Presentation on theme: "O RAL R EADING F LUENCY Goal: Help you child be a Superhero Reader! Created and Presented by Diane M. Leja Literacy Coach."— Presentation transcript:
O RAL R EADING F LUENCY Goal: Help you child be a Superhero Reader! Created and Presented by Diane M. Leja Literacy Coach
WHAT IS READING FLUENCY? the ability of readers to read quickly, effortlessly, and efficiently with good, meaningful expression -Rasinski is the vehicle that takes the child from focusing on the words to focusing on the meaning of the text –Tyner Is the ability to read a text accurately and quickly. When fluent readers read silently, they recognize words automatically. They group words quickly in ways that help them gain meaning from what they read. Fluent readers read aloud effortlessly and with expression. Their reading sounds natural, as if they are speaking. – Armbruster et al
W HY IS FLUENCY IMPORTANT ? Reading FluencyComprehension
CC.K.R.F.4 Read emergent- reader texts with purpose and understanding CC.K.R.F.3.c Read common high-frequency words by sight. (e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does CC.1.R.F.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension a. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. b. Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression. c. Use context to confirm or self- correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. KindergartenGrade One
CC.2.R.F.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension a. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. b. Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression. c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. CC.3.R.F.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension a. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding b. Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression. c. Use context to confirm or self- correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. Grade TwoGrade Three
C AUSES OF D YSFLUENT READING Low proportion of words recognized “by sight” Variations in processing speed of known words Low speed when reading unfamiliar words Using context to identify words Low speed when identifying word meanings Motes (2002)
W ORD R ECOGNITION AND P HRASING The first 300 words of Dr. Fry’s list make up 65% of all written material contained in newspaper articles, magazines, textbooks, children's stories, novels, and more. Just focusing and practicing high frequency word recognition may lead some students to read word-by- word. Rasinski suggests that helping students learn to read in phrases will improve their reading fluency and overall reading achievement. Students should practice high frequency words in isolation and participate in repeated readings of these words in the context of short sentences and phrases.
The words in these phrases come from Dr. Edward Fry’s Instant Word List (High Frequency Words). According to Fry, the first 300 words in the list represent about 67% of all the words students encounter in their reading. First 100 Words/Phrases The people Write it down By the water Who will make it? You and I What will they do?
W HICH TYPES OF TEXT SHOULD BE USED FOR BUILDING FLUENCY ? Student should be able to read passage with 95% accuracy or independent reading level. Short text with 50-200 words (depends on reading level of student) Stories, nonfiction, poetry
S TRATEGIES TO H ELP B UILD F LUENCY 1. Model Good Oral Reading- Read Aloud Improves comprehension and vocabulary Increases fluency Builds motivation 2. Provide Oral Support for Readers Choral Reading Paired Reading 3. Offer Plenty of Practice Opportunities Repeated Readings 4. Encourage Fluency Through Phrasing
E XPRESSIONLESS R EADING Brown/ bear brown/ bear what/ do/ you see. Brown bear/ What do you see?/ Student who lacks fluency will read: Reader who divides text into meaningful chunks
ORAL READING SUPPORT Oral reading can be used as a scaffolding tool to ease the transition from modeling to independence. Adult Scaffolding by: Student reads Reads aloud independently shared reading choral reading paired reading echo reading
T HE NEUROLOGICAL -I MPRESS M ETHOD : - R.G. H ECKELMAN 1. Sit the child slightly in from of you, so you can point to the material the student is reading and so you can read directly into the student’s ear. 2. Begin reading material that is easy. As you continue to work with your child, you can increase the level of difficulty of material. 3. Tell your child that you are going to read the material and that they are to read along with you as you point to the words. Read at a slightly slower pace than the normal rate for you. While reading, be sure to point to each word as it is read. 4. As you work with your child, you are likely to notice a sharp improvement in ability to read. Begin increasing your rate of reading as child’s reading improves. 5. Read for periods of 5-15 minutes two to four times per day.
Armbruster, B.B, Leah, F., Osborn, J. (2001). Put Reading First. U.S. Department of Education: National Institute for Literacy. Iowa Department of Education. (2007). Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning. http://www.iowadereading.infohttp://www.iowadereading.info Opitz, Michael F., and Rasinski, Timothy V. (1998). Good-bye Round Robin: 25 Effective Oral Reading Strategies. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Rasinski, T.V. (2001). From Phonics to Fluency: Effective Teaching of Decoding and Reading Fluency in the Elementary School. New York: Longman. Rasinski, T. V. (2003). The Fluent Reader: Oral Reading Strategies for Building Word Recognition, Fluency, and Comprehension. New York: Scholastic. R ESOURCES