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Instructor: M Sc. Eng. Nagham Ali Hasan 2 nd lecture- 2 nd semester 2008/2009 University of Palestine College of Applied Engineering & Urban Planning Department.

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Presentation on theme: "Instructor: M Sc. Eng. Nagham Ali Hasan 2 nd lecture- 2 nd semester 2008/2009 University of Palestine College of Applied Engineering & Urban Planning Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 Instructor: M Sc. Eng. Nagham Ali Hasan 2 nd lecture- 2 nd semester 2008/2009 University of Palestine College of Applied Engineering & Urban Planning Department of Architecture, Interior Design & Planning LIGHTING DESIGN IN ARCHITECTURE “DAYLIGHT”

2 DAYLIGHT: Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 2  Importance Of The Daylight  Daylight Sources  Daylight Components  Daylight Strategies  Daylight Calculations

3 Three Components of Daylighting Design Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 3 Aesthetics (light and shadow, color, view…) Human performance (psychology and biology benefits) Energy (sustainable design)

4 Daylight for the beauty !  How much daylight (footcandles- lux)  Quality of light (glare and luminance ratios) 4 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture

5 Sky conditions: Cloudy sky : Sky having more than 70% cloud cover. Clear sky : Sky that is less than 30% cloud cover. 5 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture Overcast sky: Sky completely covered by clouds, no sun visible

6 6 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture Typical illuminances E and luminances under daylight and electric light.

7 Components of the Natural Light :  There are three separate components of the natural light that reaches any point inside a building: Fig: Components of the Natural Light  Sky Component (SC) - Directly from the sky, through an opening such as a window.  Sky Component (SC) depends on: 1. Width of the window 2. Distance between the point and window  SC varies from 0.01 to 15%

8 2. Externally Reflected Component (ERC) - Reflected off the ground, trees or other buildings. Externally Reflected Component (ERC) is small. The luminance of obstrction is taken as 10-20% that of the sky 3. Internally Reflected Component (IRC) - The inter-reflection of 1 and 2 off surfaces within the room. Internally Reflected Component (IRC): is a half of SC and is therefore significant Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 8

9 Daylight Component… Daylight factor defined as: The ratio of daylighting illumination on a horizontal point indoors to the horizontal illumination outdoors, expressed as a percentage. 9 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture For cloudy sky For clear sky

10 10

11 Key Architectural Issues The daylight factor in a particular building space depends upon a number of design factors including 1. size of daylight apertures (windows, skylights, etc.); 2. location of daylight apertures (sidelighting, toplighting, etc.); 3. access to daylight (considering the site, building, and room 4. contexts); 5. room geometry (height, width, and depth); 6. location of the point of interest relative to apertures; 7. visible transmittance (VT) of glazing; 8. reflectances of room surfaces and contents; 9. reflectances of exterior surfaces affecting daylight entering the aperture; 10. the effects of daylighting enhancements (such as light shelves). 11

12 The daylight illuminance at any given point in a building depends upon the factors noted above and: the building’s global location and prevailing climate; the time of day/month/year; the current sky conditions. Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 12 Daylight factor versus illuminance as a measure of daylighting. The illuminance values will change throughout the day, while the daylight factors will be reasonably constant throughout the day (under similar sky conditions).

13 Daylight systems: Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 13  How redirect the daylight into spaces?? 1. Windows 2. Saw-tooth 3. Monitors 4. Skylight 5. Atrium

14 Vertical windows: Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 14 Cross section showing lighting distribution from a single-sided window installation Useful daylighting will only reach a distance of 2.5 times the height of the top of the window above the work plane (usually taken at a desk height of 60 cm In a standard office building with a window height of 2.5 m, this means a maximum of about 5-7 metres.

15 Windows… Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 15 The Effect of Windows on Two Sides of a Room on DF

16  In overcast sky condition: Long thin horizontal windows will not prvide as much light per unit area as taller more vertical windows Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 16 The Effect of Window Height on DF

17 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 17 The Effect of Window Shape on DF Fig. shows how the DF varies across a room using two types of windows, both having the some total area:  (a) is for three tall windows, and  (b) is for one long, high- level window.  Window (a) will give a good open view, but (b) will provide more even daylight illumination.

18 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 18

19 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 19  Cross section showing how illumination vectors become more horizontal as sidelight travels deeper into a space

20 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 20

21 21 Light shelf & ceiling reflectors

22 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 22 Minimum Reflectance Values Typical lightshelf.

23 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 23

24 Skylight : Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 24 Double-glazed units and a range of louvered systems should be used wherever possible to reduce conducted heat losses. Appropriate no. of units is 5% of ceiling area

25 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 25

26 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 26

27 English court Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 27

28 Roof Monitor 28 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture Saw-tooth skylight

29 Saw-tooth Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 29  Saw-tooth orientation  Saw-tooth inclination

30 Saw-tooth Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 30  Saw-tooth preferred dimension  Saw-tooth reflectors

31 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 31 Mt. Airy Public Library Rooflights at Crookham Church School. (Architects: Edward Cullinan Architects.)

32 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 32

33 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 33 Use light reflectors under the light system to defuse the light through the internal space Kimbel Art Museum - Louis Kahn

34 34 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture

35 Atrium 35 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture

36 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 36 Mashroom column. Frank loyd Write

37 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 37

38 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 38 Celestins Square (The Car Bark) Central Shaft -Germany

39 Artificial light & Daylight factor  The required quantity of artificial light input is to achieve an illumance at the rear of the room comparable to, but slightly less than, the daylight illuminance near the window. For example: Artificial light (lux) Daylight factor % % % 1,0002.0% 39 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture

40 Innovated Daylighting Systems Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 40 Light Pipes : The system consists of: 1.COLLECTOR /CONCENTRATOR 2.TRANSPORT SYSTEM 3.EMITTER The Light Pipe Principle

41 Light Pipes… Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 41

42 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 42 Representative measured light levels in tall shafts at De Montfort University’s Queens Building.

43 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 43

44 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 44 فراغ معيشة قبل وبعد استخدام أنابيب الإضاءة

45 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 45 London Art museum

46 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 46

47 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 47

48 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 48  Polla museum in Japan

49 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 49 الهيليوستات نظام للاستفادة القصوى من الضوء الطبيعي قد يكون سلبي أو إيجابي فهو يتكون من مرايا وعدسات تركز الضوء الطبيعي إلى داخل فتحة جهاز النقل. The Heliostat System

50 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 50 The Heliostat System

51 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 51

52 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 52

53 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 53

54 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 54 استخدم ثلاث أجهزة هيليوستات 2x2 متر مواجهة للشمس مع استخدام مرايا بدرجة انعكاسية أعلى السقف الزجاجي فوق الفناء الداخلي كوسيلة لإضاءة الفراغ وذلك بنقل الضوء الطبيعي إلى قاعة الاستقبال. مركز تجاري - برلين المانيا

55 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 55 (movable-orientable Glass Louvres) 5-

56 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 56 The Glass Louvers may be installed as a movable or fix system

57 Daylighting calculations Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 57 Where, T is the diffuse light transmittance of the glazing including the effects of dirt, blinds, obstructions and coverings; A w is the window area (m 2 ); θ: is the vertical angle subtended at the centre of the window by unobstructed sky; A is the total area of indoor surfaces (ceiling, walls and floor, including glazing); R is the area-weighted average reflectance of ceilings, walls and windows.

58 Example:Daylighting calculations  An office room with 4*3m, height 2.5m assume that T = 0.75 and  Reflectance of the ceiling= 0.7  Reflectance of the wall= 0.5  Reflectance of the window= 0.1  Reflectance of the floor= 0.3 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 58

59 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture 59 The total area of the room is 59 m 2. The average reflectance is area weighted in the following way: (R side wall)  (Area side wall)  (0.5)(3)(2.5)  3.75 (R back wall)  (Area back wall)  (0.5)(4)(2.5)  5.00 (R front wall)  (Area front wall)  (0.5)(10 −  2.25)  3.88 (R window)  (Area window)  (0.1)(2.25)  0.23 (R ceiling)  (Area ceiling)  (0.7)(4)(3)  8.4 (R floor)  (Area floor)  (0.3)(4)(3)  3.6 —————— Total 

60 Indicative daylight factors 60 Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture.

61 61  (a) Sidelighting average DF= 20(A g /A f )% (in the area adjacent to the window to about 2Hwin away).  (b) Horizontal skylight: DF = 50(A g /A f )%, where DF is the daylight factor as a percentage, Ag is the area of glazing (m2), Af is the area of floor to be lighted (m2), and Hwin is the window head height (m).


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