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By Lucy Bulan. Strong foundation in the mother tongue gives children:  good grounding in their own mother tongue  an advantage in performance in schools.

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Presentation on theme: "By Lucy Bulan. Strong foundation in the mother tongue gives children:  good grounding in their own mother tongue  an advantage in performance in schools."— Presentation transcript:

1 By Lucy Bulan

2 Strong foundation in the mother tongue gives children:  good grounding in their own mother tongue  an advantage in performance in schools.  However, majority of the world’s languages are classified as “endangered” today, and Kelabit is one of them. Based on the Fishman’s Scale, the Kelabit Language right now is at Stage 7.

3 Stage 8Stage 7Stage 6Stage 5Stage 4Stage 3Stage 2Stage 1 So few fluent speakers that the community needs to re- establish language norms (may require linguistic experts) Older people use the language enthusias- tically but children are not learning it. Language and culture socializaion takes place in home and community Language and culture socialization involves extensive literacy; usually including use of the language in schooling. The language is used in formal education, along with the official language. The language is used in the work-places of the larger society. The language is used in lower gov’t levels and local mass media. The language is used at upper gov’t level. Adapted from Fishman, Joshua (1991). Reversing Language Shift. Clevedon: Multilingual

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5  It is clearly stated here that the law recognizes and acknowledges that our language is a symbol of our identity. Proficiency in the language is a requirement.

6  Language, culture and customs are intertwined. Thus, when we lose our language, we are in grave danger of losing our culture.

7  teaching Kelabit starting with pre-schoolers.

8  Important to have a STANDARD spelling system 1.For Teaching purposes 2.For Writing purposes 3.For Dictionary Use

9 Kadi’ - kadiq ?? (only at end of words) Kedi’it – kedi’it ?? (keep (‘) when in middle of words) Telu’a’ – telu’aq ?? Kera’i’ – kera’iq ?? “Mula’ nuba’ sila’ Sina’ kenen telu’a’”– Mulaq nubaq silaq Sinaq kenen telu’aq. (Note triple quotation marks) Why not use (k)? Pika’ –(Pikaq) – Pikak ?? Ula’ –(Ulaq) – ulak ?? Rera’ –(Reraq)– rerak ?? Turu’ –(Turuq) – turuk ??

10 Bere – berĕ – berey ?? Dele – delĕ - deley ?? Tunge – tungĕ - tungey ?? Mine - Minĕ - miney ?? Peruwek – peruweyk?? Keh – keyh ??

11 Mine tunge ideh malem – Miney tungey ideh malem. Ken inan tungen teh dele bere lun Pa’ Ukat ngen tauh? Ken inan tungen teh deley berey lun Pa’ Ukat ngen tauh?

12 Bare – bere – berey ?? Dale – dele – deley ?? Bara – bera ?? Banah – beneh, baneh ?? Sanape – senapey ??

13 Ieh – iyeh ?? Liat – liyat ?? Muit – muwit ?? Puet – puwet?? Ai’ - Aiq – ayiq??

14 Sinemuq – senemuq ?? - Go by root word?? – Sinaq?? Sinipa – senipa ?? Sinuped – senuped ?? Standardise?

15  Which one to use as standard Kelabit?  Go separate ways?  Pick one but allow the other to use it according to what is normal for them?


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