2 Course DescriptionThis course provides an overview of the study of bilingualism both as an individual and a social phenomenon. It gives an overview of the most relevant themes of bilingualism. The course encourages students to draw on their own experiences (as bilinguals) to achieve a better understanding of the issues discussed.
3 Course content Bilingualism: Definitions and dimensions The Measurement of bilingualismEndangered Languages: Language planningLanguages in societyThe early development of bilingualismThe later development of bilingualism
4 Course objectivesUpon completion of this course, students should demonstrate:An understanding of the different dimensions and types of bilingualism.An understanding of why and how bilingualism is measured individually and in the society.An understanding of the different types of language contact situations (e.g. Language shift/maintenance) and their potential outcomes and impact on language development and use by the individual and the society.The ability to analyse and discuss different factors (political, social, demographic, cultural, cognitive and linguistic) influencing situations of language contact.An awareness of various aspects of and routes to early and late development of bilingualism.
5 Prescribed textbookBaker, C. (2006). Foundations of Bilingual Education And Bilingualism. 4th EditionChapters 1-6
7 Types of bilingualssimultaneous bilingual children learn two languages at birth, aka infant bilingualism or ‘bilingual first language acquisition.’ Infants who are exposed to two languages from birth will become simultaneous bilinguals.consecutive/sequential bilingual children learn a second language after about three years of age. Learning one language after already established a first language. This is the situation for all those who become bilingual as adults, as well as for many who became bilingual earlier in life.incipient bilingualAn individual at the early stages of bilingualism where one language is notfully developed.have one well-developed languageother is in the early stages of development:
8 Types of bilingualsascendant bilingual the second language is developing: The speaker whose ability to function in a second language increases with its use is in recessive bilingualism one language is decreasing: An individual who begins to feel some difficulty in either understanding or expressing him or herself with ease, due to lack of use.endogenous communities more than one language used on an everyday basisexogenous communities absence of a second languagePassive/receptive bilingual bilinguals with a receptive ability, i.e. understanding or reading: An individual who understands a second language, in either its spoken or written form, or both, but does not necessarily speak or write it.
9 Types of bilingualsadditive bilingual a person learns a second language at no cost to their first language: An individual whose two languages combine in a complementary and enriching fashion.subtractive bilingual the first language is being replaced by the second language: An individual whose second language is acquired at the expense of the first language.elective bilingualchoose to learn a language, e.g. in a classroomtypically come from majority language groupslearn second language without losing firstcircumstantial bilingualismlearn another language to function effectively because of circumstances, i.e. immigrants. first language insufficient to meet their educational, political, and employment requirements and the communicative needs of the majority language societyfirst language in danger of being replaced by second
10 Types of bilingualsminimal bilingualism people with minimal competence in a second language are also considered bilinguals: An individual with only a few words and phrases in a second language.maximal bilingualism only people with “native-like control of two or more languages” are considered bilinguals.SemilingualAn individual with insufficient knowledge of either languagedeficiencies in bilinguals when compared with monolingualssmall vocabulary and incorrect grammarconsciously thinking about language productionstilted and uncreative with each language finding it difficult to think and express emotions in either language
11 Types of bilingualsbalanced bilingual someone equally fluent in two languages across various contextsEarly bilingualAn individual who has acquired two languages early in childhoodFunctional bilingualAn individual who can operate in two languages with or without full fluency for the task in hand.Late bilingualAn individual who has become a bilingual later than childhood.
12 Language ability Language Ability is often used as an umbrella term. language ability is distinct from language achievement. There are four basic language abilities: listening, speaking, reading and writing. These abilities fit into two dimensions: receptive and productive; oracy and literacy.
13 Language ability Literacy Oracy Skills Reading Listening Receptive WritingSpeakingProductive
14 An individual's use of bilingualism Language Targets: Family; colleagues; friends; teachers Language Domains: Shopping; media; cinema; theatre; ICT
15 :Chapter 2 The measurement of bilingualism Why measuring bilinguals? For what purposes?DistributionSelectionSummativeFormative
16 Measuring bilingualsThe assessment of bilinguals in school: 2 methods:(1) Language proficiency tests:(a) Norm referenced test NRT: Compare one person with others (e.g. with a national or regional average). Example: IQ test(b) Criterion referenced test CRT: measure how well a person has learned a specific body of knowledge and skills. What a student can and cannot do.Advantages of CRTs?point of comparisonproviding direct feedback into teachers decisions;locating children needing support;…….qww
17 Measuring bilinguals (2) Self-rating on proficiency (four language abilities) English?Arabic?How well do you speak ..Yes - fluentlyYes - fairly wellYes - someYes - just a littleNo - not now
18 Measuring bilinguals Limitations/problems in measuring bilinguals: E.g. Ambiguitycontextsocial desirability…..
19 Measuring bilinguals Communicative language testing: Measuring a person's use of language in authentic situations (real communicative situations; e.g. in a shop, at home, at work; …)Testing communicative competence (e.g. IELTS; p. 29)
20 Measuring bilinguals Measurement of bilinguals in research: Language background scales: Who speaks what language to whom and when? (p. 32)Measures of language balance and dominance (p. 34):Seeks to measure the language strength of a bilingual person.How? E.g. A word association task.
21 Measuring bilinguals Language censuses: See for example US census language question;“Does this person speak a language other than English at home?”“How does this person speak English? (Very well, Well, Not well, Not at all)”ConclusionSee key point in Chapter 2 (p. 40)