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1 Electro-Thermal Analysis of Lithium Ion Batteries: Experimental and Numerical study Gad A. Pinhasi The Israeli Fuel Cell and Batteries Center (IFCBC) Conference 26 January 2011, Tel Aviv University

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Outline The Objective The Project Background –Internal Resistance –Heat Generation The Study Experimental Setup –Calorimeter Models –Lumped heat model –CFC model Results –Cell –Battery –Pack 4 Conclusions Summery 2

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3 The Objective Thermal Analysis and Design of a Large Battery Pack. To evaluate the heat generation and temperature field under various electrical loads and design specifications. –Safety: Thermal Runaway –Max. Temperature restriction: –“Passive cooling” solutions

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The Project Evaluation of Heat Generation: –Source term –Experimentally Calculation of the Temperature Field –Numerically Cell, Battery, Packs : 4, 92 4

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Cell, Battery and Packs CellBatteryPack 4Pack 92 TypeICR18650 Samsung MR-2791YT-600 24 cells4 bat91(+1) bat 4S×6P4P7S×13P Voltage:[V]3.716.8 Capacity:[Ahr]2.614.457.6 Discharge currents [A]0.2, 0.4, 13, 4, 832 5

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Introduction Evaluation of Heat Generation –Experimentally Calculation of the temperature field –Numerically Model Approaches Thermal characterization Battery Internal Resistance 6

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Model Approaches Fundamental models physical foundations principles –Transport Phenomena 7 Phenomenological models Equivalent circuit models

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Thermal characterization The heat produced due to: Joule heat of the electrical resistance Polarization heat Reaction heat –initially exothermic during discharge –reversible 8

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Battery Internal Resistance The cell voltage under load is : –Open circuit voltage –Internal Ohmic resistance –“Concentration polarization” –“Charge transfer polarization” Methods for Determining the Internal Resistance –Ohm’s Law –Joule’s Law –AC Resistance –Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) 9

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Internal Resistance Dependence Temperature –Decreasing with Temperature State of Charge (SoC) State of Health (SoH) 10 Yurkovich et al. (2009)

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11 Internal Resistance and Heat Generation Joule heat of the electrical resistance Open circuit voltage

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12 The Study: Experimental and Numerical

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Experimental Setup 13 Cell/ Battery/ Pack Liquid Bath Temperature Data logger Charge/ Load FLUKE: Data Acquisition Dewar: Calorimeter Load Charge Silicone Fluid Dow Corning DC ‑ 200/100 cSt

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Batch / Continuous Flow (SHC) Calorimeter Calorimeter: 14 T w,in T w,out T oil,in

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15 Tools Numerical Study: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Partial differential equations (PDEs) solvers: –Fluid Mechanics –Heat Transfer –Mass Transfer (Diffusion) Chemical reactions COMSOL Multiphysics –Batteries & Fuel Cells Module ANSYS –CFX –FLUENT

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The Lumped Model Cells Battery Medium Pack Medium Heat Transfer Mechanisms 16 Cell q”’q”’ 24 Battery U 12 U 23 U3U3 91 q”’ T3T3 TT T2T2 T1T1

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17 Results Cell –Temperature history –Heat Generation and SOC Battery The Pack Electrical resistance –Open-circuit voltage –Heat Generation

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Samsung 18650 ICR18650-26C 2600m Li-ion 3.7v Battery Brand :Samsung Nominal voltage : 3.7V Capacity: 2.6Ahr Size 18mm x 65.0mm Weight : 48g/pcs Made in JAPAN 18

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19 Cell Heat Generation and SOC 2.6A1A

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20 Pack 4 YT-600 4 Batteries 2791 4P Voltage: 16.8 Volts Capacity: 57.6Ahr

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21 Pack 4 Current: 32A Temperature –Battery inside –Battery Gap –Surrounding water Electrical voltage Electrical Power Heat Power zeros

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22 Pack 4: Simulation Experiment vs. Simulation Medium Effect: –air/oil

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23 Experiment vs. Simulation 0.6W/cell Simulation Experiment Points: Battery inside Battery Gap

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24 Experiment vs. Simple model Points: Battery inside Battery Gap 0.6W/cell

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25 Pack 4: Medium Effect: 32A 100min OilAir T max : 51ºC T max : 96ºC

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26 Summary The heat generation and temperature field for battery packs were evaluated theoretically and experimentally Internal resistance of a cell was determined by current step methods and thermal loss methods. Future Work: –Heat generation Correlation –Dynamic models –Fundamental models

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People Dr. Gad Pinhasi –Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology Dr. Alon Kuperman –Department of Electrical Engineering Neria Roth –(M.Sc. Student) Experimental Study Itshak Shtainbach –(M.Sc. Student) Numerical Study 27

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Acknowledgment The research is supported by the ISRAEL Ministry of Defense : MAFAT

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31 Conferences Roth, N., Shtainbach, T., Kuperman, A. and Pinhasi, G.A., "Electro-thermal Analysis of Lithium Ion Batteries: Experimental and Numerical study”, 1.The 31st Israeli Conference on Mechanical Engineering - ICME 2010, Dan Panorama Hotel, Tel- Aviv 2-3 June 2010. 2.The 47th annual meeting of the IIChE, 2010. The Israeli Fuel Cell and Batteries Center (IFCBC) Conference, 2011

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