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Plan for Tuesday, September 23 n Term paper topics and partnering n Review hiking boots readings and questions n Review running shoes guest presentation.

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Presentation on theme: "Plan for Tuesday, September 23 n Term paper topics and partnering n Review hiking boots readings and questions n Review running shoes guest presentation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plan for Tuesday, September 23 n Term paper topics and partnering n Review hiking boots readings and questions n Review running shoes guest presentation n Introduce exercise equipment section n Reading assignment: -Ch 11 of text; Baechle; Ch 3; Kreighbaum 2; pp 257-265; Adrian, pp 221-225 -“An Evaluation of Home Exercise Equipment Claims” -Website: SGMA International - Market Reports and StudiesSGMA International - Market Reports and Studies

2 Assignments for Thursday, Sept 25 -Submit 2 questions or concerns from readings for discussion -Pick up handout on APA format from Library -Check out interlibary loan if you have never used it before. You are likely to need it to find references for your project. -Learn how to use the “catnet” search engine

3 Biom/Phys Considerations for Fit Equip n Objectives of most fitness programs are to improve: - Flexibility, musc strength, musc endurance, C-V end, weight control, & skeletal, or bone fitness n Important conditioning principles: - Progressive overload - Specificity of training SAID principle applies to the following –Cellular demands, systemic demands evoke specific responses resulting in performance (functional) and tissue (structural) adaptations Specificity applies to many aspects of the training program, including –Muscle groups, energy system, body position, environmental conditions, movement pattern, joint position, speed, type of contraction n What is stimulus for improvement of each fitness element? n What is the context in which adaptation/improvement is most desirable?

4 Biom/Phys Considerations for Fit Equip n Remember which aspect of fitness you are working on and apply the overload and specificity principles appropriately n Muscular Strength - ability of segment to exert force (MVC) -Overload stimulus is tension, so use load <10RM -Factors affecting force application: Force-velocity relationship (see slide later) Strength-joint position relationship (combination of angle of pull and force/length relationship) (slide later) -Focus on fundamental movements – why and what are they antigravity musculature – why and what? proportionate development – what’s that? -Specificity principle applies to body position, speed (type of contraction), ROM, pre-contraction stretch condition, and movement pattern )

5 Biom/Phys Considerations for Fit Equip (3) n Mucular Endurance- ability to repeat or sustain submaximal contractions -Overload stimulus is work intensity -Use load approx 60% of max strength, or > 10 RM -Focus on fundamental movements, antigravity musculature, and proport. -Specificity principle applies to resistance, body position, speed, cadence, ROM, and total number of reps n Cardiorespiratory Endurance - Aerobic capacity -Overload stimulus is VO 2 max, Cardiac output, or Heart Rate -Repetition and resistance relative to muscular strength/endurance are important -Remember specificity principle regarding gravity, muscles involved n Bone, or skeletal, fitness -Overload stimulus is strain (normalized deformation ) Remember 4 loading modes (compression, tension, torsion, shear) Exercise in gravitational environment and emphasize resistive exercises n Flexibility – stretching exercises are not equipment- intensive

6 Force-velocity Relationship:

7 Strength- Position Curves:

8 Resistance-Position Relationship: Remember T = WD + I  When is acceleration positive? Zero? Negative?

9 Use of Cams in Ex Equipment:

10 Sample Resistive Exercise Program n Basic Program - required -Squat with heel raise - Trunk curl (goal is 30 reps) - Bench press - Sit or bent row - Upright press - Pull downs or chins n Optional exercises -Back extension from prone position - Forearm curl -Forearm extension or dips n Note: This program incorporates the principles of bilateral and agonistic- antagonistic balance and focuses on muscular strength and endurance development of the antigravity musculature. At least two sets (one with light weight for warmup), and preferably three sets, of each exercise should be completed at 10-15 RM. n What exercises would you change or add?

11 Questionable exercises n Hyperextended back n Good morning exercise n Straight leg deadlift n Deep knee bends beyond thighs parallel n Behind neck press n Unsafe abdominal exercises

12 Spine loading – one big leg (disc and vertebral body), two smaller legs (facet) in rear. Balance the load

13 Questionable exercises: Hyperextended back “Good morning” exercise

14 Straight-legged Deadlift:

15 Behind the neck press :

16 Squats: It depends on how you do it!

17 Situp Exercises: Which methods are Potentially harmful? In what way?


19 Aerobic Exercise Equipment n Purpose - to increase aerobic capacity n Most equipment simulates walking, jogging, or running. -How about swimming? -Why not just do these instead of buying equipment? n Evaluate Efficacy of Each Type of Equipment Below for institutional and personal use (see reference below): -Cross-Country Ski Simulators Chart, p 161) -Stationary Cycles (Chart, p 165) -Treadmills (Chart, p 167) -Rowing Machines (Chart, p 170_ -Jump Ropes (Chart, p 171) -Stair Steppers (Chart, p 174) n Burke, Edmund R. (1996) (Ed.) Complete Home Fitness Handbook. Human Kinetics. n n

20 Ski Simulators

21 Stationary cycle:

22 Stationary Cycles

23 Treadmills

24 Rowing Machines

25 Stairsteppers


27 Which aerobic exercise mode is best? n Discuss each mode relative to the following criteria -Degree of overload on cardiorespiratory system -Relevance to fundamental movements and ADL’s -Proportion of total body musculature involved -Degree of compressive stress on femoral head and lumbar vertebral bodies (sites of most osteoporotic fractures) -Compressive stress on patella and knee joint -Range of motion and torque at hip, knee, and lumbar spine -Motivational features (comfort, user friendly, feedback, RPE) -Likelihood of continued usage -Cost -Other?

28 Methods of Evaluation of Ex Equip n Source: (Jung, A.P. The evaluation of home exercise equipment claims. ACSM’s Health and Fitness Journal. 4(5): 14-16,30-31. n Check physiological and biomechanical principles and ACSM standards. n Review research, if available -Critically review research – Are appropriate methods used? Who sponsored it? Where was research reported? n Ask professors or other experts (Barstow, Harms, Gyurcsik, Estabrooks, Ferguson) n Review product reviews in fitness magazines (Club Industry, Athletic Business, Fitness Management) n Try it yourself. n Interview professionals who have supervised its use. n Design and conduct your own research. n Note: guidelines for selection are on Federal Trade Commission Website (

29 Cost of Aerobic Exercise Equipment at Rec Complex n Skiers$1579-$4771 n Stationary Bicycles -Uprights $1436-$2471 -Recumbents $1798-$3634 n Treadmills$4695-$7995 n Rowers$680 n Stepping machines$1779-$3199 n Elliptical$2850-$3600

30 Resistive Exercise Equipment n Simple and handy devices (plastic bottles, rubber tubing, springs) -adv - cheap, convenient -disadv - no versatility in direction, force, speed n Constant resistance training devices (free wts, body wt) -adv – convenient to use, cheap, balance needed, portable, motivation -disadv - safety, inconvenient to change wts, no versatility in direction, speed n Gravity-dependent resistance machines -adv - safety, convenient to change wts, versatility in force direction, motivation - disadv - cost, balance not required

31 Costs of Resistive Equipment n Free weights -Benches $660; dumbbell set $1,300; Rack for dumbbells $585; Olumpic weight set $1,650 n Plate loaded weight machines - $1,500-$1,700 n VRI station (variable resistance one axis) - $1,700-$3,900 n VRII station (variable resistance, 2 axes) - $2,300- $4,000 n Isokinetic (accomodating resistance) - $10,000 n Computer-controlled - $20,000

32 Gravity-dependent Resistance Wt Machine

33 Resistive Equipment (cont’d) n Variable resistance training devices -adv - variable resistance as well as direction of force app, motivation - disadv - cost, no versatility in speed n Isokinetic devices - Adv - speed specific, vary force during movement (great for rehab) -Disadv - motivation, cost n Computer-assisted devices - adv - variable resistance & speed, motivation, permanent record - disadv - cost

34 Variable Resistance Weight Machine

35 Computerized Exercise Machine

36 Pneumatic Resistance (air, two-way)

37 Isokinetic (accomodating) Resistance (one-way)

38 Hydraulic Resistance Two-way resistance

39 Elastic Resistance Bowflex:Soloflex:

40 Relevant Questions for Equipment Selection n Can you apply specificity principles appropriately? -Type of contraction, movement pattern, speed -Carryover to living in gravitational environment? n Is resistance enough to accomodate your strength ? n Does it fit different sized people? n Is it safe? n Is it uncomplicated to use (user friendly) n Is there scientific evidence to support manufacturer’s claims? n Does the equipment follow a normal neuromuscular pattern? n If variable resistance, does resistance follow normal strength-position curve? n Does it have motivation-related features?

41 Exercise Equip of Questionable Value n Devices to vibrate, melt, or massage away fat n Stretching, pulling, or pushing devices n Wearing or carrying weights n Source for exercise equipment: -Fitnessquest home pageFitnessquest home page - n Exercise equipment research -ISU Dept of OTISU Dept of OT -Precor home page with scientific studiesPrecor home page with scientific studies - Primusweb indexPrimusweb index -ACE Fitness Home PageACE Fitness Home Page

42 Aerobic Lab Equipment Costs n 1. Cybex standard stationary bicycle ($2,500) n 2. Precor elliptical exerciser ($3,275) n 3. Stairmaster stepmill ($3,200) n 4. Stairstep by Unison ($2,200) n 5. Woodway treadmill ($6,650) n 6. Cybex recumbent bicycle ($2,520) n 7. Concept II rowing machine ($680) n 8. Ski simulator by cross conditioning systems ($4,770)

43 Resistive Ex Lab Equipment Costs n 1. Cybex tricep press ($2,550) - Not variable (NV) n 2. Cybex rotary torso $2,880) - Decreasing resistance (DR) n 3. Cybex modular assist dip/chin ($3,600) - NV n 4. Cybex lat pulldown ($1,100) - NV n 5. Cybex prone leg curl ($2,170) - DR n 6. Cybex seated leg press ($3,960) - Increasing resistance (IC) n 7. Cybex chest press ($2,600) - NV n 8. Bench press free weights (bench - 665, bar - 100, 250 lb wt - 113: Total $878) n 9. Cybex row/rear delt ($2,500) - DR n 10. Cybex hip adduction ($2,430) - NV

44 Review of factors in equipment selection n Consider total budget available n Consider client characteristics -Age, gender, experience -Give them what they are interested in, but educate them and also give them what they need n Reflect on what specific exercise modes and types of resistive equipment are appropriate for fitness programs of clients n Select product models within each product type that are best buys

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