Presentation on theme: "Progress of ESD Lesson Plans in High School Geography in Japan -Using a TV Conferencing System for International Discussions in the Studies of Global Issues-"— Presentation transcript:
Progress of ESD Lesson Plans in High School Geography in Japan -Using a TV Conferencing System for International Discussions in the Studies of Global Issues- Shigefumi NAGATA (Mie University, Japan) At German-Japanese ESD Symposium Japan German Center, Berlin Japan German Center, Berlin August 19, 2008 Kyoto Protocol
Background of ESD Lesson Plans ○ In Japan, global issues are the main contents of geography in high school. ○ Geography teachers have been emphasizing only the most serious of the global issues. ○ Global issues are problems beyond the border and cannot be solved only in one country.
Process of The ESD Lesson Plans Learning of global environmental problem Learning of global environmental problems ○ Date : 22 Sep, 2006 (Students were in Grades 12 at Aki-Fuchu High School) ○ Theme : Global warming JAPAN: Already Ratified the Kyoto Protocol Australia: Not Ratified the Kyoto Protocol ○ Topic : The introduction of daylight savings time JAPAN: Not introduced Australia: Already introduced Aki-Fuchu High School Daylight savings time
Process of The ESD Lesson Plans Using a TV Conferencing System for International Discussions (TV conference) ○ Preparation for the TV conference [8 Sep/15 Sep, 06] 1) Lecture on basic knowledge about Global warming (45 mn.) Lecture for the supporting side about daylight savings time(45 mn.) 2)Lecture for the opposing side about daylight savings time(45 mn.) ○ Process of the TV conference [22 Sep, 06] ( 13:50-15:00 ) 1) A debate about the introduction of daylight savings time by Japanese students (30 mn.) 2) Opinion exchange (questions and answers) between Japanese and Australian students (30 mn.) 3) The final judgment by the Japanese students (10 mn.)
Lecture on basic knowledge Although light can pass, heat cannotpass through greenhouse gases. greenhouse gases sun earth
It is urgent to reduce CO2 emissions Japan has to reduce 14% of CO2 emissions by 2010, based on the Kyoto Protocol. Japan must introduce daylight savings time. Goal to be achieved by 2010 14% Lecture for the supporting side
The effects are limited, but the cost is huge The cost of introducing daylight savings time is estimated to be \100 billion. The reduction of CO2 is 440,000 t ＝ Only 0.4 ％ of the emissions Japan should reduce according to the Kyoto Protocol. Ministry of Environment 「 Stop The Global Warming 2004 」 Only! Lecture for the opposing side
Process of the TV conference -School Year 2006- Between Aki-Fuchu and Bede Polding High School (Australia) TWO SCREEN USEDDEBATERS ARE DISCUSSING OPINION EXCHANGEFINAL JUDGMENT
Subject:[Should Japan introduce daylight savings time for global warming prevention?]
Another ESD Lesson Plans -School Year 2005- Learning of global peace ○ Date : 24 Feb, 2006 (Students were in Grades 11) ○ Theme : War on Iraq ○ Process of the TV conference (13:50-15:00) 1) The opinion announcement of three Japanese students (20 mn.) 2) The opinion announcement of four Australian students (20 mn.) 3) Opinion exchange about global peace (30 mn.) OPINIONS FROM AN AUSTRALIAN STUDENT QUESTIONS FROM A JAPANESE STUDENT
The Effects of Using a TV Conferencing System in the Studies of Global Issues Method of the research The effects were measured by worksheets before and after TV conference. [ 8 Sep, 15 Sep, 22 Sep/2006] " Should Japan introduce daylight savings time?" After checked either “ agree ” or “ disagree ”, students wrote why they thought so. ※ The effects were evaluated in the cognitive domain. Purpose of the research To clarify the effects of utilizing a TV conferencing system for international discussions about global issues.
Effects in the cognitive domain Table 1 The number of students according to their opinions (33students in the international course at Aki-fuchu High School) 8 th Sep After the lecture for supporting side 15 th Sep After the lecture for opposing side 22 nd Sep After the TV conference Agree23(70%)11(33%) Disagree10(30%)22(67%) Coloring shows the number before and after TV conference.
Effects in the cognitive domain Table 2 The model of opinion change (33students in the international course at Aki-fuchu High School) 8 th Sep 15 th Sep 22 nd Sep number Agree 8 Disagree 2 Agree Disagree Agree 1 Disagree 12 Disagree 7 Agree 2 Disagree Agree Disagree 1 Coloring shows changes in their opinions by the TV conference.
Effects in cognitive domain Table 3 Transition of reasoning level 8 th Sep 15 th Sep 22 nd Sep Ｌｅｖｅｌ １（ no reason ） 2 (6%)5 (15%) 2 (6%) Ｌｅｖｅｌ 2 （ simple reasons ） 21(64%)13(39%)15(45%) Ｌｅｖｅｌ 3 （ comprehensive reasons ） 10 (30%)15 45%)16(48%) Ｌｅｖｅｌ 2 （ simple reasons ） : based on only the facts Agree : energy saving, reduction of CO2, etc Disagree : high cost, low effect, etc Ｌｅｖｅｌ 3 （ comprehensive reasons ） : based on overall ideas Agree : In order to protect the earth, we must change our life style as much as possible, etc Disagree : In order to protect the earth, we must introduce other measures of higher effectiveness and lower effects on life, etc
TV conference can improve students ’ skills of thinking and reasoning. ○ The students can think in two ways. ○ The students can think from a higher platform. ↓ In the studies of global issues, direct contact with foreign students helps to increase students ’ cognitive competences. Conclusion ： The Effects of Utilizing TV Conference