Which color of the visible spectrum has the shortest wavelength? a. violet b. blue c. yellow d. red
Ozone gas in the Earth's atmosphere helps to protect life on the Earth. This protection is due to the ability of ozone to absorb a. radio waves b. ultraviolet radiation c. gamma radiation d. visible light
An object that is a good absorber of electromagnetic energy is also a good a. reflector of electromagnetic energy b. refractor of electromagnetic energy c. radiator of electromagnetic energy d. convector of electromagnetic energy
Base your answer on the diagram below, which shows the tilt of Earth on its axis in relation to the Sun on one particular day. Points A through E are locations on Earth’s surface. Point D is located in Virginia. The dashed line represents Earth’s axis. On this day, which location has the greatest number of hours of daylight?a. a. E b. B c. C d. D
The diagram below represents what normally happens to insolation as it enters the Earth's atmosphere An increase in cloud cover and water vapor within the Earth's atmosphere will cause an increase in a. A and B, only b. A and C, only c. C, only d. B and C, only
By which process is heat energy transferred when molecules within a substance collide?a. a. conduction b. convection c. radiation d. sublimation
For weeks after a series of major volcanic eruptions, Earth's surface air temperatures are often a. warmer because ash and dust decrease atmospheric transparency b. warmer because ash and dust increase atmospheric transparency c. cooler because ash and dust decrease atmospheric transparency d. cooler because ash and dust increase atmospheric transparency
Which substance has the highest specific heat? a. ironb. b. water c. lead d. granite
Which factor has the greatest influence on the number of daylight hours that a particular Earth surface location receives? a. longitude b. latitude c. diameter of Earth d. distance from the Sun
After the light sources were removed, the electromagnetic energy radiated by the cooling sand was mostly a. infrared rays b. ultraviolet rays c. gamma rays d. visible light rays
On a day with no wind, the air temperature outside a house is 10ºC. The air temperature inside the house in 18ºC. Which diagram best represents the air circulation pattern that is most likely to occur when a window of the house is first opened? A D C B
The graph below shows the change in carbon dioxide concentration in parts per million (ppm) in Earth’s atmosphere from 1960 to 1990. The most likely cause of the overall change in the level of carbon dioxide from 1960 to 1990 is an increase in the a. number of violent storms b. number of volcanic eruptions c. use of nuclear power d. use of fossil fuels
During which process does heat transfer occur because of density differences? a. conductionb. b. convection c. radiation d. reflection
A person in Florida worked outdoors in sunlight for several hours on a day in July. Which type of clothing should the person have worn to absorb the least electromagnetic radiation? a. dark colored with a rough surface b. dark colored with a smooth surface c. light colored with a rough surface d. light colored with a smooth surface
Which is the major source of energy for most Earth processes? a. radioactive decay within the Earth's interior b. convection currents in the Earth's mantle c. radiation received from the Sun d. earthquakes along fault zones
Base your answer on the diagram below. The diagram shows the pattern of air movement within a closed room. What color should the heat source in the room be painted in order to radiate the most heat? a. redb. b. Black c. green d. silver
The diagram below shows a greenhouse. What is the primary function of the clear glass of the greenhouse? a. The glass reduces the amount of insolation entering the greenhouse. b. The glass allows all wavelengths of radiation to enter and all wavelengths of radiation to escape. c. The glass allows short wavelengths of radiation to enter, but reduces the amount of long wavelength radiation that escapes. d. The glass allows long wavelengths of radiation to enter, but reduces the amount of short wavelength radiation that escapes.
Changing the shingles on the roof of a house to a lighter color will most likely reduce the amount of solar energy that is a. scattered b. absorbed c. reflected d. refracted
Base your answer to the next 2 questions on the diagrams below which show the steps used to determine the amount of heat held by equal masses of iron, copper, lead, and granite. The granite sample is transferred from the boiling water to the room-temperature water. Why is the total heat lost by the granite greater than the total heat gained by the room-temperature water? a. The granite sample had less volume than the other samples.b b. The granite sample lost some heat to the air as it was being transferred. c. Water gained heat from the insulated container. d. Water has a lower specific heat than the granite sample.
The graph below shows the average daily temperatures and the duration of insolation for a location in the mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere during a year. Compared to the date of maximum duration of insolation, the date of maximum surface temperature for this location is a. earlier in the year b. later in the year c. the same day of the year
Which statement about electromagnetic energy is correct? a. Violet light has a longer wavelength than red light. b. X-rays have a longer wavelength than infrared waves. c. Radar waves have a shorter wavelength than ultraviolet rays. d. Gamma rays have a shorter wavelength than visible light.
The diagram below shows the noontime shadow cast by a vertical post located in New Jersey. Which letter indicates a location south of the post? a.A b. B c. C d. D
If Earth’s axis were tilted less than 23.5°, which seasonal average temperature change would occur in New York State? a. Spring and fall would be cooler. b. Spring and fall would be warmer. c. Winter would be cooler. d. Summer would be cooler.
In New York State, summer is warmer than winter because in summer New York State has a. fewer hours of daylight and receives low-angle insolation b. fewer hours of daylight and receives high-angle insolation c. more hours of daylight and receives low-angle insolation d. more hours of daylight and receives high-angle insolation
The average temperature at Earth’s equator is higher than the average temperature at Earth’s South Pole because the South Pole a. receives less intense insolation b. receives more infrared radiation c. has less land area d. has more cloud cover
Compared to the wavelength of ultraviolet radiation, the wavelength of infrared radiation is a. shorter b. longer c. the same
The diagram below shows temperature values at various points in a solid piece of aluminum. Toward which point will heat flow from point P? a. A b. B c. C d. D
A gradual increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide would warm Earth’s atmosphere because carbon dioxide is a a. poor reflector of ultraviolet radiation b. good reflector of ultraviolet radiation c. poor absorber of infrared radiationd d. good absorber of infrared radiation
The diagram below shows Earth revolving around the Sun. At which location in Earth's orbit will the maximum surface temperatures occur in Earth's Northern Hemisphere? a. at A b. between B and C c. between D and A d. at D
The energy radiated from the Sun consists of a a. narrow range of wavelengths, with ultraviolet radiation having the greatest intensity b. narrow range of wavelengths, with infrared radiation having the greatest intensity c. wide range of wavelengths, with visible radiation having the greatest intensity d. wide range of wavelengths, with x-ray radiation having the greatest intensity