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MSC 154 Marine Photography

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Presentation on theme: "MSC 154 Marine Photography"— Presentation transcript:

1 MSC 154 Marine Photography
Color Photography With Excerpts and examples from: Color Photography: A Working Manual Henry Horenstein, Little, Brown & Company, USA, 1995 Photography 9th. Ed., London, Upton, Stone, Kobré, Brill, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2008

2 Photographing in Color
More than 99 percent of all photographs taken are in color. At one time color photography was looked upon with skepticism by many creative and professional photographers. Presently, black-and-white photographs are simply thought of as a regular picture with the color turned off.

3 Photographing in color can sometimes produce unexpected results.
Be aware of slight shifts in color balance resulting from: Color shifts in daylight Color shifts from different types of light bulbs and or sources Color is a quality based on your: Subject The light falling on your subject The image you make from it

4 Characteristics of a Color Photograph
Color Balance – ˡA film’s or a sensor’s response to the colors of a scene. ²The reproduction of colors in a color print, alterable during image editing or darkroom color printing. White Balance – The setting on a digital camera that adjusts the camera for the color temperature of a particular light source, such as tungsten or daylight.

5 Characteristics of a Color Photograph
Saturation – The purity – or vividness, or intensity – of a color is referred to as saturation. The color saturation that exists in front of the camera depends on the physical characteristics of objects in the scene and on the kind of illumination. Saturation in the way colors are reproduced is also affected by the specific kind of sensor or film used to capture the image and the manner of post-processing – film development, image editing, and printing.

6 Characteristics of a Color Photograph
Contrast – The difference in darkness or density between one tone and another. Two kinds of contrast are important in a photograph; both are strongly affected by the kind of illumination on the scene, but can also be altered by your technique. Overall (or global) contrast, sometimes called dynamic range, is the difference between the lightest and darkest parts of a scene, print, transparency, or negative. The extent of a scene’s dynamic range you can capture is dependent on what you use to capture it. Different films and sensors have distinct limits to the overall contrast, or dynamic range, that they can capture. (see page 80)

7 Characteristics of a Color Photograph
Local contrast is what makes photographs look crisp or soft, and has to do with the edges and transitions of color and tone. Affected by the quality of the lens and/or how clean the leans is. Affected by the kind of film (slower films have more contrast) or the sensor used. In very contrasty lighting, no film or digital sensor can record color and details simultaneously in very light highlights and very dark shadows. It is easier to get good exposures with color if lighting is soft or flat. -in very light highlights and very dark shadows because the range of tones in the scene is greater than the usable exposure range of the film or sensor. The usable exposure range of a specific film is called its latitude; the usable exposure range of a digital sensor (or the range of subject brightness) is called dynamic range. -if lighting is soft or flat with little difference between the lightest and darkest areas it is less likely that areas will lose detail and be much too light or much too dark. Image-editing software can merge bracketed exposures. Using two or more exposures to ensure capture of a contrasty scene is called HDR (High Dynamic Range)

8 Light: Part of the Electromagnetic Spectrum
The human eye – and most digital sensors and/or films – will respond to wavelengths from about 400 nanometers to 700 nanometers. Most sensors and films are manufactured to respond to about the same range of wavelengths that the eye sees. But they can also respond to other wavelengths the eye cannot see, such as ultraviolet and infrared radiation.

9 Color: Additive or Subtractive
All colors can be created by mixing three primary colors. Additive primaries (red, green, and blue) RGB – used in television sets and computer monitors. The additive process mixes red, green, & blue light in varying proportions to produce any color. Mixed together at full strength, all three primaries produce white light. Additive mixing requires three separate light sources. B R G

10 Color: Additive or Subtractive
All colors can be created by mixing three primary colors. Subtractive primaries (cyan, magenta, and yellow) CMYK – used in all modern color films, as well as in printing. These colors absorb red, green, and blue wavelengths, thus subtracting them from white light. The subtractive primaries are the complementary colors to the three additive primaries. Mixed all together at full strength, the subtractive primaries absorb all colors of light, producing black (“K”). Mixed in varying proportions, they can produce any color in the spectrum. B R G

11 Color Photographs: Three Image Layers
A color photograph begins as three superimposed black-and-white negatives. Color film consists of three layers of emulsion, with each layer basically the same as in B & W film, but responding to different parts of the spectrum. The top layer is only sensitive to blue light. The middle layer records the green light. The bottom layer is exposed only by red light. Colors are created during development. The developer converts the light-sensitive silver halides in the layers to metallic silver. As it does so, the developer oxidizes and combines with dye couplers that are either built into the layers of emulsion or added during development A color transparency, for example, has three layers of dye images superimposed on a transparent support.

12 Choosing A Color Film Different types and/or brands of color film vary in their color rendition, sharpness, contrast, graininess, and other characteristics. Negative films, also called “print films”. Produce an image that is opposite in colors and density of the original scene. Designed to be printed to create a positive image, usually on paper but occasionally on a clear film base for overheads, etc. Color negatives contain an overall orange “mask” which is formed during processing to help control color balance and contrast in printing. Usually identified by the suffix – color attached to the manufacturer’s name. Agfacolor, Ektacolor, Fujicolor, Kodacolor, etc.

13 Choosing A Color Film Reversal films, also called “transparency film”.
The film exposed in the camera is processed so that the negative image is reversed to make a positive transparency with the same colors and density as the scene. Designed to be projected or viewed directly and can also be printed or scanned. 35mm transparency films also are called “slide films”. A slide is a transparency framed in cardboard or plastic mount. Generally identified by the suffix – chrome attached to the manufacturer’s name. Agfachrome, Ektachrome, Fujichrome, Kodachrome, etc.

14 Choosing A Color Film Professional films are designed for professional photographers, who often have exacting standards, especially for color balance. Professional films are shipped to the camera store when they are at their peak in terms of: Color balance Speed Contrast Professional films have a shorter expiration date and should be used immediately and/or kept refrigerated. Other characteristics of professional films may include: A heavier film base and a more durable emulsion. More flexibility in push and pull processing. Generally more expensive than comparable amateur films.

15 Choosing A Color Film Consumer oriented films are typically designed and manufactured to different color specifications. Amateur films are shipped before they reach their peak so they will reach their optimum color balance some time after they reach the retailer. Amateur films have a longer expiration date and can be stored at room-temperature.* An amateur version of a certain film may have more highly saturated color and higher contrast for added impact. The professional version of the same film may have less intense color & lower contrast for more accurate skin tones & greater subject detail. Nonprofessionals are more likely to accept some variation in color balance from one roll of film to the next. * Although they are not expected to be refrigerated, they too keep better when kept cool.

16 Film Characteristics Different types of color film vary in their color rendition, sharpness, contrast, graininess, and other characteristics. Color quality varies widely from film to film. Some films have a warm bias – others don’t. Some films produce more saturated (intense) colors than others. Dyes used by different manufacturers vary. Film speed (ISO)has an important effect on how film renders a subject. Slower films (lower ISO) generally produce: Greater sharpness. Richer Colors Generally more contrast. A less grainy appearance (less digital noise). Higher resolution. Practical considerations always come into play.

17 Exposing Color Films Correct film exposure is the primary factor in determining whether or not you will get good negatives and transparencies. For the most part, techniques for exposing B & W films also apply to exposing color films. It’s easier to get good exposures (prints) with negative films than with transparency films. Negative films have more exposure latitude (margin for error). Transparency films tolerate very little under or overexposure (1/2 to 2/3 stop). Unlike negatives, transparencies become lighter with more exposure and darker with less. There’s more margin for error (latitude) when the lighting is soft (low contrast) than when it’s hard (high contrast).

18 Exposure Latitude: How Much Can Exposures Vary?
Corrected Print Corrected Print -4 stops -3 stops -2 stops -1 stop +1 stop +2 stops +3 stops +4 stops Color Negatives – Uncorrected Contact Sheet Transparencies -4 stops -3 stops -2 stops -1 stop +1 stop +2 stops +3 stops +4 stops

19 Color films and lighting must be balanced for neutral color.
Color film records slight shifts in color balance that result from different types of light bulbs or color shifts in daylight. Unlike black & white films, color films allow relatively little contrast control. Subject lighting is a critical factor in determining color balance and contrast. The balance of colors in light is measured as color temperature on the Kelvin scale. Different color films are made for different color temperatures. Kelvin scale – a numerical description of the color of light measured in degrees Kelvin. (Also referred to as Color temperature) The absolute scale of temperature, based on the average kinetic energy per molecule of a perfect gas. Zero is equal to -273° C or -459°F

20 Color Balance: Color Temperature
Cool Colors or “Hues” + Daylight: Clear Skylight/No Direct Sun 10,000K 9,000K Daylight: Dull, Foggy Weather 8,000K 7,000K Daylight: Overcast Sky 6,000K Electronic Flash 5500K } Daylight Film 5200K } Digital Camera – White Balance for Daylight Daylight: Noon, Direct Sun 5,000K Industrial Smog 4,000K Photoflood Bulb 3400K 3200K } Tungsten Film 3,000K 3200K Photoflood Bulb 75 Watt Household Bulb 2,000K Candlelight 1,000K Warm Colors or “Hues”

21 Color Balance and the Light Source
Television Monitor Computer Monitor Blue Neon Sunset Open Shade Outdoors Midday Sunlight Fluorescent Tube Tungsten Bulb Candlelight Daylight Color Film, White Background, Gray Shirt

22 Filters for Black & White Film
With black-and-white films, colored filters are used to control the relative lightness and darkness of tones (contrast). Actual Scene In Color B & W No Filter Chapter 4 – Page 88 B & W #8 Yellow Filter B & W #25 Red Filter

23 Filters for B & W and Color Films
Skylight or Ultraviolet Neutral Density Polarizing Darkens Blue Sky Reduces Reflections Without Polarizing Filter With Polarizing Filter

24 Filters to Balance Color
Filters can correct the color balance. Daylight film – Tungsten light. Tungsten film – Daylight Daylight film – Fluorescent light Very long exposures can change color balance. Color balance is more important when making color slides than it is with color negatives.

25 Filters to Balance Color
Tungsten Film in Daylight Tungsten Film in Natural Daylight with 85B Filter Daylight Film in Natural Daylight Filter 80A Daylight Film in Tungsten Light Tungsten Film in Tungsten Light Daylight Film in Tungsten Light with 80A Filter Daylight Film in Fluorescent Light Filter FL Daylight Film in Fluorescent Light With FL Filter

26 Natural light won’t always provide the color and contrast you want.
Varies enormously depending on factors such as: Weather (and other atmospheric conditions) Time of day Location Season

27 Time of day affects color: Specifics may vary with other factors, but typically changes as shown.
6:30 A.M. 7:00 A.M. Noon Light is very cool before dawn. Light warms as the sun rises. Light becomes neutral later in the morning … 3:45 P.M. 6:00 P.M. 8:30 P.M. And stays neutral through the early afternoon. As the sun goes down, the resulting light warms up again … Then cools down after sunset.

28 Season affects color: From season to season color may change (leaves in the fall or snow in the winter), as does the color temperature of outdoor light. Winter Spring Summer Fall

29 Be Aware of the Problems!
You can only achieve maximum control over color and contrast by lighting the subject exactly the way you want – in a studio or totally dark room. Obviously this is not always practical or possible for photographers or marine technicians – Be Aware of the Problems!

30 Use your references: Photography 9th. Ed., London, Stone, Upton
Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2005 Chapter 7 / Color Pages 138 – 149

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