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Exercise Equipment, cont’d n Reading assignment for today, Tues Oct 11 -Ch 13 from Kreighbaum & Smith on Aerobic Equip -Journal article on evaluation of.

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Presentation on theme: "Exercise Equipment, cont’d n Reading assignment for today, Tues Oct 11 -Ch 13 from Kreighbaum & Smith on Aerobic Equip -Journal article on evaluation of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exercise Equipment, cont’d n Reading assignment for today, Tues Oct 11 -Ch 13 from Kreighbaum & Smith on Aerobic Equip -Journal article on evaluation of home ex equip n Assignment for Tues, Oct 18 -Submit two questions on aerobic or resistive equipment for discussion -Read Ch 14 from Kreighbaum & Smith on resistive exercise equip -Read pp 257-263 from Kreighbaum and Barthels on resistive exercise equipment

2 Exercise Equipment, cont’d n Plan for today, Tuesday Oct 11 -Discuss selected questions submitted by you -Review selected slides from scientific found lecture -Review ACSM journal article -Introduce Aerobic Equipment Evaluation topic

3 SGMA Stats on Ex and Sport Equip n Total Ex & Sp Equip Sales for 04 - $18 billion -Sport equipment – $14 billion Golf - $2.42 billion Baseball/softball - $475 million -Exercise equipment - $4 billion Treadmills - $1 billion or 25% of ex equip –11.3 million participants Home gyms - $305 million Exercise cycles - $200 million Elliptical machines - $140 million –3.3 million participants n Athletic footwear (not included in above) - $10 billion -Running/jogging shoes - $2.8 billion -Basketball shoes - $2.1 billion -Cross-training/fitness shoes - $1.1 billion n Source: Sporting Goods Mfg Assoc websiteSporting Goods Mfg Assoc website

4 Strength- Position Curves:

5 Resistance-Position Relationship: Remember T = WD + I  When is acceleration positive? Zero? Negative?

6 Use of Cams in Ex Equipment:

7 Sample Resistive Exercise Program n Basic Program - required -Squat with heel raise - Trunk curl (goal is 30 reps) - Bench press - Sit or bent row - Upright press - Pull downs or chins n Optional exercises -Back extension from prone position - Forearm curl -Forearm extension or dips n Note: This program incorporates the principles of bilateral and agonistic- antagonistic balance and focuses on muscular strength and endurance development of the antigravity musculature. At least two sets (one with light weight for warmup), and preferably three sets, of each exercise should be completed at 10-15 RM. n What exercises would you change or add?

8 Questionable exercises n Hyperextended back n Good morning exercise n Straight leg deadlift n Deep knee bends beyond thighs parallel n Behind neck press n Unsafe abdominal exercises

9 Spine loading – one big leg (disc and vertebral body), two smaller legs (facet) in rear. Balance the load

10 Questionable exercises: Hyperextended back “Good morning” exercise

11 Straight-legged Deadlift:

12 Squats: It depends on how you do it!

13 Behind the neck press :

14 Situp Exercises: Which methods are Potentially harmful? In what way?

15 Aerobic Exercise Equipment n Reading assignment: -Ch 13 of Kreighbaum & Smith -pp 247-256 Kreighbaum & Barthels n Preview these websites: American Council on Exercise research site Primusweb site - guidelines for equipment evaluation Federal trade commission

16 n Source: (Jung, A.P. The evaluation of home exercise equipment claims. ACSM’s Health and Fitness Journal. 4(5): 14-16,30-31. n Evaluation criteria: -Is equipment capable of producing advertised benefits (full-body workout in 5 minutes, 2 times calories burned using treadmill, improves flexibility, muscular fitness and weight loss) n Evaluation methods: -Check physiological and biomechanical principles and ACSM standards. -Review research, if available Critically review research – Are appropriate methods used? Who sponsored it? Where was research reported? -Ask professors or other experts (Barstow, Harms, Noble, Trost) -Review product reviews on internet and in fitness magazines (Club Industry, Athletic Business, Fitness Management) -Try it yourself -Interview professionals who have supervised its use -Design and conduct your own research Evaluation of Exercise Equipment

17 Relevant Questions for Equipment Selection (Criteria) n Specific criteria will vary with the specific type and purpose of the equipment n Biomechanical correlates indicative of efficacy n Physiological correlates indicative of efficacy n Psychological correlates indicative of efficacy n Does it do what it should do? n Does it do what the manufacturer claims? n Is the product effective for all people who are intended to use it (different sizes, skill levels, fitness levels, ages)? n Is it safe? n What does it cost?

18 Aerobic Exercise Equipment n Purpose - to increase aerobic capacity n Most equipment simulates walking, jogging, or running. -How about swimming? -Why not just do these instead of buying equipment? n Evaluate Efficacy of Each Type, or mode, of Equipment Below for institutional and personal use: -Cross-Country Ski Simulators Chart, p 161) -Stationary Cycles (Chart, p 165) -Treadmills (Chart, p 167) -Rowing Machines (Chart, p 170_ -Jump Ropes (Chart, p 171) -Stair Steppers (Chart, p 174) -Elliptical exercisers -Treadclimber

19 Ski Simulators

20 Stationary cycle:

21 Stationary Cycles

22 Treadmills Reviewed in Consumer Reports March 2002, p 13; Feb 2004, p 33-35 and January 2005, pp 17-21

23 Rowing Machines

24 Stepping macines

25 Stepping machines

26 Hybrid: Elliptical exercisers Evaluated in Consumer Rep March 2002, p 16 and Jan 2005, pp 17-21

27 Hybrid: Treadclimber Reviewed in Consumer reports Jan 2004, p 18

28 Which aerobic exercise mode is best? n Compare each mode relative to the following criteria -Degree of overload on cardiorespiratory system (Consumer reports Mar 2002, p 13) -Relevance to fundamental movements and ADL’s -Proportion of total body musculature involved -Degree of compressive stress on femoral head and lumbar vertebral bodies (sites of most osteoporotic fractures) -Compressive stress on patella and knee joint -Range of motion and torque at hip, knee, and lumbar spine -Motivational features (comfort, user friendly, feedback, RPE) -Likelihood of continued usage -Cost -Other?

29 Comparison of Aerobic Ex Modes



32 Approximate Cost of Aerobic Exercise Equip at Rec Complex n Rowers$1,000 n Stationary Bikes (upright & recumb) $2500 n Elliptical exercisers$3200 n SciFit Total Body Crosstrainer$4000 n Stairstepping machines$4500 n Hybrid – Cybex Arctrainer$5000 n Treadmills$5000-$8000

33 Cross-country ski simulators n Advantages -Potential for high energy expenditure -Good off-season training for skiing competition -Can talk or listen or watch -Non-impact n Disadvantages -Not easy to learn to use -Need to develop skill -None have capability to convert exercise effort into repeatable intensity -Most models have poor feedback on work intensity

34 Stationary cycles n Advantages -Inexpensive, compact, portable -Can listen, talk, and watch -No heel-strike forces (.6 g) -Good feedback on work rate and energy expenditure -Easy to use n Disadvantages -Sore butt can be a problem -Boring -Only works the legs – those with poorly conditioned leg muscles will fatigue quickly -Low carryover to ADL’s -Higher RPE than treadmill or ellipticals

35 Treadmills n Advantages -Good carryover to locomotion -Can get good aerobic overload -Can control speed and slope and can be programmable and reproducible -Weight bearing – high GRF’s -Easy to learn how to use -Greatest incidence of use in homes -Lower RPE than most other aerobic ex machines n Disadvantages -Expensive -Impacts and high VGRF may exacerbate lower extremity problems -Not portable and compact -Noisy

36 Hybrid: Elliptical Exercisers n Advantages -Can get good aerobic overload -Cheaper than treadmills & stepping machines -Lower RPE for same workout intensity -Low impact – less stress on lower extremities while allowing a weight-bearing exercise -Easy and safe to use -No motor- less noisy than treadmills -Can control speed and slope and can be programmable and reproducible n Disadvantages -Low impact and lower VGRF than treadmills -Movement is less similar to normal locomotion pattern than treadmills -Many models do not allow sufficient stride length for taller people

37 Rowing machines n Advantages -Uses large muscle mass than cycling -Greater energy energy expenditure than cycling -Can talk or listen or watch -Non-impact -Cheap -Easy to learn how to use n Disadvantages -Limited capability for incrementing and reproducing workload -Untrained rowers may fatigue quickly -Low carryover to ADL

38 Stepping machines n Advantages -Low impact -Can talk or listen or watch -Easy to learn how to use -Relatively inexpensive n Disadvantages -High knee torque and patellar compressive forces (hard on knees) -Minimal trunk and upper body involvement -Can be boring

39 Exercise Equip of Questionable Value n Devices which purport to provide great benefits with little effort n Devices to vibrate, melt, or massage away fat n Stretching, pulling, or pushing devices n Wearing or carrying weights n Others that you can think of?

40 Other websites on exercise equipment n Source for exercise equipment: -Fitnessquest home pageFitnessquest home page - n Sites including exercise equipment research : -ISU Dept of OTISU Dept of OT -Precor research pagePrecor research page -Sportscience journalSportscience journal

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