1Day 1: Speaking & Listening Reading: Literature, Informational Text, Foundational SkillsPresented by: LaRae Blomquist, Dee Dee Ring,Erin Sipes, and Kathy WilsonSummer 20138:30-8:45
2Kindergarten Task Force Team FINISHHeather Wright, Julie Radke, Denise Nakamoto, Felicia Womack-Suine
3Nuts and Bolts Introductions/Name tags on index card Identify a working partner at your table (A and B partners)Resources/handouts for referenceQuestion BoardLogistics for the day
4Norms Be engaged! Collaborate with colleagues. Commit to applying what we learn today.Ask questions and take risks.Exhibit professionalism.
5Outcomes: Participants will… Understand the critical nature of Speaking and Listening standards.View Foundational Skills though a CCSS lensCraft text dependent questionsFacilitate close reading practice
6Transitioning to Common Core Our Transition to CCSS is notgoing to be complete in one session or one year like turning on a light switch.Rather think about the switch to CCSS as a dimmer switch. We will be bright and shiny slowly over time. We a need to give our selves time to get it right.Gradual process the light has to come on…
7Shifts in CCSS Teaching Foundational Skills to Mastery Foundational Skills and Reading Standards taught simultaneouslyFocus on Speaking and ListeningStrong connection between Reading and WritingFocus on Text-based EvidenceFocus on Academic Vocabulary and LanguageNot so much in K, 1, 2 with text complexityFisher Frey CCSS book
8A Walk Through the Standards… OrganizationStrand(formerly known as “domain”)K-56-12Reading – LiteratureReading – Informational TextReading – Foundational Skills1-101-4NAWritingSpeaking and Listening1-6LanguageHave participants go through the legal-sized document pointing out how the first half of the doc is K-5 while the second half is Highlight the consistency of standards, K-12. The intent of each standard—no matter what grade—is consistently numbered and stays the same with the only variation being a building-up of complexity as we go through the grades. While “Language” is a new name for a strand/domain, the term makes sense because it focuses on the craft of communication: grammar, spelling, punctuation, capitalization, word choice, and figurative language.
9Standard 1, Reading – Informational Materials Examine ConsistencyGradeStandard 1, Reading – Informational MaterialsStudents will:KWith prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.1Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.2Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.3Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.4Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.5Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.Ask participants to follow along as you read aloud reading standard #1. This is the only standards where the verbiage is identical in both Reading-Literature and Reading-Informational text.
10Diving into the Speaking/Listening Standards Ask participants to follow along as you read aloud reading standard #1. This is the only standards where the verbiage is identical in both Reading-Literature and Reading-Informational text.
11Table TalkWhat strategies are used in your classroom to promote student collaboration/discussion?How often are they used?8:45-9:30
12Speaking and Listening Standards Pg. 6Comprehension and CollaborationStandards 1-3Presentation of Knowledge and IdeasStandards 4-6Direct them to the standardsCall out that the significant shift in speaking/listening is that they are designed to pair with what’s expected in reading standards.
13Examining the Standards Activity DIRECTIONSRead through the standards progression handout horizontally.Once complete, read the document verticallyNote the use of common terminology and expectations between S/L and Reading standards.Briefly mention Bullet number 3Have them read horizontally and then vertically. Note the connections in language at each grade level (e.g., ask/answer questions; key details; recount). This is purposeful!
14Connection to ELD Standards Explain that there are 3 modes of communication identified in the new ELD standards. (collaborative, interpretive, productive)Each grade has an ELA alignment page overview like the one shown on the screen. The purpose of the overview is to point out the explicit connection between S/L in all 3 modes of communication.Read sheet before presenting.
15Children’s speaking and listening skills lead the way for their reading and writing skills, and together these language skills are the primary tools of the mind for all future learning. Roskos, Tabors, & Lenhart, 2005, p. v.
16Speaking and Listening “Round the Clock” StandardDescription1Participate in a range of collaborative conversations2Ask and answer questions about key details3Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to gather additional information4Describe people, place, and things and events with relevant details…memorize and recite poems and rhymes5Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions…6Produce complete sentencesWe are always working on 1, 2, 3… and 5 will relate to specific assignments
17How do Speaking and Listening Standards connect to Structured Student Interaction?
18Key Elements of SSI Include: Specific protocol or routine used for asking a question or giving a directionThink timeConservative time limitsA clear language expectation when sharing out (language frame)Random accountabilityQuestion/task that is developmentally appropriateCall out that “specific protocol refers to the assignment of student A and B, giving a language frame to start the conversations, designating in which order they will share.18
19Language Frame Resource Note a full 34 page copy of language frames will be on your school server. We looked through and selected the pages most appropriate to K/1 to share with you today. There are also several pages on Blooms Taxonomy (original version, not revised). If you would like to use those frames as a reference, you can download more from your school server once we place all the resources from this training on the server.19
21Give students something specific to listen for… Sharing OutPossible Protocol:Public VoicePrivate VoiceLoud (not shouting)Quiet (not a whisper)SlowerFasterGive students something specific to listen for…Example frames:My answer is similar to ____’s.I agree with_______.I disagree with ______.Intro public and private and explicitly tell students when to use eachTalk about academic language21
22What components of SSI are most absent in the average classroom? SSI needs to be tied to language objective during
23Emerging Practice: Evolving Practice: Turn to your designated elbow partner.Partner A will go first. (40 sec.)Discuss two characteristics of the main character.Use popsicle stick to call on students.Turn to a partner and discuss the character.You have two minutes.[2 min. pass]Raising a quiet hand, tell me something you talked about.What’s missing in the continuum?1st- not protocol, no think time, no guiding question, no clear language expectation, no random accountability2nd protocol in place with a partner A and b, set time to discuss, two characteristics of main character, random accountability23
24Exemplary Practice 15 seconds think time Designated elbow partner, partner B starts, then A (40 sec. each)Question: What two adjectives best describe the main character? What happened in the story that would support your answer?Ready.. Think… Turn to elbow partner…Sentence Frame: The adjectives that best describe the main character are… because in the selection he/she…Popsicle sticks to call on studentsTeacher says… I am going to give you 15 seconds of think time…Precise with each of the protocolsDo the structure with the group so they
25A Classroom Look What elements of SSI are present in the video? Stop at 6:37
26Structured Student Interaction: Sentence Frame One element of SSI I observed in this video was_____.The teacher could have refined her practice by including ________.Intro the frame, teacher reads, students repeat 2 times model with hesitant and average.Ask teachers to brainstorm “first think” of another word for casual and boring, then share 40 sec each, Note: Assign A and B, triads extra B, A starts.Ask all B’s to stand., randomly call on 3 to share- if someone has the same answer invite to sit down., call on 3 volunteers.Select a word to put in the frame and share with a partner. Think of a word to put in frame. Sharing, A’s go first, first time they do not have to look at their partner, they can read or look down to think. They repeat their answer looking at their partner. Then, partner B shares.Kate Kinsella, Ed.D
27Structured Student Interaction Quiet Reflection and Discussion:How might the information you just heard refine what you already do in your classroom to support structured student interaction?What new steps might you take?What ideas are you considering now?Intro the frame, teacher reads, students repeat 2 times model with hesitant and average.Ask teachers to brainstorm “first think” of another word for casual and boring, then share 40 sec each, Note: Assign A and B, triads extra B, A starts.Ask all B’s to stand., randomly call on 3 to share- if someone has the same answer invite to sit down., call on 3 volunteers.Select a word to put in the frame and share with a partner. Think of a word to put in frame. Sharing, A’s go first, first time they do not have to look at their partner, they can read or look down to think. They repeat their answer looking at their partner. Then, partner B shares.Direct them to think quietly, then pair/share with each other then model EL/Kinsella strategies of various ways to call on participants. Chart responses (15 minutes).Be sure to use the protocolEL Strategy to model – various ways to “call on” participants to share27
28“Big Ideas” Speaking/Listening Skills through SSI Speaking and listening skills lead the way to reading and writing skillsSSI requires a set protocol/routine for students to follow when interacting with one another to check for understandingEnd 9:30While reading-foundational skills look very familiar to current standards, it’s critical to note the explicit teaching that needs to occur to help teach reading comprehension skills.The language frame supports students ability to use academic language in their responses
29Reading-Foundational Skills Print ConceptsPhonological AwarenessPhonics and Word RecognitionFluencyPg. 39:30-9:55Give definitions of the above
36CCSS Reading Foundational Skills Activity Walking through foundational skills documentWhat do you notice?Mastery learning for the skills that drop off.Intervention reminder
37Implications For EL Learners and Students with Disabilities Note with each of the foundational skills standards and reading standards, we will be addressing the needs of diverse learners including students with disabilities and EL learners.Plan with them in mind first, then you will not have to worry so much about going back and intervening.
41What Texts Can Be Used?Big Books: commercial (OCR), teacher- made, class made, informational or literatureTeacher-made charts: poetry, songs, chants, instructions, and informationSentence strips in the pocket chartUse of technology to project: poetry, songs, excerpts
42Choosing Appropriate Texts Students' interest and enjoymentContent linked to classroom learningWorthy of rereadingStudents' instructional needsLayout of the text
43Purposes for Sharing the Text Whole Group Provides appropriate learning experiences in content, concepts, and skills for all studentsBuilds on previous experiences in readingProvides the opportunity to model fluent and expressive readingProvides an opportunity for ALL participants to see and attend to large textPrepares students for independent reading of text
44Benefits of Whole Group Reading Enjoyable- students who are engaged in meaningful content are behaving like readers, feeling success, are attending to the task and learningEfficient- teaching points are quickly presented to the whole groupEffective- student become independent readers with the support of whole class readingExplicit- teaching points are made during a group reading lesson and revisited as students use the text as a resource for learningErin, feel free to change.
45Rationale For Whole Group Reading Historical PerspectiveLogisticsManagementTime factorSmall group teacher and student exchange vs. student to student exchange.Historical perspective-Centers vs. workshop… in the past with 33 students and 100 minute teacher. Taught OCR in centers. Smaller group size. Used and existing structure that was already working.Teacher-led groups lead to additional prompting. Student interaction leads to additional learning.
46“Big Ideas” Targeted intervention (WIN and WORKSHOP) Teaching to mastery is critical at this stage.
47“Big Ideas” Benefits of whole group reading instruction. Simultaneous explicit instruction for both foundational skills AND comprehension
48Phonemic AwarenessThe basic purpose for providing structured practice in phonemic awareness is to help the students hear and understand the sounds from which words are made…….(Open Court Appendix II)
49Phonemic Awareness“Children who fall behind in first grade reading have a one in eight chance of ever catching up to grade level.” (Juel, 1994)“Phoneme awareness is the single best predictor of reading success between kindergarten and second grade.” (Adams, Stanovich, 1995) “Phonemic awareness is more highly related to learning to read than are tests of general intelligence, reading readiness, and listening comprehension.” (Stanovich, 1993)
50Phonological Awareness Development Continuum Rhyming (recognition and production)Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables into spoken wordsBlend and segment onsets and rimes of syllables in spoken wordsBlend two to three phonemes into recognizable wordsIsolate initial, medial, and final vowel soundsSubstitutionCommon onset and rime list provide to teachers- HANDOUT
51Details Matter Consider (when facing students): Which hand should signal the beginning sound?Which hand should signal the ending sound?Do you pause between phonemes so that students have an opportunity to put them together themselves?Are you purposeful when you answer with the students and when you let them answer on their own? Do you have a signal for students to know when to respond?Which hand should Leo the puppet be on, when…?Do students have an assigned seat on the carpet?Can you see all of your students’ mouths?Remind teachers that this is an oral activity – students should not be looking at print.Technical remindersLeo goes on the hand according to when he needs to respond.
53Phoneme Level Deletion & Substitution Examples Say cat. Now say cat without the /c/.Say fan. Now say fan without the /n/.SubstitutionSay cat. Change the first sound in cat to /s/. What’s the new word?Say fan. Change the /n/ to /t/. What’s the new word?Say sick. Change the /i/ to /o/. What’s the new word?
54Segmentation Critical skill to support writing and spelling. Reciprocal process for blendingHand movement to assist students.Pop fingersTouch faceTouch armElkonin boxesMonitor carefully5 a day
55Additional Practice Labels Include a screen shot of K materials here.
57Implications for EL Learners and Students with Disabilities For English Language Learners:Provide instruction in sounds not present in students’ primary language(See Language Transfers Handout)Provide extended and meaningful opportunities for additional practice of PA skillsUse nonsense words only as necessary and clearly state they are nonsense words
58For Students with Disabilities Provide opportunities for students to practice through multiple modalitiesProvide multiple opportunities to practiceUse manipulatives and kinesthetic activities to engage students and support learningPre-teach—prevention is more successful than interventionErinPrevention vs. interventionElkonin boxes
59Phonics and Word Recognition Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words both in isolation and in text.Consonant letter soundsLong and short vowel soundsRead High-frequency wordsIdentify the difference between two similarly spelled words.59
60Review of Sound Spelling Cards Program Appendix pages 15 and 16 Terminology:Name of the CardSoundLb—kinder pic
61Substitute KRobot cardB ahC ahD ahGreen box/short vowel or short vowel… do not just say green boxStudents should know what the lines meanWhere do you use the letter by itself in the long vowels _a_
62One Early Literacy CCSS Shift Simultaneous work of learning to read AND reading to make meaning+Switch out sound cards…We are also learning to speak, listen and write to make meanings. When we say “read” we are talking about making meaning of language.
63Reading Pre-Decodables Teach High-frequency words from day one (sight words)MASTERY LEARNING-Not just one skill at a time, but working towards mastery on many skills simultaneously.For example: Learning letters and learning high-frequency words at the same time.Make reference to subitizing in math.Include ideas for pre-decodables for concepts of print.Sight word practice ideas.Decodables – keeping track of them, rings, send home etc….During the beginning of the year it does not take as much time with the decodables so…….What is the purpose of SHARED READING?READ ALOUD? MODELING!!!!!!63
65High Frequency Word Activities These and more resources will be available on the CCSS website -- kindergarten page. Thank you Denise, Heather, Felicia, and Julie!
66How Much Practice is Needed? Type of LearnerNumber of RepetitionsMost Able1 or 2Average4 to 14Less Able20 plusUmmm…..?Source: National Reading First Conference (2006)
67Table Talk Pre-Decodables: How do you keep track? Progress monitor? Introduce?Practice?Wrap up by 11.Sight word practice ideas.Decodables – keeping track of them, rings, send home etc….During the beginning of the year it does not take as much time with the decodables so…….What is the purpose of SHARED READING?READ ALOUD? MODELING!!!!!!67
68“Big Ideas” Reading-Foundational Skills are taught to mastery. Simultaneous explicit instruction for both foundational skills AND comprehension.Refining practices will result in less need for intervention.
69Reading Standards: 4 Distinctive Categories Pages 1 and 2“WHAT” is saidKey Ideas and DetailsStandards 1-3Craft and StructureStandards 4-6Integration of Knowledge and IdeasStandards 7-9Range of Reading and Level of Text ComplexityStandard 10“HOW” it is saidCompare textsMention the parallel nature of Reading Lit and Reading Informational Texts.St. 4-6 how is the author communicating7-9 comparison of texts and topics1-3 we are comfortable with …
70Activity: Side-by-Side Comparison We are going to look at the similarities and differences between the literature standards and the informational text standards.Goals: 1) Get a solid “ownership” of what the standards require as well as an understanding of the parallelism of the numbering (i.e., “theme” for lit; “main idea” for expository—standard #2—DIRECT TEACHERS TO FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS…Model with the first one.Look at the standards and pull out some of the explicit vocabulary that we will need to teach our students.Reading Standard #1 is always the same for every grade level. It is an umbrella standard. The only way you can avoid addressing standard #1 is if you don’t ask a question.To demonstrate understanding they are going to have to show it in writing, orally,Text- what are the different definitions for text? (phone, words, textbook)Text can be a confusing word that if we don’t pay attention to it’s use, we can confuse students.If you are texting someone you are using text. This needs to be explicitly taught. Kids need to know they will be responding to text, anything that is in writing.You are looking for vocabulary where language in literature and expository text can be called out and used synonymously in both.After allowing time to go through. Then give this next direction:Go through both sets of standards and highlight standards that are text dependent. They have to have the text to be able to demonstrate mastery of the standards.70
71“Owning” the Standards #1-#3 = Key Ideas and Details The intent of these slides is threefold: 1) to provide an easy-to-remember label for the standard to help teachers “own” the intent by memory, 2) to help understand where the standard is “headed” or what it builds to in context of the K-12 picture, and 3) to provide an additional opportunity to show the grouping of the clusters (e.g., key ideas and details).
72“Owning” the Standards #4-#6= Craft and Structure
73“Owning” the Standards #7-#9= Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
74“Owning” the Standards #10= Range of Reading/Text Complexity
77Drilling Down to Understand “Text Dependent Questions” (TDQs) This is a hyperlink to an eCPLUse this when we present.There might be someone who just wants this….For our background information:Came from presenter’s notes from AchievetheCore.org It came from 3 of the authors of CCSSShe thought about this when reviewing the prompts.Note it is 12 min. Some principals want to share with their staff. Does not hurt to hear again.
78Non-Examples and Examples Not Text-DependentText-DependentIn The Little Red Hen, none of the other animals wanted to help bake the cake. What do you do when your mom asks for your help with something at home?In The Little Red Hen, how did the other animals change their attitude about helping the hen? What event in the story caused them to change?Collaborating to Comprehend:What type of question is the non-example?The text-dependent example represents the first type of TDQ because it asks about a central idea—in this case how the animals changed their attitude about helping the hen.Collaborating to Comprehend:What makes the following question text-dependent?
79Debrief – Table Partners Please choose a language frame:Two things that I learned about text dependent questions are_______ and _______.One thing that I learned about text dependent questions is _________, but I still have a question about ________.
80Text-dependent Questions Answered through close readingEvidence comes from text, not information from outside sourcesUnderstanding beyond basic facts…Not recall!3 general types: central idea, vocabulary, and syntax/structure
81Resource for Writing TDQs Insert the lesson talk through what it looks like. Be clear that re-reading is not the entire text, only the parts that are important for answering the question.
82Standards Alignment Guide Which standard do I choose?Objectives—task analysisSample TDQsThe only column that we’ll use right now is the middle column. However, orient teachers to the first and third columns. The third column is highlighted secondly because it’s a continuation of the standards (in terms of basically deconstructing them) and fits with the practical application of writing learning objectives. The first column is to help in decision making which standards can be applied to trade books or any text that haven’t had standards already aligned for the selections.
83Applying Knowledge of TDQs +Teachers need the standards alignment document along with their O.C. unit 1.
84Applying Knowledge of TDQs “I Do” #1 With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.How does Henry feel about kindergarten in the beginning of the story? What words or pictures tell you that?What were some supplies that Henry packed to take to his first day of kindergarten? How do you know?What color is Henry’s Mom’s shirt?Teachers need the standards alignment document along with their O.C. unit 1. Think Aloud: Hmmm…I notice that there are a lot of the who, what, where, why, how, and when kinds of question frames. What’s something important about Henry that I could ask?Included is a non-example of something that is not a key detail and would not be asked. That said, if AFTER doing a close read and peeling back the layers a teacher wanted to use the book to teach/quiz students about colors, it can be done on multiple pages with a singular focus.
85Applying Knowledge of TDQs “We Do Together” #2 With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.What are two things that Henry has fun doing at school on his first day? How do you know?Teachers need the standards alignment document along with their O.C. unit 1. Think Aloud: Hmmm…I notice that there are a lot of the who, what, where, why, how, and when kinds of question frames. What’s something important about Henry that I could ask?
86Applying Knowledge of TDQs “We Do Together” #3 With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.Look on page 4. Who is the character talking? How do you know?Teachers need the standards alignment document along with their O.C. unit 1. Think Aloud: Hmmm…I notice that there are a lot of the who, what, where, why, how, and when kinds of question frames. What’s something important about Henry that I could ask?
87Applying Knowledge of TDQs “You Do Together” Continue writing TDQs in groups of four for standards #4-10.Write one or two per standard. (#9 can be written and asked later in the unit.)Be prepared to share and give/receive constructive feedback. (We’re working on raising our dimmer switches!)Teachers need the standards alignment document along with their O.C. unit 1. Think Aloud: Hmmm…I notice that there are a lot of the who, what, where, why, how, and when kinds of question frames. What’s something important about Henry that I could ask?
88Share OutBefore sharing, note that as learners we need to take risks and be open to constructive feedback.WHIP AROUND
89“Big Ideas” Text Dependent Questions Questions that require an examination of the textQuestions that require the reader to use evidence to support their ideasQuestions that move from text-explicit to text-implicit knowledgeFix this slide to reflect K
91Why Close Reading?“A significant body of research links the close reading of complex texts - whether the student is a struggling reader or advanced- to significant gains in reading proficiency and finds close reading to be a key component of college and career readiness.”Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers, 2011
92What is Close Reading?“Close reading means reading to uncover layers of meaning that lead to deep comprehension.” -Nancy Boyles, Southern Connecticut State University Note: Close reading is not a technique or a strategy, but rather an outcome. One uses various techniques in order to closely read.
93Rereading in a Close Read Is not…Is…Reading the entire text a second or third time each timeReading for fluency practiceReading without being under teacher directionReading only a sentence or short sectionReading with a specific purpose and standard in mindReading under the guidance of the teacher
94Key Points Use of short passages Rereading Reading with a pencil Noticing things that are confusingDiscussing the text with othersResponding to text-dependent questionsFisher and Frey, 2012
95Discussing the TextDiscussion should allow students to engage in purposeful talk. Using Structured Student Interaction, teachers can use a language frame to guide student responses.
96First Read The objective : get the gist (central ideas/key details) The first read is usually done independently to give students an opportunity to grapple with the text –this differs for kindergarten!Chunk longer texts
98Common Core Standards for Reading and Responding (Red Section) OCR Note that Reading RL and RIT line is suggested standards aligned to OCR revision of the RED section.All others are what is in OCR that relates to a CCSS standard
99Applying What We Learned – Close Reading (“I Do”) Model how to “arrange” the questions for a close reading.
100Applying What We Learned – Close Reading (“We Do Together”) 1st Read:2nd Read:3rd Read:
101Applying What We Learned – Close Reading (“We Do Together”) TITLELook Out Kindergarten…1st Read:2nd Read:3rd Read:
102Applying What We Learned – Close Reading (“You Do Together”) TITLE_________________________1st Read:2nd Read:3rd Read:
103Share OutDepending on time, this might be best as a gallery walk. Encourage teachers to take pictures with their phones.
104“Big Ideas” Close Reading Critically reading short passages of challenging text with a clear focusStudents have an opportunity to answer text-dependent questions to gain a deeper understanding.While reading-foundational skills look very familiar to current standards, it’s critical to note the explicit teaching that needs to occur to help teach reading comprehension skills.Close reading is an outcome, not a strategy .104
105Day 2 CCSS ELA Training - Writing CalendarDateYear-RoundJuly 15 and 16thModified TraditionalAugust 12thTraditionalAugust 13th
106Three things you learned or reviewed today. Two actions you plan on taking based upon the information you learned today.One question you wish to explore.Direct participants to handout page 9. Have them complete the form. They do not need to hand it in – it is for their own reflection.
107Evaluations “Hey, these look different than the usual forms!” Please provide CPL with your honest feedback. Information gathered will guide the future CCSS professional learning offerings.Highlight the idea that we are revising the evaluation forms so that we can attempt to gather more specific information about participant learning. Data gathered will inform our next steps for PL. Point out that there is a back side as well.
108ClosureAll of the pieces will fit together as we collaborate within and across grade level teams Remember the “dimmer switch”