contains little truth and many absurdities, exaggerations and fabrications. GATE_expressive-subjectivity (128, 140) nested-source=w polarity=negative intensity=low ['and', 'as', 'usual'] GATE_direct-subjective (128, 128) nested-source=w attitude-link=a100 intensity=high implicit=true [] GATE_target (142, 165) id=t100 ['the', 'portion', 'about', 'china'] GATE_agent (160, 165) id=china ['china'] GATE_attitude (166, 240) intensity=high id=a100 attitude-type=sentiment-neg target-link=t100 ['contain', 'little', 'truth', 'and', 'many', 'absurdity', 'exaggeration', 'and', 'fabrication'] GATE_expressive-subjectivity (175, 187) nested-source=w polarity=negative intensity=medium ['little', 'truth'] GATE_expressive-subjectivity (192, 240) nested-source=w polarity=negative intensity=high ['many', 'absurdity', 'exaggeration', 'and', 'fabrication']

35 35 Its aim of the 2001 report is to tarnish China's image and exert political pressure on the Chinese Government, human rights experts said at a seminar held by the China Society for Study of Human Rights (CSSHR) on Friday. GATE_objective-speech-event (248, 248) nested-source=w implicit=true [] GATE_direct-subjective (380, 384) nested-source=w,experts expression- intensity=neutral attitude-link=a110 intensity=medium ['say'] GATE_attitude (248, 357) intensity=medium-high id=a110 attitude- type=sentiment-neg target-link=t2 ['its', 'aim', 'of', 'the', 'report', … 'the', 'chinese', 'government'] GATE_target (259, 274) id=t2 ['the', 'report'] GATE_expressive-subjectivity (281, 288) nested-source=w,experts polarity=negative intensity=medium ['tarnish'] GATE_direct-subjective (252, 255) nested-source=w,experts,report polarity=neutral expression-intensity=medium attitude-link=a120,a130 intensity=medium ['aim'] GATE_attitude (252, 255) intensity=medium id=a120 attitude-type=intention-pos target-link=t3 ['aim'] GATE_target (278, 357) id=t3 ['to', 'tarnish', 'china', "'s", 'image', 'and', 'exert', 'political', 'pressure', 'on', 'the', 'chinese', 'government'] GATE_attitude (252, 288) intensity=medium id=a130 attitude-type=sentiment-neg target-link=t4 ['aim', 'of', 'the', 'report', 'be', 'to', 'tarnish'] GATE_target (289, 294) id=t4 ['china'] GATE_agent (359, 379) nested-source=w,experts id=experts ['human', 'right', 'expert'] GATE_agent (259, 274) nested-source=w,experts,report nested- target=w,experts,report ['the', 'report']

36 36 Continued on the next slide… "The United States was slandering China again," said Xirao-Nima, a professor of Tibetan history at the Central University for Nationalities. GATE_objective-speech-event (475, 475) nested-source=w implicit=true [] GATE_direct-subjective (523, 527) nested-source=w,nima expression- intensity=neutral attitude-link=a140 intensity=high ['say'] GATE_attitude (494, 508) intensity=high id=a140 attitude- type=sentiment-neg target-link=t5 ['be', 'slander'] GATE_target (476, 493) id=t5 ['the', 'unite', 'state'] GATE_expressive-subjectivity (498, 508) nested-source=w,nima polarity=negative intensity=high ['slander']

37 37 "The United States was slandering China again," said Xirao-Nima, a professor of Tibetan history at the Central University for Nationalities. GATE_direct-subjective (494, 508) nested-source=w,nima,US polarity=negative expression-intensity=high attitude-link=a150 intensity=high ['be', 'slander'] GATE_attitude (494, 508) intensity=high id=a150 attitude- type=sentiment-neg target-link=t6 ['be', 'slander'] GATE_target (509, 514) id=t6 ['china'] GATE_agent (528, 538) nested-source=w,nima id=nima ['xirao-', 'nima'] GATE_agent (476, 493) nested-source=w,nima,US nested- target=w,nima,US id=US ['the', 'unite', 'state'] GATE_agent (509, 514) nested-target=w,nima,US,china ['china']

38 38 These are all the annotations It shows that these so-called truths are not true at all," said Xirao-Nima GATE_objective-speech-event (3111, 3111) nested-source=w implicit=true [] GATE_direct-subjective (3170, 3174) attitude-type=negative intensity=high attitude-link=a350,a355 expression-intensity=neutral nested-source=w,nima attitude-toward=report ['say'] GATE_attitude (3111, 3167) intensity=medium-high id=a355 attitude- type=arguing-neg target-link=t101 ['it', 'show', 'that', 'these', 'so-call', 'truth', 'be', 'not', 'true', 'at', 'all'] GATE_attitude (3111, 3167) intensity=high id=a350 attitude- type=sentiment-neg target-link=t101 ['it', 'show', 'that', 'these', 'so- call', 'truth', 'be', 'not', 'true', 'at', 'all'] GATE_target (3125, 3147) id=t101 ['these', 'so-call', 'truth'] GATE_expressive-subjectivity (3131, 3147) nested-source=w,nima polarity=negative intensity=medium ['so-call', 'truth'] GATE_expressive-subjectivity (3152, 3167) nested-source=w,nima polarity=negative intensity=high ['not', 'true', 'at', 'all'] GATE_agent (3175, 3185) nested-source=w,nima ['xirao-', 'nima']

39 EUROLAN July 30, Word senses Senses

40 EUROLAN July 30, Senses

41 EUROLAN July 30, Non-subjective senses of brilliant 1.Method for identifying brilliant material in paint - US Patent Halley shines in a brilliant light. 3.In a classic pasodoble, an opening section in the minor mode features a brilliant trumpet melody, while the second section in the relative major begins with the violins.


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