Presentation on theme: "Communicating Across Cultures By: Lauren Tarpley, Phil Dahlen, Cole Taylor, Trey Minott, Brittany Self, Kent Ingram, Tyler McGinnis, Brittany Sanford."— Presentation transcript:
Communicating Across Cultures By: Lauren Tarpley, Phil Dahlen, Cole Taylor, Trey Minott, Brittany Self, Kent Ingram, Tyler McGinnis, Brittany Sanford
Cross-Cultural Communication Most important and relevant topic Close relationship between language and music Cultural factors influence the development of language
Aspects of Communication 7% of communication is based on words 38% is based on how those words are spoken 55% is based on nonverbal activities
Nonverbal Activities Time The use of space Eye movement Body motions Touching Physical appearance Speaking Smelling
In This Chapter Focus on language and the paradoxes associated with it Examine paradoxes surrounding nonverbal activities Analyze symbolism’s importance in cross-cultural communication Look at mediated communication
How Can Knowing the Language of Another Culture be a Disadvantage? Which is more important, knowing the language of a culture, or knowing the norms, values, and behaviors that are expected by its members and abiding by them? The answer is situational Since it is a paradox, both are equally important
Knowing the Language Being well acquainted with the language is necessary But does not assure effective communication Being fluent does have negative aspects If fluent, natives may assume you know their culture norms Learning a new language is time-consuming
Understanding Norms, Values and Beliefs Easy to gain a superficial understanding of these cultural aspects Through the internet, books, videos, and talking with others Important if not familiar with the language Natives will be more forgiving of your lack of fluency
The Role of an Interpreter Useful if executives do not know the language Interpreters should: Accompany executives Translate documents Help out on advertising Facilitate relationships Impart cultural knowledge
The Dilemma Emphasizing both language and cultural knowledge is ideal It is not always feasible to become fluent in a language In which case executives must learn cultural specifics and key phrases Becoming fluent and obtaining cultural knowledge are each reasonable This causes the paradox to represent a dilemma
Languages Are Dying, But Becoming More Influential Over 15,000 languages 100 years ago English is language of business Spanish is the 3 rd most used language
Languages Are Dying, But Becoming More Influential - Mexico As languages diminish in numbers, Spanish gains dominance 21 countries list Spanish as their native language, including Brazil
Are Proverbs Effective Descriptors of a Culture? Michael Agar, “Language Shock”. (1994) Austrian word “Schmah” Found to be open to interpretation within situation
Are Proverbs Effective Descriptors of a Culture? 60 Minutes - “Tango Finlandia”. (1993) Misinterpretation of Finnish Shyness Related to low birth rates Shyness seen as reflective, hard working, etc. Business deals in Saunas
Are Proverbs Effective Descriptors of a Culture? - Mexico Mexican language has old roots, and is derived from Latin based languages Compared to American Culture, Mexican cultures are very similar and share many mannerisms Ex: Sweet 16 and Quinceañera
Are Proverbs Effective Descriptors of a Culture? China is less risk averse than US in financial decisions, but more risk averse in social decisions and situations Mexico is risk averse in both financial decisions and social decisions.
Personal Space in the US Skin to 18 inches: only few allowed 18 inches to 4 feet: Friendship 4 feet to 12 feet: Impersonal business 12 feet and beyond: Individuals recognize one another and say hello One of the cultural differences in Mexico is that there is less personal space. People here are very comfortable with being close together in lines, on buses, and at home.
MonohronicPolychronic Employees do one thing at a time Employees do many things simultaneously (multitasking) Employees make time commitments (set deadlines) Time commitments are flexible and have low priority Employees are committed to the job Employees are committed to people and relationships Employees concentrate on the job Employees get easily distracted Employees emphasize promptness Employees base promptness on relationships Employees are accustomed to short- term relationships Employees tend to form deep lifelong relationships Employees are low context and need explicit information Employees are high context and so socialized that they already possess implicit information Employees adherr to plansEmployees change plans often
Can a culture be simultaneously Monochronic and Polychronic? Hall treats U.S. culture as monochronic. Managerial work within it tends to be polychronic. Manager performed many activities within 2-minute period. Managers and employees to perform more activities. Leading to multitasking or polychronic behavior. However, Japanese firms in Thailand punctuate the day with breaks beyond a coffee break. American firms in Thailand pay more for less breaks, strategy works.
Can a culture be simultaneously low context and high context? Hall seems to suggest no, opposite ends of continuum. However, his descriptions of cultures argue against this idea. He describes the Japanese as high context with one another and low context when communicating with Westerners. Japanese innovation of karaoke allows for expression of low context behavior as an outlet for high context cultures. Must realize cultures can be both low context and high context but in different situations and contexts.
Symbolic Meaning in Cross-Cultural Communication Complexity of this area is high. Before visiting new cultures, brush up on diversity of that culture. For example: Asia and Middle East, insulting to show bottom of one’s shoes. African Americans and Africans tend to avoid direct eye contact. Anglo-Saxon tend to emphasize eye contact. Chinese avoid using 4, in Chinese word is similar to death. Interpret behaviors from own vantage point. All cultures possess phenomena that are symbolic in meaning. Knowing the symbolism can be very helpful.
How can the same phenomenon represent different symbolic meaning? Spanish Culture Looked at for its vitality Bullfighting Associated with blood and gore Death of Bull/Matador Spanish Bullfighting Celebration of death Reminder that people should embrace life to the fullest
How can the same phenomenon represent different symbolic meaning? Portugal Bullfighting No killing of the bull King outlawed it because of fatalities Injuries still occur Symbolizes Bravery Unites team and audience
How can the same phenomenon represent different symbolic meaning? Skull in Mexico’s Day of the Dead: November 2 Happy Colorful Celebration Spiritual communion between life and death Celebration of death transcendence, transformation, and resurrection Skull Skull in Halloween in United States: October 31 The souls of the dead Scare spirits away Skull
How can the same phenomenon represent different symbolic meaning? Day of the DeadHalloween
How can the same phenomenon represent changing symbolic meaning? Smiling in US Extroverted country Vigor and frequency Smiling in China, Japan Seen as lack of self-control or tranquility
How can the same phenomenon represent changing symbolic meaning? France Established relationship Don’t smile when being helpful Hotel manager’s visit to California Hotel Implemented smiling and helpfulness in French hotel
How can the same phenomenon represent changing symbolic meaning? Communicating face to face Mexico Stand close together Showing Discomfort considered rude Influence from family-oriented culture US Standing further away considered appropriate Being too close is invasion of space
Technology, Step-up or Downfall? Mediated Communication Loss of business College graduates and overall adult literacy. Cell phones and multi-tasking
Mediated Communication The world is becoming more dependent on mediated communication. Low-context, explicit communication Informal, brief Huge use of linguistic shortcuts
Loss of business Informal isn’t best with business Older generations vs. younger ones Different cultures expect different things
College Grads and Adult literacy College grads losing the ability to write effectively Grammar and spelling are both suffering Adult literacy is becoming a joke
Cell phones and multi-tasking Communication becoming low-context Multi-tasking doesn’t allow for high-context Back to informality and briefness
Mediated Communication vs. Face- to-Face Advantages and disadvantages Globalization and geographically distributed teams Fault lines Ethnocentrism and cross-cultural learning Which one is better?
Advantages and Disadvantages of Mediated Communication Advantages Time zones and distance aren’t a factor Reduced role of Status Reduced gender bias Personal Power Expanded audience and customer base
Advantages and Disadvantages of Mediated Communication Disadvantages Ease of becoming antagonistic Price is the only issue of concern Failure to consult others Obsession with winning Decreased trust levels
Globalization and Geographically Distributed teams “Quick trust” in geographically distributed teams 5 problems with “Quick trust”
Fault lines Predictive of earth quakes Group diversity a large predicator Heightened conflict and reduced trust
Ethnocentrism MY group is the only one that matters Not the only outcome
Mediated or Face-to-Face Functionally equivalent More major problems from mediated
Is the internet integrating the world or creating wide differences? Integrating national cultures Thomas Friedman Direct and easy communication Differentiating Used for specific needs only Problematic for globalization
Is colonization or communitarianism winning in the battle for the Internet? Colonization Business firms Communitarianism Craigslist, software developers Comparable rivals German engineers, Chinese, Arab League
Information Superhighway International problems with the Internet comparison Introduction of rainbow metaphor
Conclusion Understand the culture you are communicating with Recognize the heavy importance of body language Practice effective Internet use when able