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Institute for Environmental Physics – University of Heidelberg T. Marbach, S. Beirle, M. F. A. Khokhar, C. Frankenberg, C. v. Friedeburg, M. Grzegorski,

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Presentation on theme: "Institute for Environmental Physics – University of Heidelberg T. Marbach, S. Beirle, M. F. A. Khokhar, C. Frankenberg, C. v. Friedeburg, M. Grzegorski,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Institute for Environmental Physics – University of Heidelberg T. Marbach, S. Beirle, M. F. A. Khokhar, C. Frankenberg, C. v. Friedeburg, M. Grzegorski, J. Hollwedel, S. Kühl, S. Kraus, S. Sanghavi, U. Platt, W. Wilms-Grabe, T. Wagner - Satellite Group: Identification of tropospheric emission sources from satellite observations: synergistic use of trace gas measurements of HCHO, NO 2 and SO 2

2 - Satellite Group: Relevance of formaldehyde (HCHO) The DOAS-method The GOME instrument HCHO results Comparison with NO 2 and SO 2 results Conclusions Identification of tropospheric emission sources from satellite observations: synergistic use of trace gas measurements of HCHO, NO 2 and SO 2

3 - Satellite Group: Relevance of formaldehyde (HCHO)Relevance of formaldehyde (HCHO) The DOAS-method The GOME instrument HCHO results Comparison with NO 2 and SO 2 results Conclusions Identification of tropospheric emission sources from satellite observations: synergistic use of trace gas measurements of HCHO, NO 2 and SO 2

4 Primary emission product from biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion Primary emission product from biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion Additional sources (over continent): HCHO in the Troposphere Daylight cycle Global source: HCHO Removal: Photochemical oxidation of methane OH, HO 2 H2OH2OH2OH2O CH 4 O 2, hv ( <340 nm) 2H 2 O Reaction with OH radicals and photolysis COOH HO 2 H2H2H2H2 2HO 2 2O 2, hv ( <350 nm) hv CH 4 NO 2 NO Photochemical oxidation of NMHCs: HCHO tracer of photosmog and biomass emissions Photochemical oxidation of NMHCs: HCHO tracer of photosmog and biomass emissions NMHCs O3O3O3O3hv ( <400 nm) CO 2

5 Primary emission product from biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion Primary emission product from biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion Additional sources (over continent): HCHO in the Troposphere Daylight cycle Global source: HCHO Removal: Photochemical oxidation of NMHCs: HCHO tracer of photosmog and biomass emissions Photochemical oxidation of NMHCs: HCHO tracer of photosmog and biomass emissions Photochemical oxidation of methane Reaction with OH radicals and photolysis CO NMHCs CH 4 Lifetime: 5 hours Relatively constant concentrations in the troposphere Stable global source of HCHO Constant and fast removal for HCHO + Important indicator for biomass burning and industrial activities industrial activities

6 - Satellite Group: Relevance of formaldehyde (HCHO) The DOAS-methodThe DOAS-method The GOME instrument HCHO results Comparison with NO 2 and SO 2 results Conclusions Identification of tropospheric emission sources from satellite observations: synergistic use of trace gas measurments of HCHO, NO 2 and SO 2

7 Spectra, High-pass filtering  I o needs not to be known  High sensitivity (OD  0.001)  Many absorbers can be measured simultaneously  Separation of scattering and absorption Lambert-Beer law: DOAS: Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy-Method - Satellite Group:

8 Optical Density Spectral DOAS retrieval Biomass burning over Borneo, Orbit , Lat.: -2.2°, Long.: 113.3°, SZA: 20.5 ° T. Wagner Wavelenght (nm) NO 2 Ring O3O3 BrO O4O4 HCHO Residual

9 - Satellite Group: Relevance of formaldehyde (HCHO) The DOAS-method The GOME instrumentThe GOME instrument HCHO results Comparison with NO 2 and SO 2 results Conclusions Identification of tropospheric emission sources from satellite observations: synergistic use of trace gas measurments of HCHO, NO 2 and SO 2

10 Launched on ERS-2 (April 1995)Launched on ERS-2 (April 1995) Passive nadir viewing UV/vis instrument (backscattered sun light)Passive nadir viewing UV/vis instrument (backscattered sun light) Wavelength range: nmWavelength range: nm Spectral resolution: nmSpectral resolution: nm Developed for ozone measurementsDeveloped for ozone measurements Many additional trace gases:Many additional trace gases: BrO, OClO, H 2 O, O 2, O 4 GOME: Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) - Satellite Group: HCHO, NO 2, SO 2HCHO, NO 2, SO 2

11 Nearly polar orbit (altitude of 780 km)Nearly polar orbit (altitude of 780 km) Sun-synchronous (equator crossing time at approximately 10:30)Sun-synchronous (equator crossing time at approximately 10:30) Pixel resolution:Pixel resolution: 320*40 km 2 Global cover:Global cover: every 3 days (equator) GOME acquisition mode - Satellite Group:

12 Relevance of formaldehyde (HCHO) The DOAS-method The GOME instrument HCHO resultsHCHO results Comparison with NO 2 and SO 2 results Conclusions Identification of tropospheric emission sources from satellite observations: synergistic use of trace gas measurments of HCHO, NO 2 and SO 2

13 Biomass Burning in relation with the El Niño event of months results - Satellite Group: July, August, Sept.

14 - Satellite Group: July, August, Sept.

15 - Satellite Group: ATSR Monthly mean Fire counts/pixel June 1997

16 - Satellite Group: ATSR Monthly mean Fire counts/pixel July 1997

17 - Satellite Group: ATSR Monthly mean Fire counts/pixel August 1997

18 - Satellite Group: ATSR Monthly mean Fire counts/pixel September 1997

19 - Satellite Group: Relevance of formaldehyde (HCHO) The DOAS-method The GOME instrument HCHO results Comparison with NO 2 and SO 2 resultsComparison with NO 2 and SO 2 results Conclusions Identification of tropospheric emission sources from satellite observations: synergistic use of trace gas measurments of HCHO, NO 2 and SO 2

20 NO x in the Troposphere HCHO OH, HO 2 H2OH2OH2OH2O CH 4 O 2, hv ( <340 nm) 2H 2 O COOH HO 2 H2H2H2H2 2HO 2 2O 2, hv ( <350 nm) hv CH 4 NO 2 NO NMHCs O3O3O3O3hv ( <400 nm) CO 2

21 NO x in the Troposphere As for HCHO, biomass burning and fossil fuel combustionAs for HCHO, biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion HCHO CH 4 NO 2 NO NMHCs O3O3O3O3hv ( <400 nm) NO x Lightning, soil (bacteria) and stratospheric N 2 OLightning, soil (bacteria) and stratospheric N 2 O N2ON2ON2ON2O Sources:Removal: Reaction with OH and O 3Reaction with OH and O 3

22 - Satellite Group: S. Beirle Monthly mean June 1997

23 - Satellite Group: S. Beirle ? Monthly mean July 1997

24 - Satellite Group: S. Beirle Monthly mean August 1997

25 - Satellite Group: Monthly mean September 1997

26 - Satellite Group: C4-C3 distribution (Cerling and Quade, 1993) Domimantly C3 Domimantly C4 Mixed C3/C4 Tundra Conifere Woodland/Forest Temperate/Tropical Broad-Leaved Forest Tropical/Temperate Desert Semi Desert, dry steppe, Tropical Scrub/Woodland Tropical/Temperate Grassland

27 Yearly mean Six months mean S. Beirle - Satellite Group: June to November 1997

28 - Satellite Group: Yearly mean S. Beirle M. F. A. Khokhar 1997

29 - Satellite Group: M. F. A. Khokhar Six months mean June to November

30 - Satellite Group: Relevance of formaldehyde (HCHO) The DOAS-method The GOME instrument HCHO results Comparison with NO 2 and SO 2 results ConclusionsConclusions Identification of tropospheric emission sources from satellite observations: synergistic use of trace gas measurments of HCHO, NO 2 and SO 2

31 - Satellite Group: Conclusions  HCHO reflects more precisely the biomass burning events 1.Although biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion are important sources for both HCHO and NO 2 :  NO 2 is a better tracer to spot the anthropogenic activities (see poster from Steffen Beirle during this meeting)  SO 2 data confirm the correlation of NO 2 with industrial area 2.The combined HCHO, NO 2 and SO 2 data also show the influence of the vegetation on the emission during biomass burning:  HCHO appears in all biomass burning events  NO 2 are much weaker in the Amazonian biomass burning, maybe due to a difference in the vegetation type

32 - Satellite Group:

33 DOAS: Fraunhofer spectrum

34 GOME observation geometry - Satellite Group:

35 NO + O 3  O 2 + NO 2 NO + O  h + NO 2 Removal: NO 2 +OH  HNO 3 (day) NO 2 +O 3  NO 3 +O 2 (hight) NO 3  HNO 3 (N 2 O 5, Deposition, VOCs) Lifetime depends from: [OH], [O 3 ], [H 2 O], [VOC] temperature ~ hours bis to days (upper troposphere) - Satellite Group:


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