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Environmental Issues. Dear Minoo and environmental team here's Hamdi's poem (he is 15 years old) There's a feeling I get When I am all wet From the rain.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Issues. Dear Minoo and environmental team here's Hamdi's poem (he is 15 years old) There's a feeling I get When I am all wet From the rain."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Issues

2 Dear Minoo and environmental team here's Hamdi's poem (he is 15 years old) There's a feeling I get When I am all wet From the rain that falls down from heaven That the is near While the reason is so clear What will happen, we don't know until then There's a dream I see where I am upon a tree And I am looking down to the Earth Where there is nothing but fire Nothing left to admire And the children cry for help Dreams of death and tears Dreams of the worst of all tears Those are not dreams, those are just night mares The Earth is dying in our hands Pollution is reigning all lands Shrieks are all across their heads, but who cares Angels crying in the sky Pain and tears with a sign As they see the face of the Earth when they roam Seeing no birds in the day seeing the roses fading away This the world of tomorrow A world of misery and sorrow But who cares WE DO...

3 Work

4 Table of Contents: Introduction Rationale Climatic Variation: A picture of the past World Climatic Zones Climatic Zones: In the eve of Ibn Khuldun An over view of the cultural-cum-seasonal traditions of the world Prospects for cultural contacts Conclusion References

5 This study addresses about the role played by climatic variation on human life and its effects. It also tells you whether different cultures and traditions are a part of its by-product or not. Further, if you will read it will give you possible prospects for the cultural contact among different countries of the world. And many such interesting things which you will enjoy reading. The best part of this presentation is the contribution of the teacher of Social Science Learning Area and the students of Class VIII – A (40) and the spirit of their teamwork. INTRODUCTION:

6 There are different purposes of doing this project of I*EARN like: 1)To make the children aware of other international projects going on in this circle. 2) To let the children know about the cultures of other countries. 3) It will help students know much about the cultural education and will increase their awareness about the customs and traditions of different countries. 4) They can exchange their ideas with other children and can know their living style. RATIONALE

7 If we peep into the retrospect what we find that climatic variation has dominantly affected the human activities with devastating results. For understanding the relations between the two strands, interesting historical events have been mentioning here in order to calculate the costs and benefits of this aspect. CLIMATIC VARIATION: A PICTURE OF THE PAST:

8 In the mid-1970's, weather - or, more accurately, climate - suddenly seemed to emerge as a new factor in the history of mankind. In the wake of summer droughts in Europe, heavy rains in arid Saudi Arabia, a disastrously dry winter in the Rocky Mountains, savage blizzards in New England and the deadly spread of deserts in Africa. Some writers, openly alarmist, predict that a new Ice Age is upon us, while others, looking to sales, darkly blame nuclear explosions or hint at imaginative conspiracies. Even the more restrained observers suggest that changes in weather patterns will have a disturbing impact on modern history.

9 Actually, weather has always played an important role in history. Taking the example of the great Mediterranean Greek civilization of Mycenae - which abruptly fell about 1200 B.C. - Bryson established some guideposts from relatively verifiable data of that same historical period but in different parts of the globe: an emigration of people from Libya to Egypt, a series of horrendous floods in Hungary an abnormal rising of the Caspian Sea, and so on. Why did the Mycenaean people leave? Was it an invasion of Dorians from the north? A good example of this is the recent desertification of the Sahel in north central Africa, where overgrazing plus a variation in climate patterns produced almost six years of famine conditions

10 Another example - from both the Bible and the Koran - is Joseph, who laid aside seven years' worth of food in Egyptian granaries in preparation for a coming period of famine. Joseph implicitly recognized the decreasing productivity of the soil resulting from a discernible climatic variation: the slow but inevitable course of desiccation - similar to that now taking place in Africa.

11 Climate, together with human demands on the environment, has already had an immense, if not always recognized, impact on the history of the Middle East Herdsmen, for example, have let their goats and sheep overgraze Middle East pasture lands for millennia, and both armies and priesthoods have stripped such regions as ancient Anatolia and Syria of their forests. Combined with climatic changes over the same periods, such practices transformed many areas - where civilizations once flourished - into useless deserts.

12 Where exceptional individuals learned or foresaw impending changes in climate and were able to take action, the results were quite different Noah, for example, was alerted to the Flood - possibly a result of storms in the region of Iraq with the addition of melting snow from the Caucasus Mountains - and miraculously understood what his neighbors obviously did not: that such climatic variations can change men's lives - and in a remarkably short time. On August 20 in AD. 636, for example, a perverse change in the weather helped determine the outcome of a battle in Syria that, in turn, became a watershed in the history of the Middle East.

13 The battle, which took place on the Yarmuk River near the Golan Heights in Southern Syria, pitted the armies of the Byzantine emperor Heraclius against thousands of Muslim Arabs, and the outcome - a resounding Arab victory - reshaped the known world. For Arab victory that day erased forever the power of Byzantium in Syria, and opened the way for the subsequent conquest of Egypt and all of North Africa by the armies of Islam. Eventually the victory at Yarmuk also opened the eastern Mediterranean to the Umayyad dynasty, led to the conquest of Spain and, still later, to three sieges of the greatest Christian city: Constantinople. The memory of the glorious day at Yarmuk would even echo in the 20th-century Arab struggle against colonialism. A key factor in the battle of the Yarmuk River was a change in the weather.

14 Such perversity of weather is not uncommon in the history of the Middle East. In 717 the Umayyad dynasty, bent on conquering Constantinople, was turned back as much by the fickleness of miserable winter weather as by the Byzantines' secret weapon - "Greek fire" and the great rampart system surrounding the city. In 1098 unseasonable cold nearly thwarted the first European Crusaders' siege of Antioch, and in 1529 one Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent - turned back from Vienna after unseasonable rainstorms in the Danube Valley bogged his cannon down in the mud. Half a century later the Christian Holy League defeated the Ottomans in a naval battle at Lepanto, but could not follow up their advantage because of a severe storm on the morrow of the victory.

15 Commanders of those periods, of course, had no weather satellites to help them time their campaigns, but they were, nevertheless, acutely aware that weather could have catastrophic effects on their plans and they did what they could. From earliest times, they attempted to placate the gods, sought the opinions of soothsayers and astrologists, and called upon various holy men to ascertain weather conditions. But such activities provided only psychological solace, not practical help.

16 Today, modem science is gradually changing this state of affairs. The scientific revolution has not only provided a rational understanding of curious and perverse weather changes but, by averaging out such changes, discerned predictable patterns of climate. Gathering together barometric, temperature and rainfall data in many parts of the world over many decades, meteorologists have determined that climate - the long-term accumulation of weather changes - occurs in definable patterns. If carefully analyzed, these patterns may foretell what the inhabitants of a certain region can generally expect over a period of days and even months. Such data can also give insights into the climatological probabilities for the future - perhaps even years ahead.

17 Existing in any case on a narrow margin of economic subsistence, nomads normally migrate from the drier regions to the more verdant and when extraordinary variations in climate occur, mass movement toward more fertile regions is inevitable - with results that are politically devastating. The Persian-Turanian enmity, lasting for centuries and dearly articulated in the 10th-century epic Shah-name (The Book of Kings), may be an example of this; it seems to have had its roots in just such extraordinary pressures by the nomadic Turanian cultures on the urban Persian civilization. Because climatic variations apparently dried up their normal grazing grounds, various Turkish tribes east of the Oxus River pushed west, crossed the natural boundary of the river, and swarmed over portions of pre-Islamic Persia's urban culture.

18 At the other end of the climatic spectrum, excessively moist years in normally vegetated areas can create abnormally rich nutrients for mosquitoes, grasshoppers or rodents and, as a result, lead to deadly plagues. In the Middle Ages the fertile oasis of Damascus in Syria had a continuing reputation for being plague-ridden, probably malarial. And although an abundance of water is of course vital to agriculture, it can also result in the spread of liver flukes which carry the disease called bilharzia, a problem in Egypt and some other Middle Eastern countries.

19 The most common misery and the worst suffering attributable to unexpected climatic variations are those which arise when climatic change alters vast agricultural regions generally considered fertile - the so-called "breadbaskets." Every pre- modern Middle East power had its major source of food: the Byzantines' was Anatolia and Syria; the 'Abbasids had the lower Tigris-Euphrates region plus Khurasan and Bukhara; and the Ottomans possessed Egypt. But there was also an inherent political danger in such agricultural dependence, and it eventually materialized. When climatic patterns changed, the farmers, unable and unwilling to migrate, could be provoked into rebellion against the established authorities. Nomads could move on, but for sedentary peasants, flight from their ancestral homes was simply not an acceptable alternative.

20 One example of political upheaval possibly rooted in climatic variations is the Jelali revolts of the late 16th century in Ottoman Anatolia. Following a period of several decades of poor growing seasons and severe desiccation, the Anatolian peasants rebelled for more than a dozen years, striking terror into the Ottoman government and almost severing Anatolia from the Empire.

21 Have you ever wondered why one area of the world is a desert, another a grassland, and another a rainforest? Why are there different forests and deserts, and why are there different types of life in each area? The answer is climate. Climate is the characteristic condition of the atmosphere near the earth's surface at a certain place on earth. It is the long- term weather of that area (at least 30 years). This includes the region's general pattern of weather conditions, seasons and weather extremes like hurricanes, droughts, or rainy periods. Two of the most important factors determining an area's climate are air temperature and precipitation. World biomes are controlled by climate. The climate of a region will determine what plants will grow there, and what animals will inhabit it. All three components, climate, plants and animals are interwoven to create the fabric of a biome. WORLD CLIMATIC ZONES

22 The sun's rays hit the equator at a direct angle between 23 ° N and 23 ° S latitude. Radiation that reaches the atmosphere here is at its most intense. In all other cases, the rays arrive at an angle to the surface and are less intense. The closer a place is to the poles, the smaller the angle and therefore the less intense the radiation. Our climate system is based on the location of these hot and cold air-mass regions and the atmospheric circulation created by trade winds and westerlies. Trade winds north of the equator blow from the northeast. South of the equator, they blow from the southeast. The trade winds of the two hemispheres meet near the equator, causing the air to rise. As the rising air cools, clouds and rain develop. The resulting bands of cloudy and rainy weather near the equator create tropical conditions. SOME FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE

23 Westerlies blow from the southwest on the Northern Hemisphere and from the northwest in the Southern Hemisphere. Westerlies steer storms from west to east across middle latitudes. Both westerlies and trade winds blow away from the 30 ° latitude belt. Over large areas centered at 30 ° latitude, surface winds are light. Air slowly descends to replace the air that blows away. Any moisture the air contains evaporates in the intense heat. The tropical deserts, such as the Sahara of Africa and the Sonoran of Mexico, exist under these regions.

24 The Earth rotates about its axis, which is tilted at 23.5 degrees. This tilt and the sun's radiation result in the Earth's seasons. The sun emits rays that hit the earth's surface at different angles. These rays transmit the SEASONS

25 The Köppen Climate Classification System is the most widely used for classifying the world's climates. Most classification systems used today are based on the one introduced in 1900 by the Russian-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen. Köppen divided the Earth's surface into climatic regions that generally coincided with world patterns of vegetation and soils. KÖPPEN CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

26 The Köppen system recognizes five major climate types based on the annual and monthly averages of temperature and precipitation. Each type is designated by a capital letter. A - Moist Tropical Climates are known for their high temperatures year round and for their large amount of year round rain. B - Dry Climates are characterized by little rain and a huge daily temperature range. Two subgroups, S - semiarid or steppe, and W - arid or desert, are used with the B climates. C - In Humid Middle Latitude Climates land/water differences play a large part. These climates have warm,dry summers and cool, wet winters.

27 D - Continental Climates can be found in the interior regions of large land masses. Total precipitation is not very high and seasonal temperatures vary widely. E - Cold Climates describe this climate type perfectly. These climates are part of areas where permanent ice and tundra are always present. Only about four months of the year have above freezing temperatures. Further subgroups are designated by a second, lower case letter which distinguish specific seasonal characteristics of temperature and precipitation. f - Moist with adequate precipitation in all months and no dry season. This letter usually accompanies the A, C, and D climates.

28 m - Rainforest climate in spite of short, dry season in monsoon type cycle. This letter only applies to A climates. s - There is a dry season in the summer of the respective hemisphere (high-sun season). w - There is a dry season in the winter of the respective hemisphere (low-sun season).

29 To further denote variations in climate, a third letter was added to the code. a - Hot summers where the warmest month is over 22°C (72°F). These can be found in C and D climates. b - Warm summer with the warmest month below 22°C (72°F). These can also be found in C and D climates. c - Cool, short summers with less than four months over 10°C (50°F) in the C and D climates. d - Very cold winters with the coldest month below - 38°C (-36°F) in the D climate only. h - Dry-hot with a mean annual temperature over 18°C (64°F) in B climates only. k - Dry-cold with a mean annual temperature under 18°C (64°F) in B climates only.

30 Climates are described by agreed-upon codes or by descriptive terms that are some what loosely defined but nevertheless useful. On a global scale, climate can be spoken of in terms of zones, or belts, that can be traced between the equator and the pole in each hemisphere. To understand them, the circulation of the upper atmosphere, or stratosphere, must be considered, as well as that of the lower atmosphere, or troposphere, where weather takes place. Upper atmospheric phenomena were little understood until the advent of such advanced technology as rocketry, high-altitude aircraft, and satellites. Ideally, hot air can be thought of as rising by convection along the equator and sinking near the poles. Thus, the equatorial belt tends to be a region of low pressure and calms, interrupted by thunderstorms

31 Three major climate groups show the dominance of special combinations of air-mass source regions. These climates are controlled by equatorial a tropical air masses. THREE BASIC CLIMATE GROUPS. GROUP I LOW-LATITUDE CLIMATES

32 Rainfall is heavy in all months. The total annual rainfall is often more than 250 cm. (100 in.). There are seasonal differences in monthly rainfall but temperatures of 27°C (80°F) mostly stay the same. Humidity is between 77 and 88%. High surface heat and humidity cause cumulus clouds to form early in the afternoons almost every day. The climate on eastern sides of continents are influenced by maritime tropical air masses. These air masses flow out from the moist western sides of oceanic high-pressure cells, and bring lots of summer rainfall. The summers are warm and very humid. It also rains a lot in the winter Average temperature: 18 °C (°F) Annual Precipitation: 262 cm. (103 in.) Latitude Range: 10° S to 25 ° N Global Position: Amazon Basin; Congo Basin of equatorial Africa; East Indies, from Sumatra to New Guinea. TROPICAL MOIST CLIMATES (AF) RAINFOREST

33 A seasonal change occurs between wet tropical air masses and dry tropical air masses. As a result, there is a very wet season and a very dry season. Trade winds dominate during the dry season. It gets a little cooler during this dry season but will become very hot just before the wet season. Temperature Range: 16 °C Annual Precipitation: 0.25 cm. (0.1 in.). All months less than 0.25 cm. (0.1 in.) Latitude Range: 15 ° to 25 ° N and S Global Range: India, Indochina, West Africa, southern Africa, South America and the north coast of Australia WET-DRY TROPICAL CLIMATES (AW) SAVANNA

34 These desert climates are found in low-latitude deserts approximately between 18° to 28° in both hemispheres. these latitude belts are centered on the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, which lie just north and south of the equator. They coincide with the edge of the equatorial subtropical high pressure belt and trade winds. Winds are light, which allows for the evaporation of moisture in the intense heat. They generally flow downward so the area is seldom penetrated by air masses that produce rain. This makes for a very dry heat. The dry arid desert is a true desert climate, and covers 12 % of the Earth's land surface. Temperature Range: 16° C Annual Precipitation: 0.25 cm (0.1 in). All months less than 0.25 cm (0.1 in). Latitude Range: 15° - 25° N and S. Global Range: southwestern United States and northern Mexico; Argentina; north Africa; south Africa; central part of Australia. DRY TROPICAL CLIMATE (BW) DESERT BIOME

35 Climates in this zone are affected by two different air- masses. The tropical air-masses are moving towards the poles and the polar air-masses are moving towards the equator. These two air masses are in constant conflict. Either air mass may dominate the area, but neither has exclusive control. Dry Midlatitude Climates (BS) steppe Characterized by grasslands, this is a semiarid climate. It can be found between the desert climate (BW) and more humid climates of the A, C, and D groups. If it received less rain, the steppe would be classified as an arid desert. With more rain, it would be classified as a tallgrass prairie. GROUP II MID-LATITUDE CLIMATES

36 This is a wet-winter, dry-summer climate. Extremely dry summers are caused by the sinking air of the subtropical highs and may last for up to five months. Plants have adapted to the extreme difference in rainfall and temperature between winter and summer seasons. Sclerophyll plants range in formations from forests, to woodland, and scrub. Eucalyptus forests cover most of the chaparral biome in Australia. Fires occur frequently in Mediterranean climate zones. Temperature Range: 7 °C (12 °F) Annual Precipitation: 42 cm (17 in). Latitude Range: 30° - 50° N and S MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE (CS) CHAPARRAL BIOME

37 Global Position: central and southern California; coastal zones bordering the Mediterranean Sea; coastal Western Australia and South Australia; Chilean coast; Cape Town region of South Africa.

38 Dry Midlatitude Climates (Bs) grasslands biom These dry climates are limited to the interiors of North America and Eurasia. Ocean air masses are blocked by mountain ranges to the west and south. This allows polar air masses to dominate in winter months. In the summer, a local continental air mass is dominant. A small amount of rain falls during this season. Annual temperatures range widely. Summers are warm to hot, but winters are cold. Temperature Range: 31 °C (56°F). Annual Precipitation: 81 cm. (32 in.). Latitude Range: 30° - 55° N and S Global Position: western North America (Great Basin, Columbia Plateau, Great Plains); Eurasian interior.

39 Moist Continental Climate (Cf) Deciduous Forest biom This climate is in the polar front zone - the battleground of polar and tropical air masses. Seasonal changes between summer and winter are very large. Daily temperatures also change often. Abundant precipitation falls throughout the year. It is increased in the summer season by invading tropical air masses. Cold winters are caused by polar and arctic masses moving south. Temperature Range: 31 °C (56 ° F) Average Annual Precipitation: 81 cm (32 in). Latitude Range: 30° - 55° N and S (Europe: 45° - 60° N). Global Position: eastern parts of the United States and southern Canada; northern China; Korea; Japan; central and eastern Europe.

40 Polar and arctic air masses dominate these regions. Canada and Siberia are two air-mass sources which fall into this group. A southern hemisphere counterpart to these continental centers does not exist. Air masses of arctic origin meet polar continental air masses along the 60th and 70th parallels. GROUP III HIGH-LATITUDE CLIMATES

41 This is a continental climate with long, very cold winters, and short, cool summers. This climate is found in the polar air mass region. Very cold air masses from the arctic often move in. The temperature range is larger than any other climate. Precipitation increases during summer months, although annual precipitation is still small. Much of the boreal forest climate is considered humid. However, large areas in western Canada and Siberia receive very little precipitation and fall into the subhumid or semiarid climate type. Temperature Range: 41 °C (74 °F), lows; -25 °C (-14 °F), highs; 16 °C (60 °F). Average Annual Precipitation: 31 cm (12 in). Latitude Range: 50° - 70° N and S. Global Position: central and western Alaska; Canada, from the Yukon Territory to Labrador; Eurasia, from northern Europe across all of Siberia to the Pacific Ocean. BOREAL FOREST CLIMATE (DFC) TAIGA BIOM

42 The tundra climate is found along arctic coastal areas. Polar and arctic air masses dominate the tundra climate. The winter season is long and severe. A short, mild season exists, but not a true summer season. Moderating ocean winds keep the temperatures from being as severe as interior regions. Temperature Range: -22 °C to 6 °C (-10 °F to 41 °F). Average Annual Precipitation: 20 cm (8 in). Latitude Range: 60° - 75° N. Global Position: arctic zone of North America; Hudson Bay region; Greenland coast; northern Siberia bordering the Arctic Ocean. TUNDRA CLIMATE (E) TUNDRA BIOME

43 Highland climates are cool to cold, found in mountains and high plateaus. Climates change rapidly on mountains, becoming colder the higher the altitude gets. The climate of a highland area is closely related to the climate of the surrounding biome. The highlands have the same seasons and wet and dry periods as the biome they are in Average Annual Precipitation: 23 cm (9 in.) Latitude Range: found all over the world Global Position: Rocky Mountain Range in North America, the Andean mountain range in South America, the Alps in Europe, Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa, the Himalayans in Tibet, Mt. Fuji in Japan. HIGHLAND CLIMATE (H) ALPINE BIOME

44 CLIMATIC ZONES: IN THE EVE OF IBN KHULDUN: The natural environment of man effects on his personal and social habits. Ibn khaldun was one of the important political thinkers who propounded the theory about geographical and atmospheric background and human activities.

45 He meticulously divides the habitable earth, known to him, into seven zones, and includes in them not merely Africa, the Arab regions and the region of southern and eastern Asia as far as northern China, but also Spain, France, England and practically the whole of Europe. It is on such world-wide data that he bases his conclusions. He begins with the axiom that north and south (the latter, meaning the equatorial regions) represent opposite extremes of cold and heat, while the regions in the center of the two are moderate in temperature giving rise to arts, crafts and sciences, distinguished by fine buildings, foodstuffs and fruits and even the animals living in these regions are of well- proportioned bodily character. Human beings are also well proportioned, moderately fair in color and of good qualities. They use the very best of tools and implements, and their coins are made up of the two leading minerals, gold and silver.

46 On the other hand, in regions away from the moderate zones either south or north, the conditions are different. Those living in south, away from the temperate zone, have their buildings made up of clay and reed. Ibn khuldun says that the conditions of those living right in the north, is also of a low standard, except those who have adopted Christianity or Islam as their way of life. He says that there are exceptions to this rule especially in the regions which are situated close to the sea, for the resultant humidity moderates the influence of the regional heat. Such for instance, are the Yemen, South Arabia, Hijaz, Yamama etc.

47 He is quite candid that the color of the skin is not due to the race being descended from white or a colored progenitor like Ham or Japheth, but to the composition of their caused by great which is again the result of the sun being constantly at the zenith near the equator. Similarly the northern races have blue eyes, freckled skin and blonde hair owing to the composition of the air.

48 It is therefore natural that the inhabitants of the central zones have the capacity of living an organized existence needing not merely political groupings called states but also political leadership culminating in royal authority. They also respond to religious teachings as well as natural sciences. Among these Ibn khaldun counts Greek, Romans, Persians, Jews, Chinese and Indians.

49 It hardly needs any proof that the quality and quantity of food is directly effected by the fertility of the soil as well as the amount of space which can be set aside for cultivation. There are those who live on the fringe of deserts, or weather there is not enough space for cultivation, and they have to work harder and generally live meat and milk products.

50 They are therefore physically healthier and mentally more alert, while those who have plentiful of grain and other varieties of food are generally culler and prone to great comfort. For the consumption of excessive quantities of food generate superfluous matter causing the dullness of mental capacities, and this naturally reacts on the social life of the people. Ibn khuldun’s theories regarding the effect of climate on human societies is interspersed with illustration from the animal world as well as the history of various human races.

51 It should be clear that this is not hard and fast rule to be believed on it but the possibilities can be here. We live are living in the world of science and technology and those countries working hard and with consistency are reaping the benefits of materialistic and intellectual development.

52 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CULTURAL-CUM-SEASONAL TRADITIONS OF THE WORLD: This part of the project is related with the culture and traditions of those countries having uniqe and interesting aspects in this regard. The study of the traditional spiritual culture of the Romanian people starts from the study of beliefs, customs and ancient magic practices that have been preserved, along with Christian cult practices, to this present day. Under the hard conditions of our historical existence this has been an important moral support. Since times immemorial ancient beliefs and customs have been transmitted and they have existed in close connection to the daily working activities and the wish for fulfillment of the Romanian people.

53 Within the area stretching between the Carpathians, the Danube and the Pontus Euxinus the memory of such customs goes back a long time. The main symbols of these traditions have been the sun, the earth, the water and the air, primary sacred elements whose importance has lasted to the present day. Our folklore has traditions dating back from the times of the Roman Dacians. These beliefs make the originary fund of the Romanian spiritual culture. The customs are evryday practices, with traditional individual and collective rules, through which fertility and wealth, human and animal health are invoked and natural and supernatural evils are kept away.

54 A great number of these practices are reminiscences of ancient agrarian rites off fertility and passage.In the creations and manifestations of the traditional folk culture the profane co-exists in close relation with the sacred. In his book 'from Zalmoxis to Genghis –Kan', Mircea Eliade says:' All the religious conceptions of the Roman Dacians are at least contemporary with those we decipher in the folk traditions.' A basic manifestation of these customs is the traditional tryptic : charms, magic, incantations.

55 In incantations we find the desire to cure the sick through the traditional medical magic. Al. Rosetti discovered that some incantations are on a similar pattern with some ancient Latin ones; 'A comparison between the constituents of the Romanian magic incantations and those existing in the Roman empire proves an undeniable parallelism between the two'.In fact the very word descantec has a Latin etymology, coming from th e word discantare. The incantations were accompanied by some ( medicine, concoctions, plant mixtures), whose curing properties were derived from the the belief accordind to which the water, together with the earth, the air and the fire, is one of the primordial elements of nature. Another important argument is the fact that in the Carpathian-Danubian-Pontic space even Plato registered, the importance of the exorcism in "Carmide".

56 Enchantments were magic practices used in the past, in which there were expressed, also through exorcism, wishes for fulfilment in social or individual life, for preventing or banishing the evil from enemies or witches. As appendage in practising them, there were used metal objects or made from iron and silver, and also spontaneous or cultivated plants: sweet basil, chicory. The spells were considered "evil" practices, in which, for fulfilling wishes and banishing pains, you resorted to witches, who conjured evil spirits. Many ancient traditions are today connected with the settlement. For the settlement and the dwellings we have prevalent Latin-Roman base terms: "casa"( casa (house) "fenestra"(fereastra (window) "pariet"(perete (wall) "mensa"(masa (table) "coperio"(acoperis (roof) "scala"(scara (stair) "scandula"(scandura (piece of wood) The three territorial limits with magic load were the household, the field's gate and the village border.

57 Building the house posed a lot of problems beginning with choosing the place, the material used and especially laying the foundation, which supposed sacrificing a life, like in "mesterul manole", ritual with a great spread (m. Eliade). Also finishing the constructions meant some traditional habits: adorning the roof with green branches, putting in corners plants to banish the supernatural evil.

58 The dacian-roman inheritances are felt especially in the customs directly in contact with the cycle of life (birth, marriage and death), the ones connected to death being prevalent. During the formation and christianizing of the romanian people, the ritual of incineration from the traditional dacian-roman fund was abandoned, by the generalization of the ritual of inhumation completed by christian cultural practices. Some prechristian practices survived, being adopted by dacian-roman population in the process of leavening the folk romanian culture. So, at the thracians, when a child was born one would cry, and when someone died one would joke and have fun, celebrating in this way getting rid of the lives' burdens. Those two rituals are certified by the archeological discoveries not only during the time of the roman occupation from dacia traiana, but also during the migrations. The games of deathwatch are an eloquent example of this circulation.

59 Especially the games of deathwatch from vrancea conjures up the ancient ritual of incineration of the dead, by the purifying and protective power of a burning fire at the funeral, around which people that wore {antropomorfe} and {zoomorfe} masks, named "unchiesi" (uncles), gamboled. Another game, "chiperul" was also danced around the fire. The dancers, arranged in indian file, were thrown in fire, but, first of all, the dead was taken through fire as well. "cantecul bradului" ("the song of the pine tree") and "cantecul zorilor" ("the song of dawn") are connected to the burial traditions. "the song of dawn" doesn't have a correspondent in the folklore of other people.

60 Through this song, the dawns are prayed not to hurry so that they could finish the preparations, for the long journey the man had to cover to the other world. "the song of the pine tree" is part of the ceremonial of the {tineri necasatoriti} single, the pine tree symbolizing the youth of the one who died and as well the fact that the dead will get married on the other world. Some researchers maintain their belief that the pine tree replaced the mediterranean cypress, which the romans used to put in front of their house and at the head of the dead, announcing death. Also, they used to sprinkle the tombs with water (ceremonial named at greeks hydrophoria). This custom is certified at the geto-dacs by what was found in their tombs: some broken ritual vases, destined to "soothe" the thirst of the dead.

61 The gets were the ones who cultivated some kind of aquatic pantheism, attributing the water miraculous powers. For them the principal of life, that impels {materia}, identifies with the water. Humans returned to their primary element, the water, in order to achieve a new life. Another reason for the proverbial thirst we have mentioned previously is that the faith has preserved during the roman conquest. The principal holidays from our time have been established depending on older traditions, in connection with the year's cycle.

62 So, the winter holidays marked the beginning of the year, the spring holidays the beginning of the cycle of vegetation, the summer holidays were meant to protect the crop from the nature's forces and with the occasion of the final holidays, the autumn ones, the first fruits were offered as an offering for the dead. The perrenial character of these holidays is to be notuced. Their functions were essential: they kept up the relationship with the sacred, reproduce the community group and harmonise society with the universe.

63 There is a strong traditional heritage related to the first celebration of the year. With some primitive archaic peoples the beginning of the year was celebrated at the spring equinox, when the agricultural labours started. For the Romans,during Romulus, when the primitive agrarian calendar was in function, having a 10-month year division, the beginning of the year was the 1st of March( the Ides of March). Only under Numa pompilius did this date change to the Ides of January.

64 The holiday of the new year was as well the holiday of Ianus. From here derives the agrarian character and the name of the first month – "ianuarie" (january). Ianus, the god with two faces, personified the past time and the future time, therefore the beginning. That is why the day of Ianus's auspices brought to the romans a feeling of a sacred excitement, of rebirth of time and life. Some time later, due to the julian calendar, introduced by caesar in 46 b. Hr., The holiday was set for good on the first of january, being spread in the whole roman world, including dacia. With the occasion of this holiday the house was adorned with green branches (of laurel, in the mediterranean spaces, of pine in our parts), the children, the relatives, the municipal magistrates, the counsels and the emperor would receive gifts ("strenae") and well whishes ("oratio", "vota"). These gifts had the magical role of assuring in the mew year the fulfilling of all hopes for the ones who received them.

65 The existence of these traditions on the dacian territory is proved by several gifts (equestrian figurines made of terracotta equipped with wheels – sigilla; piggy for money, bronze rings) found at potaissa, gilau, cristesti, sucidava etc. Even our well wish "iti doresc un an nou fericit" (i wish you a happy new year) derives from latin: "annum novum faustum felicem tibi (mihi)".

66 The roman christianity has tried to cancel the memory of the customs connected to the heathen gods, and to oppose them a adequate holiday, establishing in this way christmas exactly when "saturnalia", "dies natalia solis invicti" and "calendele lui ianuarie" were. The survivals in the roman cultural fund are more obvious in the zones inside the carpathians than in the ones outside the carpathians due to the creations and manifestations of daco-roman tradition.

67 The more obvious ones are the christmas carols and the new year's wishes. Another holiday that dates from the roman time is the "cosmadionul" – the cosma and damian saints, celebrated on the first of july, these two saints being the ones who made, when they were not christians, the poison for saint gheorghe; it's a sin to work on their day. As well in this cycle of ancient holidays you will find "rusaliile" – during it two other christian holidays take simultaneously place: "pogorarea duhului sfant" and "sfanta treime" - the holy trinity, and also a complex of rituals dedicated to fairies and an important episode from the cult of dead ("mosii de rusalii"); this holiday is seen at the greeks as well, being called "ingenuncherea" (the kneeling).

68 The old agrarian rituals left their marks on many folk traditions. So are the magical rituals for invoking the rains, for the fecundation of the cows, for the fertility of the fields: "sangeorzul", "plugarul", "dragaica". The origin of some folk dances like "hora" and "calusarii" must be found in the same old substratum. In these dances persist the memory of some magical medicine rituals, some initiating rituals and of an ancient cult of the sun, as well as some mythical symbols of nature. In the traco-dacian substratum {consta) the originality and personality of the romanian people, while the roman {sorginte} has invested us with the universal vocation of the romans.

69 Regarding winter activities, Lebanon is one of the few winter sports centers in the Middle East and certainly the most extensive. The season begins in December and continues until April in a winter landscape surprising in its variety and beauty. The largest resorts have hotels, chalets and other facilities, including good ski lifts. There are six winter resorts: The Cedars (2,300 meters), Faraya/Ouyoun es Siman (1,890 meters), Laklouk (1,740 meters), Faqra (1,750 meters), Qanat Bakiche (1,900 meters) and Zaarour (1,900 meters). Moreover, winter in Lebanon is the best time to visit the coastal cities of history- Tripoli, Byblos, Sidon, and Tyre- or even the snow bound Roman temples of the mountains. Not only does a winter sky add drama to old stones, but these sites can also be pretty hot on a summer day, and the mild winter temperature can make a sightseeing tour through ruins more enjoyable. As for familial winter activities, most of them-especially in the mountains- are centered in one room dominated by a huge chimney or stove

70 This room becomes the heart of all domestic arrangements in winter. The lady of the house usually sits on a thick carpet near the chimney/stove and cooks. Meals are served in this room, too. At night, mattresses are spread around the chimney/stove and all the family and some neighbors gather with a kettle of tea or coffee beside them. Concerning summar activities, Lebanon's long varied coastline and its Mediterranean climate make it an ideal place for water sports. Numerous resort complexes, beaches and swimming clubs have aquatic amusements and sports on offer, including water skiing, surfing, underwater fishing, sailing, scuba diving and snorkeling.

71 Furthermore, the Lebanese fish, go on picnics to nearby picturesque places such as local rivers, public gardens…, or walk with friends along the seaside “corniche”, dodging sea spray and wondering at the clarity of mountains. Often on these walks, people run across an enterprising vendor selling roasted chestnuts from a pushcart, or sometimes it is a cart seller offering kidney beans spiced with cumin.

72 CONSTRUCTIONS AND PATTERNS OF HOUSES:

73 The local climate affects the actual environmental conditions of the houses. In a cold climate, or in the winter of temperate climate, passive solar heating, good insulation and careful control of air infiltration would reduce the heating requirements. In a hot-dry climate the massive building, evaporative cooling and good shading may succeed in ensuring comfort. In warm-humid climate as in coastal cities in Lebanon, the designer should ensure that the indoor temperature does not become higher than the outdoor. Adequate ventilation may ensure this by removing any excess heat input, but this is not enough. Undue increase of ceiling temperature may be prevented by: using a reflective roof surface ensuring adequate ventilation of the attic space using reflective surfaces both for the underside of the roof and for the top of the ceiling using some resistive insulation for or on the ceiling

74 NAME AND STYLE OF GARBS DURING THE DIFFERENT SEASONS: In winter, people wear woolen long sleeved shirts, pullover, coats, or jackets. They cover their heads with woolen or water resistible caps and their hands with gloves. They also wear woolen socks and high- heeled boots which prevent their legs from water. In summer, they wear light and bright cotton shirts, blouses, socks and underwear to prevent sweating because of the high degree of humidity in summer season.

75 SPECIAL FOOD: Food seems particularly significant during the Lebanese winter. In late summer, people traditionally store up on provisions for the cold days ahead. Families who live in villages and modern apartments in cities prepare their winter supply of burghul (cracked wheat), lentils, chick peas, dried beans, oil and olives. At autumn, city- dwellers return to their native villages to pick olives and to secure their all-important provisions of olive oil. In rural areas, qawarma(fatty meat) is boiled with salt and preserved in jars.

76 Firewood is gathered, and jam is made from quinces and apples. Figs, which have been drying in the open air, are combined with sugar, pine nuts, sesame seeds and mastic to make delicious jam. Another traditional winter food, kishk (a combination of crushed wheat and yogurt dried in the sun) is prepared. During the summer season, light dishes are favored to keep the body fresh. People prefer various types of mezza such as tabbouly, fattouch, baba ghannouj, mtabbal, pickles, kebbe…., and grilled meat or fish. As for desserts, fresh local juice and fruit such as watermelon, grapes, lemon, peach, cherries, blueberries, strawberries, figs….in addition to several ice cream flavors are offered.

77 NEW YORK CITY’S CLIMATE DESCRIPTION: Its latitude, and its proximity to the Gulf Stream that moves northward along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean determines the climate of the city and the surrounding area (states of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut): about 43 degrees north. Winters are not as cold as in the inland sites at the same latitude. At the same time, summers are cooler than those of the center of the country are.

78 The city has four seasons. Its temperatures range from as low as -15 degrees Celsius in the winter to around 35 in the summer, humidity and winds are factor that make the temperatures feel very different. Because of these conditions, New Yorkers live in houses or apartment buildings equipped to protect them from these extreme conditions.

79 Houses and apartments are built of hard material, usually concrete, brick, and even rocks. Natural illumination is very scarce in our houses. Buildings are so close to each other that they prevent solar radiation from passing through, so that people have to utilize artificial light. Buildings must have: -heating system to maintain a minimum temperature of around 18 degrees C in the winter, -double window or storm windows to protect people from strong winds, and low temperatures, -a tank for storage of fuel oil during the winter, -if the houses are located in rural areas, they also have a basement that protects people in case of tornadoes or other weather related hazards, -most of the places need air conditioning system because of the extreme high temperatures and humidity of the summer.

80 PROSPECTS FOR CULTURAL CONTACTS: We all know that today’s era is the era of interaction and due to the differences of ideas and beliefs countries of the world are hesitate to share their reservations with each other. That is why we see a sharp distance among the different cultures of the world. The world is going so fast and becoming the hub of evil activities and being the builder of the coming world we, the new generation, should come ahead with a new visions and peaceful ideas. In this regard the avenue of the climate and its alteration can be helpful for us. Because most of the countries of the world are facing environmental issues and are unable to cope with them due to the lack of cooperation.

81 Here are the few suggestions and prospects by which we can introduce possible avenues in the way of cultural contacts. We can work on the impact of climate variability on human health from an ecological systems perspective. The identification of the causal relationships and interactions between climatic events, regional ecology and human behavior are vital possibilities in this regard.

82  We can also focus upon migration patterns, land use change, and infectious disease transmission in order to examine governmental and non-governmental responses to these interactions and to disease incidence. Investigating these interactions in one region risks focusing on a set of interactions that are very location-specific. The interaction between agricultural production, migrations, and migration- related health status changes needs to be systematically studied in zones with different climate variability and climate adaptations if we are to develop appropriate early warning systems and other mechanisms to facilitate positive adaptations to climate variability. In this regard work has already been done by experts who initiated comparative study of two very different climatic zones: Mali, in the Sahel, and Kenya, in East Africa. These particular climatic zones embody both similarities and contrasts in their climate situation, productive ecologies, and health situations.

83 CONCLUSION: In the light of ongoing discussion what we conclude that climatic variation is one of the stimulating elements in the human activities which not only effects its basis but also opens new avenues for the cultural harmony and contacts. It has devastating as well as constructive nature but the fact that by using such types of opportunities the inter and intra states relations can be improved for peaceful world.

84 SEARCH ENGINE AND RESOURCES Encarta Encyclopedia

85 Nazlin ShirazLearning Area Cordinator (English) Muhammad AzeemSocial Sciences Learning Area Teacher Sarfaraz VallaniComputer Instructor Students of Class VIII – A (42) PREPARED BY: SULTAN MOHAMED SHAH AGA KHAN SCHOOL TEAM OF SULTAN MOHAMED SHAH AGA KHAN SCHOOL, KARACHI, PAKISTAN. CONTRIBUTED BY: Jafri Otham and his team Abir Abdallah and his team Luis Jorge and his team

86 Thank You Nazlin Shiraz


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