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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 1 5.5 Graphs of Other Trigonometric Functions Objectives: Understand the graph of y = sin x. Graph variations of y = sin x. Understand the graph of y = cos x. Graph variations of y = cos x. Use vertical shifts of sine and cosine curves. Model periodic behavior. Dr.Hayk Melikyan Department of Mathematics and CS melikyan@nccu.edu

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 The Graph of y = sinx

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 3 Some Properties of the Graph of y = sinx The domain is The range is [ – 1, 1]. The period is The function is an odd function:

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 4 Graphing Variations of y = sinx

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 5 Example: Graphing a Variation of y = sinx Determine the amplitude of Then graph and for Step 1 Identify the amplitude and the period. The equation is of the form y = Asinx with A = 3. Thus, the amplitude is This means that the maximum value of y is 3 and the minimum value of y is – 3. The period is

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 6 Example: Graphing a Variation of y = sinx (continued) Determine the amplitude of Then graph and for Step 2 Find the values of x for the five key points. To generate x-values for each of the five key points, we begin by dividing the period, by 4. The cycle begins at x 1 = 0. We add quarter periods to generate x-values for each of the key points.

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 7 Example: Graphing a Variation of y = sinx (continued) Step 3 Find the values of y for the five key points.

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 8 Example: Graphing a Variation of y = sinx (continued) Determine the amplitude of Then graph and for Step 4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. amplitude = 3 period

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 9 Amplitudes and Periods

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 10 Example: Graphing a Function of the Form y = AsinBx Determine the amplitude and period of Then graph the function for Step 1 Identify the amplitude and the period. The equation is of the form y = A sinBx with A = 2 and The maximum value of y is 2, the minimum value of y is –2. The period of tells us that the graph completes one cycle from 0 to amplitude: period:

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 11 Example: Graphing a Function of the Form y = AsinBx (continued) Step 2 Find the values of x for the five key points. To generate x-values for each of the five key points, we begin by dividing the period, by 4. The cycle begins at x 1 = 0. We add quarter periods to generate x-values for each of the key points.

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 12 Example: Graphing a Function of the Form y = AsinBx (continued) Step 3 Find the values of y for the five key points.

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 13 Example: Graphing a Function of the Form y = AsinBx (continued) Determine the amplitude and period of Then graph the function for Step 4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. amplitude = 2 period

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 14 Example: Graphing a Function of the Form y = AsinBx (continued) Determine the amplitude and period of Then graph the function for Step 5 Extend the graph in step 4 to the left or right as desired. We will extend the graph to include the interval amplitude = 2 period

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 15 The Graph of y = Asin(Bx – C)

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 16 Example: Graphing a Function of the Form y = Asin(Bx – C) Determine the amplitude, period, and phase shift of Then graph one period of the function. Step 1 Identify the amplitude, the period, and the phase shift. amplitude: period: phase shift:

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 17 Example: Graphing a Function of the Form y = Asin(Bx – C) (continued) Step 2 Find the values of x for the five key points.

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 18 Example: Graphing a Function of the Form y = Asin(Bx – C) (continued) Step 3 Find the values of y for the five key points.

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 19 Example: Graphing a Function of the Form y = Asin(Bx – C) (continued) Step 3 (cont) Find the values of y for the five key points.

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 20 Step 4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the function Example: Graphing a Function of the Form y = Asin(Bx – C) (continued) amplitude = 3 period phase shift

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 21 The graph of y = cosx

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 22 Some Properties of the Graph of y = cosx The domain is The range is [ – 1, 1]. The period is The function is an even function:

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 23 Sinusoidal Graphs The graph of is the graph of with a phase shift of The graphs of sine functions and cosine functions are called sinusoidal graphs.

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 24 Graphing Variations of y = cosx

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 25 Example: Graphing a Function of the Form y = AcosBx Determine the amplitude and period of Then graph the function for Step 1 Identify the amplitude and the period. amplitude: period:

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 26 Example: Graphing a Function of the Form y = AcosBx (continued) Determine the amplitude and period of Then graph the function for Step 2 Find the values of x for the five key points.

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 27 Example: Graphing a Function of the Form y = AcosBx (continued) Step 3 Find the values of y for the five key points.

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 28 Example: Graphing a Function of the Form y = AcosBx (continued) Step 3 Find the values of y for the five key points.

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 29 Example: Graphing a Function of the Form y = AcosBx (continued) Determine the amplitude and period of Then graph the function for Step 4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. amplitude = 4 period = 2

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 30 Example: Graphing a Function of the Form y = AcosBx (continued) Determine the amplitude and period of Then graph the function for Step 5 Extend the graph to the left or right as desired. amplitude = 4 period = 2

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 31 The Graph of y = Acos(Bx – C)

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 32 Example: Graphing a Function of the Form y = Acos(Bx – C) Determine the amplitude, period, and phase shift of Then graph one period of the function. Step 1 Identify the amplitude, the period, and the phase shift. amplitude: period: phase shift:

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 33 Example: Graphing a Function of the Form y = Acos(Bx – C) (continued) Determine the amplitude, period, and phase shift of Then graph one period of the function. Step 2 Find the x-values for the five key points.

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 34 Example: Graphing a Function of the Form y = Acos(Bx – C) (continued) Step 3 Find the values of y for the five key points.

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 35 Example: Graphing a Function of the Form y = Acos(Bx – C) (continued) Step 3 (cont) Find the values of y for the five key points.

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 36 Example: Graphing a Function of the Form y = Acos(Bx – C) (continued) Step 3 (cont) Find the values of y for the five key points.

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 37 Example: Graphing a Function of the Form y = Acos(Bx – C) (continued) Determine the amplitude, period, and phase shift of Then graph one period of the function. Step 4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. amplitude period

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 38 Vertical Shifts of Sinusoidal Graphs For sinusoidal graphs of the form and the constant D causes a vertical shift in the graph. These vertical shifts result in sinusoidal graphs oscillating about the horizontal line y = D rather than about the x- axis. The maximum value of y is The minimum value of y is

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 39 Example: A Vertical Shift Graph one period of the function Step 1 Identify the amplitude, period, phase shift, and vertical shift. amplitude: period: phase shift: vertical shift: one unit upward

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 40 Example: A Vertical Shift Graph one period of the function Step 2 Find the values of x for the five key points.

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 41 Example: A Vertical Shift Step 3 Find the values of y for the five key points.

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 42 Example: A Vertical Shift Step 3 (cont) Find the values of y for the five key points.

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 43 Example: A Vertical Shift Graph one period of the function Step 4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function.

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 44 Example: Modeling Periodic Behavior A region that is 30° north of the Equator averages a minimum of 10 hours of daylight in December. Hours of daylight are at a maximum of 14 hours in June. Let x represent the month of the year, with 1 for January, 2 for February, 3 for March, and 12 for December. If y represents the number of hours of daylight in month x, use a sine function of the form y = Asin(Bx – C) + D to model the hours of daylight. Because the hours of daylight range from a minimum of 10 to a maximum of 14, the curve oscillates about the middle value, 12 hours. Thus, D = 12.

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 45 Example: Modeling Periodic Behavior (continued) A region that is 30° north of the Equator averages a minimum of 10 hours of daylight in December. Hours of daylight are at a maximum of 14 hours in June. Let x represent the month of the year, with 1 for January, 2 for February, 3 for March, and 12 for December. If y represents the number of hours of daylight in month x, use a sine function of the form y = Asin(Bx – C) + D to model the hours of daylight. The maximum number of hours of daylight is 14, which is 2 hours more than 12 hours. Thus, A, the amplitude, is 2; A = 2.

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 46 Example: Modeling Periodic Behavior A region that is 30° north of the Equator averages a minimum of 10 hours of daylight in December. Hours of daylight are at a maximum of 14 hours in June. Let x represent the month of the year, with 1 for January, 2 for February, 3 for March, and 12 for December. If y represents the number of hours of daylight in month x, use a sine function of the form y = Asin(Bx – C) + D to model the hours of daylight. One complete cycle occurs over a period of 12 months.

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 47 Example: Modeling Periodic Behavior The starting point of the cycle is March, x = 3. The phase shift is

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Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. 48 Example: Modeling Periodic Behavior A region that is 30° north of the Equator averages a minimum of 10 hours of daylight in December. Hours of daylight are at a maximum of 14 hours in June. Let x represent the month of the year, with 1 for January, 2 for February, 3 for March, and 12 for December. If y represents the number of hours of daylight in month x, use a sine function of the form y = Asin(Bx – C) + D to model the hours of daylight. The equation that models the hours of daylight is

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