Presentation on theme: "Learning to Implement a Home-Based ABA Program. Chrissy McNair, Mom."— Presentation transcript:
Learning to Implement a Home-Based ABA Program
Chrissy McNair, Mom
Melinda Henson, BCBA
Gain Understanding of ABA Outcomes, Theories, Principles, and Guidelines Learn How to Assess Your Child’s Needs Understand How to Set Goals for Your Child Learn Methods for Prompting, Reinforcement, Generalization Learn the Importance of Data Collection and Different Collection Methods
PART ONE ABA Overview Types of ABA Programs PART TWO Principles of ABA Diving into ABA Components PART THREE Designing Your Own Home Program
MYTHFACT ABA is an intervention. ABA is actually a theory that encompasses many specific interventions based on principles of Behaviorism.
MYTHFACT ABA is specifically for autism. ABA is used in a variety of fields to help change behaviors. Examples: gambling, smoking, weight loss, teaching new skills
MYTHFACT ABA is discrete trial training.Discrete trial training is one specific type of intervention that is based upon principles of ABA. Examples of other interventions based in ABA: video modeling, incidental teaching, PRT, activity schedules
MYTHFACT ABA is based on punishments. ABA focuses on the use of reinforcement.
MYTHFACT Principles of ABA promote simple, robotic skill development. Principles of ABA can be used to teach complex behaviors that generalize across situations. Examples: toileting, problem solving, dressing, social skills, language
MYTHFACT Principles of ABA are used only to reduce negative behaviors. Principles of ABA are used to teach new skills and reduce negative behaviors.
Scientific approach for discovering environmental variables that reliably influence socially significant behavior (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)
ABA Discrete Trial Training Verbal Behavior Visual Prompting Modeling Language, Social Skills, Behavior AND MORE!Generalization
Structured Programs-Supervisors, Staff, Parents as Managers or Teachers Dinner Table ABA NEED GOALS, PROTOCOLS & PROCEDURES, ANALYSIS
Reinforcement is KEY! Preference Assessment (daily or weekly) Differential Reinforcement Continuous vs Intermittent Fading Reinforcement
Many times, children with autism’s behaviors are not reinforced by naturally occurring consequences, or the naturally occurring reinforcement for negative behaviors outweigh those of positive behaviors For this reason, we must sometimes use tangible items to reinforce specific behaviors
Reinforcement is what makes the behavior more likely to occur in the future. Should immediately follow the behavior you want to strengthen. Tips for strong reinforcement: – Conduct a preference assessment to see what your child/student enjoys – Vary reinforcement to prevent satiation – Provide higher levels of reinforcement for new responses and lower levels for more firmly established behaviors – Remember the definition of reinforcement!
Deprivation: To keep toys, foods, and activities fun, save them for therapy or when you want to teach a difficult or new skill. Think: Absence makes the heart grow fonder…. Immediacy: Deliver reinforcement within a ½ second or you run the risk of them thinking that you are reinforcing anything that happened within the delay. Size: Do not expect your student to work for an hour for a M ‘n’ M. The reinforcer should match the level of work that was done. Would you willingly work for a company that paid you less than you deserve? Contingency: The reinforcement should be contingent on a behavior you want to see more of.
Primary reinforcers automatically fill some biological human need without learning Examples: – Food (edibles), Water, Oxygen, Warmth Advantages/Disadvantages of Edible Reinforcement: – Being fed is an basic need to survive & can be highly effective – Avoid if secondary or generalized reinforcers are equally effective – Check for food allergies and choking hazards – Avoid giving too much food before meal times – May not be effective if child is not hungry
Secondary reinforcers acquire their value through learning (through association with primary reinforcement) Examples: – Tangibles, Activities, Social Approval, Praise Advantages/Disadvantages of Secondary Reinforcers: – Disadvantages of edible reinforcement is avoided – More choices available – Social approval & praise is always available and reflects more natural/real-world reinforcement – Tangibles/activities may not be reinforcing every time they are presented
Generalized reinforcers have been paired with a variety of previously established reinforcers Exchangeable Reinforcers/Token Systems: – Tokens are earned that can be exchanged later for access to reinforcement (e.g. money, stickers, points) – Token is given immediately following behavior, but actual reinforcing activity or item is given after a certain number of tokens are received. Advantages/Disadvantages of Generalized Reinforcers – Tokens themselves are not initially reinforcing – Student must be able to delay reinforcement/understand that tokens add up to larger reinforcer
A schedule of reinforcement determines how often the behavior should be reinforced Continuous Reinforcement: – Reinforcing the desired behavior every time it occurs. – Used to teach and strengthen behavior. – Examples: Vending machine, ATM Intermittent Reinforcement: – Reinforcing the desired behavior some of the time it is observed. – Used to maintain behavior. – Time-based or response-based
Advantages of Intermittent Reinforcement – More resistant to extinction – Results in relatively high rates of responding – More closely approximates natural reinforcement conditions – Less reinforcement from the outside allows for intrinsic motivations to begin to maintain behavior as competency increases – Less likely to create satiation – More cost effective
Automatic reinforcement occurs when behaviors have an immediate affect on their environment which in turn reinforce the behavior. – Visual, Auditory, Gustatory, Olfactory, Tactile These can be tough to compete with because they do not require social interaction – but we can figure out how to control some of them and present the child with these experiences during social interactions and exchanges.
Better reinforcement for better responding – Provide higher quality reinforcement for: Unprompted responses Faster responses Better articulated responses Proper tone is used Correct response required a less intrusive prompt No problem behavior occurring
Early learners may not work for praise – ALWAYS pair praise with back-up reinforcers – Eventually praise will become valuable – Gradually thin the use of back-up reinforcers Advanced learners – Might work well for praise most of the time – Continue to sprinkle in back-up reinforcers
Including a variety of reinforcers helps decrease the chance of satiation Novelty is often exciting to students – New things – Not knowing what is going to happen When choice is given, the chances increase that the preferred item is really preferred at that time
Each target behavior will be reinforced EVERY TIME until child/student shows that s/he can perform this behavior in a variety of environments without mistakes! Generally, prompted behaviors should result in praise, while independent responses should result in praise + tangible, edible, etc… Continuous Reinforcement: – Reinforcing the desired behavior every time it is observed – Used to teach and strengthen behavior
Give choices Always keep a box of reinforcers next to you when working for quick access Have a reinforcer in hand to immediately give to him Give child/student multiple reinforcers from which to to choose Place reinforcers in a “surprise grab bag” so child is surprised each time Vary the reinforcement to avoid satiation
Physical Hand Over Hand & Gestures Visual Pictures & Written Verbal
Compliance Building 1. Tell 2. Show 3. Do Must be consistent with follow-through and be willing to implement step 3 if needed
Reinforcing even a slight approximation to the desired behavior After that behavior is being replicated, only reinforce a closer approximation Advantages Used to teach new behaviors It is a positive procedure Can be combined with other procedures (fading, chaining, etc.) Disadvantages Time consuming Progress is not always linear Implementer needs some skill
Must have all variables defined Must be consistent across all collectors Consider what variables you want to track
What do the scores tell you? Visual interpretation better in graph vs. table form
Across Environments Across People When to Generalize? Building a Maintenance Schedule
41 Generalization occurs when behaviors learned under one set of circumstances occur: At other times In other places With other people For different stimuli
Natural maintaining conditions Practice the skill in naturally occurring situations and make sure it maintains during natural contingencies (antecedents & consequences) Train sufficient exemplars Teach the behavior to occur in the presence of many examples of stimuli that include the critical stimulus features Train loosely Prevent stimulus overselectivity by teaching in various settings, with various stimuli, in various forms
Program common stimuli Include as many of the physical and social elements that exist in the “real life” setting into the practice setting Mediate generalization Teach self-instruction techniques
Fluency is performing a behavior smoothly, rapidly, correctly, and with ease. Taught with repetition Target speed & accuracy Remember to include fluency in your goal as appropriate Fluent skills maintain better across time
Maintenance is the ability to continue the behavior after intervention has ended. What contributes to poor maintenance? Ending reinforcement too soon Reinforcement of unwanted behaviors Punishing the behavior
When conducting trials, it is best to intersperse maintenance trials. Alternate acquisition (learning) trials with learned concepts to: Build momentum Increase success & reinforcement Increase practice of learned skills Maintain skills over time 46
Minimize unwanted behaviors during initial learning (errorless teaching) Be sure the behavior is fluent before ending intervention Teach self-management strategies Self-recording Self-reinforcement Asking for reinforcement
Fade reinforcement slowly and transfer to natural contingencies Fade antecedents from structured to natural Adjust schedule, quality, & quantity of reinforcement Increase criteria for reinforcement Set up peer supports for reinforcement
Set Goals Child’s Needs Family’s Needs Sibling’s Needs Language/ Behavioral/ ….or Both
Determine Motivators—Reinforcement Immediate Reinforcement (toys, tickles, etc) Longer Term Reinforcement (trips out in community) Reserve these reinforcement objects ONLY for instruction time!
Choose 4-6 Areas to Focus On Motor Imitation Following Directions Tacting Behavioral Skill Social Etc
Make definitions as specific as possible Write exactly what instructor needs to do Define desired response from child Define Mastery
Consider amount of learning opportunities needed to achieve mastery and fluency Establish and follow steps to mastery! Develop own sheets Download Copy from manual
DataFP = Full promptDelay0 = 0-s PP= Partial prompt2 = 2-s I = Independent4 = 4-s E = Error N = No prompt 54
58 Verbal Behavior – Milestones Assessment and Placement Program http://www.avbpress.com/vbmapp- set.html Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills http://www.behavioranalysts.com/shop /home.php