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Republic of Iraq Ministry of Higher Education & Scientific Research University of Technology By: Hyder Mohammed Abdul Hussein ABSTRACT A theoretical study includes details flow turbulence in air-conditioned spaces with the determination of the boundary conditions depending on the Iraqi Code of cooling is done in this research. Two kinds of two- dimensional and three-dimensional ventilation problems have been considered: (a) isothermal ventilation in simple rooms. (b) non-isothermal ventilation with coupled heat or mass transfer. The investigation has studied the flow and thermal conditions for four different diffusers (displacement, grille, slot, and square diffusers). The dimensions of the of the physical model are (5.16×3.65 m) with (2.43 m high). The supply condition for four diffusers are (displacement ( kg/s), grille ( kg/s), slot ( kg/s), square (0.750 kg/s)) and temperature at supply for all types is (15.0 o C), the return considered as the type of diffusers has been imposed zero flow pressure and temperature at (24.0 o C). A modified version of a three-dimensional computer program (fluent ) by using finite-volume method was used to simulate the complex flow with buoyant inside the model room. They have been investigated numerically by using several turbulence models and the method solution by using k-ε and k-ω models. A THEORETICAL STUDY OF A COLD AIR DISTRIBTION SYSTEM WITH DIFFERENT SUPPLY PATTERNS

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION The Meaning of Air Conditioning: Full air conditioning implies the automatic control of an atmospheric environment either for the comfort of human beings or animals or for the proper performance of some industrial or scientific process. The adjective 'full' demands that the purity, movement, temperature and relative humidity of the air be controlled, within the limits imposed by the design specification. Ventilation Process: Natural inlet and outlet Natural inlet and mechanical outlet Mechanical inlet and natural outlet Mechanical inlet and outlet

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Local exhaust ventilation (LEV)Piston ventilation (Unidirectional) Mixing ventilation (Dilution) Displacement ventilation Types of Ventilation 1 INTRODUCTION

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Thermal and Environment Comfort The environmental factors that affect a person’s thermal balance and therefore influence thermal comfort are: The dry bulb temperature of the surrounding air. The humidity of the surrounding air. The relative velocity of the surrounding air. The temperature of any surfaces that can directly view any part of the body and thus exchange radiation. The relative humidity not exceed 60%. ASHRAE Standard The comfort zones of Figure 5 are for air speeds not to exceed 0.2 m/s. INTRODUCTION 1

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Basic Flow Patterns Occupant comfort is maintained not directly by motion of air from the outlets, but from secondary air motion that results from mixing in the unoccupied zone. Comfort is maximized when uniform temperature distribution and room air velocities of less than 0.25 m/s are maintained in the occupied zone. Group A: Outlets mounted in or near the ceiling that discharge air horizontally. Group B: Outlets mounted in or near the floor that discharge air vertically in a nonspreading jet. INTRODUCTION 1

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Group C: Outlets mounted in or near the floor that discharge air vertically in a spreading jet. Group D: Outlets mounted in or near the floor that discharge air horizontally. Group E: Outlets mounted in or near the ceiling that project primary air vertically. INTRODUCTION 1

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Types of predictions and CFD preference Designing ventilation systems for buildings require a suitable tool to assess the system performance. Seven types of models assessed (analytical, empirical, small-scale experimental, full-scale experimental, multizone network, zonal, and CFD) for predicting ventilation performance in buildings, which can be different in details according to the model types. The CFD models provided the most detailed information about the performance of ventilation systems in a zone, and were the most accurate of the numerical models, but they are sophisticated and require very dedicated training of a user. INTRODUCTION 1

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Objectives of the Present Work To carry out computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis for room air distribution at the design flow rate of the diffuser and validate it with experimental data To simulate indoor air flow The investigate the possibility of using the Different Supply Patterns as an air distribution system in an office building To study the effects of changing the locations of inlets and outlets on the flow patterns. INTRODUCTION 1

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CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter presents brief description of the published literature and recorded experimental results in the field of room parameters. This review is subdivided into three main topics Experimental Works, Numerical Simulations and Experimental and Numerical Studies. 1.Experimental work Small-scale Barber et. al. (1972) Room - higher temperature of water Van Hoooff et. al. (2012) Partical Image Velocimetry – PIV Water-filled Full-scale Zhang et. al. (1992) / room / diffuser jet region Wang et. al. (2006) / air craft cabin with 35 mannequins / Volumetric Partical Tracking Velocimetry Nielsen (2007) / Alborg University, Denmark / five types of diffuser Rees et.al. (2012) / test chamber used displacement diffuser Pang et.al. (2013) / Air craft cabin Flow Visualization with Green Laser (FVGL)

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Numerical Simulation Y. Kondo et. al. (1998) / 3-D / Turbulent S.L. Sinha et. al. (1999) / 2-D / Laminar P. Charvat et. al. (2001) / 2-D / Turbulent & Laminar F. Song et. al. (2006) / 3-D / Turbulent L. Zhu et. al. (2006) / 3-D / Turbulent H.J. Steeman et. al. (2009) / 3-D / Turbulent W. Cai et. al. (2010) / 3-D / Turbulent M. Cehlin et. al (2010) / 3-D / Turbulent S. H. Ho et. al. (2011) / 2-D / Laminar S. A. Al-Sanea et. al. (2012) / 2-D / Turbulent T. Zhang (2012) / 3-D / Turbulent LITERATURE REVIEW 2

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Expermental and Numerical Studies Y. Huo (1997) / 3-D / Full-Scale / Turbulent / Canada M. Bartak et. al. (2001) / 3-D / Full-Scale / Turbulent / Denmark J. Srebric et. al. (2002) / 3-D / Full-Scale / Turbulent / USA J.D. Posner et. al. (2003) / 3-D / Small-Scale / Turbulent / USA J. J. A. A. Akoua et. al. (2006) / 3-D / Full-Scale / Turbulent / France Y. Mei et. al. (2009) / 3-D / Full-Scale / Turbulent / China K. Lee et. al. (2009) / 3-D / Full-Scale / Turbulent / USA - China Q.Chan et. al (2010) / 3-D / Seven Types models / Turbulent / USA - China G. Reynders et. al. (2011) / 3-D / Full-Scale / Turbulent / netherland LITERATURE REVIEW 2

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Scope of the Present Work From the above review where the theoretical and experimental studies are stated in the previous sections, the scope of the present work will be: 1.Modeling of air diffusers to the types (displacement, slot, square, and grille). 2.Analyzing the effect of actual heat load inside the space, such as human, computer and wall temperature. 3.Comparing the prediction results of physical model to air velocity and temperature with other experimental ones previous work. 4.Obtaining the results based on the standard conditions under the Iraqi Code of cooling. LITERATURE REVIEW 2

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The Standard k-ε Model CHAPTER THREE THEORETICAL FORMULATION

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The RNG k-ε Model THEORETICAL FORMULATION 3

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The Realizable k-ε Model The k-ω Model THEORETICAL FORMULATION 3

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Assumptions for 2D and 3D Models The following assumptions are used to simplify the proposed model solution: 1- Steady state flow. 2- Incompressible flow of air. 3- Multicomponent fluid, which includes dry air with buoyancy force. 4- The fluid properties are considered as constants except the varying density for buoyancy term in the momentum equation. 5- Thermal conductivity is scalar. 6- No chemical reaction. 7- Turbulent flow. THEORETICAL FORMULATION 3

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Validation study of 2D Isothermal Ceiling Jet First Case : Validation with EXACT3 code for two-dimensional Isothermal case. Boundary condition Meshes grid (20ˣ40). Dimensions ( mˣ2.857 m). Inlet velocity U o =0.0 m/s, V o = 1.0 m/s k o, ε o as defined in equations: K o = 1.5 (0.04 × V o ) 2 (4.1) ε o = k o 1.5 / l o (4.2) Outlet: U o =0.0 m/s, V o = -1.0 m/s Second case: the direction of the supply air was not perpendicular to the ceiling but at an angle of 60 degrees. CHAPTER FOUR VALIDATION STUDY FOR 3D AND 2D VENTILATION

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4 Fig. (4.1) Dimension and Layout of the Room, [32]. Figure (4.2) Air Velocity in a Vertical Line (Supply Position) Figure (4.4) Air Velocity in a Vertical Line (Return Position) Figure (4.3) Air Velocity in a Vertical Line (0.75 m from the Supply)

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VALIDATION STUDY FOR 3D AND 2D VENTILATION 4 Fig. (4.1) Dimension and Layout of the Room, [32]. Figure (4.5) Air velocity profile, a- conventional method b- k-ε (SWF)

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VALIDATION STUDY FOR 3D AND 2D VENTILATION 4 Validation study of IEA Annex 20 Experimental data obtained from a scale model room using laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA), validity by standard k-ε, RNG k-ε, and Realizable k-ε. Boundary conditions: Meshes grid (50 ˣ 28). Dimensions (9.0 m ˣ 3.0 m). Inlet velocity U o =0.455 m/s, V o = 0.0 m/s k o, ε o as defined in equations (4.1) and (4.2). Outlet dp/dx=0 Results: comparisons with experimental data of the prediction results using standard k-ε model and three different near-wall treatments (standard wall-function (SWF), non-equilibrium wall function (NEWF) and enhanced wall treatment (EWF). It can be seen that the predictions from the standard k-ε model and the RNG k-ε have a very little deviation, the Realizable k-ε predicts better the jet flow at X=6m.

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VALIDATION STUDY FOR 3D AND 2D VENTILATION 4 Fig. (4.6) The IEA Annex 20 project, a simple 2D test case Fig. (4.7) A comparison between predicted results with experimental data using standard k-ε model at X=3 m Fig. (4.9) A comparison between predicted results using different k-ε models with experimental data, a- X=3m, b- X=6m Fig. (4.8) A comparison between predicted results with experimental data using standard k-ε model at X=6 m X=3 mX=6 m

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VALIDATION STUDY FOR 3D AND 2D VENTILATION 4 3D Ventilation Flows with Heat and Mass Transfer Three typical ventilation flow cases are considered (displacement, slot ceiling, and square ceiling) ventilation in summer cooling condition. The three test cases are taken from a recent report ASHRAE RP-1009,[13]. Displacement ventilation

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VALIDATION STUDY FOR 3D AND 2D VENTILATION 4 Thermal conditions: Computer 1: W/m 2 Computer 2: W/m 2 Human simulators: 41.9 W/m 2 Lamps: W/m 2 The average of the measured temperatures at the walls is used to specify the thermal condition for the walls: Ceiling: 295 K (22°C) Floor: 292 K (19°C) West wall: 294 K (21°C) East Wall: 296 K (23°C) South and North walls: 294 K (21°C) Table 1: 293 K (20°C) Table 2: 294 K (21°C) Turbulence modeling: Applying that the Realizable k-ε and the SST k-ω models Computation meshes: (1,480,232) cells. Numerical schemes: discretized using the second-order upwind scheme. For the discretization of pressure, the PRESTO! (PREssure STaggering Option) scheme is used. The SIMPLEC scheme is used for the pressure-velocity coupling.

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VALIDATION STUDY FOR 3D AND 2D VENTILATION 4 Simulation results E W N S Fig. (4.10) Configuration of the displacement ventilation test case Fig. (4.11) The positions of the measuring poles for the displacement ventilation test case [13]

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VALIDATION STUDY FOR 3D AND 2D VENTILATION 4 Simulation results Fig. (4.12) Prediction of the air velocity with Realizable k-ε model and Enhancement Wall Treatment and SST k-ω, (Z=height/total room height (H), U=velocity/supply velocity (U 0 ), H=2.43m, U 0 =0.35m/s). Fig. (4.13) Prediction of the air temperature with Realizable k-ε model and Enhancement Wall Treatment and SST k- ω, (Z=height/total room height (H), q=(T-T in /T out -T in ), H=2.43m, T in =13.0ºC, T out =22.2ºC).

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VALIDATION STUDY FOR 3D AND 2D VENTILATION 4 Ceiling slot ventilation The slot diffuser has three m x m openings and the inflow passes through the two openings to enter the test room, the objects (human, computers, tables, lamps and cabinets) are simulated. Boundary conditions: Supply diffuser: mass flow rate of kg/s, the inlet flow from the slot diffuser turned 45° downwards toward the west wall over an area of (1.15 m ˣ 0.1 m), and turbulence intensity of 5%. The turbulence quantities (k, ε or ω) at the inlet are calculated using equations (4.1) and (4.3). Return: The outlet is specified as pressure outlet.

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VALIDATION STUDY FOR 3D AND 2D VENTILATION 4 Thermal conditions: Computer 1: W/m 2 Computer 2: W/m 2 Human simulators: 41.9 W/m 2 Lamps: W/m 2 The average of the measured temperatures at the walls is used to specify the thermal condition for the walls: Ceiling: 295 K (22°C) Floor: 292 K (19°C) West wall: 294 K (21°C) East Wall: 296 K (23°C) South and North walls: 294 K (21°C) Table 1: 293 K (20°C) Table 2: 294 K (21°C) Turbulence modeling: Applying that the Realizable k-ε and the SST k-ω models Computation meshes: (1,071,118) cells. Numerical schemes: discretized using the second-order upwind scheme. For the discretization of pressure, the PRESTO! (PREssure STaggering Option) scheme is used. The SIMPLEC scheme is used for the pressure-velocity coupling. Ceiling slot ventilation

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VALIDATION STUDY FOR 3D AND 2D VENTILATION 4 Simulation results Fig. (4.14) Configuration of ceiling slot ventilation test case Fig. (4.15) The positions of the measuring poles for the ceiling slot ventilation test case [13] E W N S (a) Details of the slot diffuser (b) Inflow direction Fig. (4.16) Installation and details of the slot diffuser [13] Ceiling slot ventilation:

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VALIDATION STUDY FOR 3D AND 2D VENTILATION 4 Simulation results Fig. (4.17) Prediction of the air velocity with Realizable k-ε model and Enhancement Wall Treatment and SST k-ω, (Z=height/total room height (H), U=velocity/supply velocity (U 0 ), H=2.43m, U 0 =3.9m/s). Fig. (4.18) Prediction of the air temperature with Realizable k-ε model and Enhancement Wall Treatment and SST k-ω, (Z=height/total room height (H), q=(T-T in /T out -T in ), H=2.43m, T in =16.3ºC, T out =21.4ºC). Ceiling slot ventilation:

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VALIDATION STUDY FOR 3D AND 2D VENTILATION 4 Ceiling square ventilation The inlet diffuser is installed on the ceiling, and the exhaust opening is on the west wall and 0.02 m above the floor, the objects (human, computers, tables, lamps and cabinets) are simulated. Boundary conditions: Supply diffuser: mass flow rate of kg/s, The square diffuser has nine 0.1m x 0.1m openings and the inflow passes through the eight openings to enter the test room. The turbulence quantities (k, ε or ω) at the inlet are calculated using equations (4.1) and (4.3). Return: The outlet is specified as pressure outlet.

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VALIDATION STUDY FOR 3D AND 2D VENTILATION 4 Thermal conditions: Computer 1: W/m 2 Computer 2: W/m 2 Human simulators: 41.9 W/m 2 Lamps: W/m 2 The average of the measured temperatures at the walls is used to specify the thermal condition for the walls: Ceiling: 295 K (22°C) Floor: 292 K (19°C) West wall: 294 K (21°C) East Wall: 296 K (23°C) South and North walls: 294 K (21°C) Table 1: 293 K (20°C) Table 2: 294 K (21°C) Turbulence modeling: Applying that the Realizable k-ε and the SST k-ω models Computation meshes: (1,751,500) cells. Numerical schemes: discretized using the second-order upwind scheme. For the discretization of pressure, the PRESTO! (PREssure STaggering Option) scheme is used. The SIMPLEC scheme is used for the pressure-velocity coupling.

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VALIDATION STUDY FOR 3D AND 2D VENTILATION 4 Simulation results Fig. (4.19) Configuration of ceiling slot ventilation test case Fig. (4.20) The positions of the measuring poles for the ceiling slot ventilation test case [13] Fig. (4.21) Modeling of the square diffuser E W N S

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VALIDATION STUDY FOR 3D AND 2D VENTILATION 4 Simulation results Fig. (4.22) Prediction of the air velocity with Realizable k-ε and SST k-ω model compared with box and momentum, (Z=height/total room height (H), U=velocity/supply velocity (U 0 ), H=2.43m, U 0 =5.2m/s). Fig. (4.23) Prediction of the air temperature with Realizable k-ε and SST k-ω model compared with box and momentum, (Z=height/total room height (H), q=(T-T in /T out -T in ), H=2.43m, T in =14.5ºC, T out =24.1ºC).

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CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The Iraqi Code of Cooling limited the outdoor for Baghdad and indoor conditions are listed in Table (5.1) and Table (5.2), respectively. Table (5.1) Outdoor data for Iraq Region DBT in summer (ºC) RH % in summer The daily (ºC) Altitude (m) Latitude N Longitude E Baghdad Table (5.2) Indoor conditions DBT in summer (ºC) RH % in summer Air velocity (m/s) Human comfort – 2 Recommended conditions inside the office – 0.23 Four types of diffusers are set in three orientations all south-facing and all cases running as constant wall temperature, but not that all walls of office are exposed to outside. For each type of diffuser three cases are chosen, the first case just eastern and southern walls, the second case is only the southern wall and the third case is the southern and western wall, and the ceiling wall in all cases is included.

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5 Displacement Diffuser CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

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5 Computation meshes: (1,480,232) cells. Numerical schemes: discretized using the second-order upwind scheme. For the discretization of pressure, the PRESTO! (PREssure STaggering Option) scheme is used. The SIMPLEC scheme is used for the pressure-velocity coupling. Summary of boundary conditions Table (5.3) summarize boundary conditions: CasesOrientation Air supply ACH (kg/s) Air velocity (m/s) Gross area A gross (m 2 ) Air temp. supply (ºC) Air temp. return (ºC) Case 1 Eastern, southern and ceiling walls 5.0 (0.0768) × Case 2Southern and ceiling wall Case 3 Southern, western and ceiling wall CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

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5 Simulation results E W N S Fig. (5.2) Configuration of the displacement ventilation test case. Fig. (5.3) The positions of the measuring poles for the displacement ventilation test case, [13]. CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

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5 Simulation results a b CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig. (5.10) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ε, case 1, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4m. Fig. (5.11) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ω, case 1, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4m.

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5 Simulation results a b CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION a Fig. (5.12) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ε, case 2, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4m. Fig. (5.13) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ω, case 2, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4m.

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5 Simulation results a b CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig. (5.14) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ε, case 3, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4m. Fig. (5.15) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ω, case 3, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4m.

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5 Simulation results CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig. (5.16) Effect draft temperature for k-ε and k-ω models, (a) case1, (b) case 2, (c) case 3. a b c

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5 Grille Diffuser Boundary conditions: Supply diffuser: mass flow rate of kg/s, turbulence intensity of 4%. The turbulence quantities (k, ε or ω) at the inlet are calculated using equations (4.1) and (4.3). Return: The outlet is specified as pressure outlet. Thermal conditions: Computer 1: W/m 2 Computer 2: W/m 2 Human simulators: 41.9 W/m 2 Lamps: W/m 2 Turbulence modeling: Applying that the Realizable k-ε and the SST k-ω models. Computation meshes: (499,952) cells. Numerical schemes: discretized using the second-order upwind scheme. For the discretization of pressure, the PRESTO! (PREssure STaggering Option) scheme is used. The SIMPLEC scheme is used for the pressure-velocity coupling. CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

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5 Summary of boundary conditions Table (5.4) summarize boundary conditions: CasesOrientation Air supply ACH (kg/s) Air velocity (m/s) Gross area A gross (m 2 ) Air temp. supply (ºC) Air temp. return (ºC) Case 1 Eastern, southern and ceiling walls 5.0 (0.0768) × Case 2Southern and ceiling wall Case 3 Southern, western and ceiling wall CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

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5 Simulation results Fig. (5.17) Configuration of grille ventilation test case Fig. (5.18) The positions of the measuring poles for the grille ventilation test case [13]. CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION E W N S

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5 Simulation results a b CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig. (5.10) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ε, case 1, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4m. Fig. (5.11) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ω, case 1, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4m.

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5 Simulation results a b CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig. (5.12) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ε, case 2, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4m. Fig. (5.13) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ω, case 2, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4m.

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5 Simulation results a b CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig. (5.14) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ε, case 3, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4m. Fig. (5.15) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ω, case 3, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4m.

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5 Simulation results CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION a b c Fig. (5.31) Grille effect draft temperature for k-ε and k-ω models, (a) case1, (b) case 2, (c) case 3.

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5 Slot Diffuser Boundary conditions: Supply diffuser: mass flow rate of kg/s, turbulence intensity of 5%. The turbulence quantities (k, ε or ω) at the inlet are calculated using equations (4.1) and (4.3). Return: The outlet is specified as pressure outlet. Thermal conditions: Computer 1: W/m 2 Computer 2: W/m 2 Human simulators: 41.9 W/m 2 Lamps: W/m 2 Turbulence modeling: Applying that the Realizable k-ε and the SST k-ω models. Computation meshes: (1,071,118) cells. Numerical schemes: discretized using the second-order upwind scheme. For the discretization of pressure, the PRESTO! (PREssure STaggering Option) scheme is used. The SIMPLEC scheme is used for the pressure-velocity coupling. CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

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5 Summary of boundary conditions Table (5.5) summarize boundary conditions: CasesOrientation Air supply ACH (kg/s) Air velocity (m/s) Gross area A gross (m 2 ) Air temp. supply (ºC) Air temp. return (ºC) Case 1 Eastern, southern and ceiling walls 9.2 (0.1410) × Case 2Southern and ceiling wall Case 3 Southern, western and ceiling wall CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

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5 Simulation results Fig. (5.31) Configuration of slot ventilation test case. Fig. (5.32) The positions of the measuring poles for the ceiling slot ventilation test case, [13]. CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION E W N S

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5 Simulation results a b CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig. (5.40) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ε, case 1, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4m Fig. (5.41) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ω, case 1, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4m

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5 Simulation results a b CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig. (5.12) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ε, case 2, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4m. Fig. (5.13) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ω, case 2, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4m.

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5 Simulation results a b CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig. (5.14) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ε, case 3, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4m. Fig. (5.15) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ω, case 3, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4m.

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5 Simulation results CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION a b c Fig. (5.46) Slot effect draft temperature for k-ε and k-ω models, (a) case1, (b) case 2, (c) case 3.

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5 Square Diffuser Boundary conditions: Supply diffuser: mass flow rate of kg/s, turbulence intensity of 5%. The turbulence quantities (k, ε or ω) at the inlet are calculated using equations (4.1) and (4.3). Return: The outlet is specified as pressure outlet. Thermal conditions: Computer 1: W/m 2 Computer 2: W/m 2 Human simulators: 41.9 W/m 2 Lamps: W/m 2 Turbulence modeling: Applying that the Realizable k-ε and the SST k-ω models. Computation meshes: (1,751,500) cells. Numerical schemes: discretized using the second-order upwind scheme. For the discretization of pressure, the PRESTO! (PREssure STaggering Option) scheme is used. The SIMPLEC scheme is used for the pressure-velocity coupling. CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

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5 Summary of boundary conditions Table (5.5) summarize boundary conditions: CasesOrientation Air supply ACH (kg/s) Air velocity (m/s) Gross area A gross (m 2 ) Air temp. supply (ºC) Air temp. return (ºC) Case 1 Eastern, southern and ceiling walls 4.9 (0.750) × Case 2Southern and ceiling wall Case 3 Southern, western and ceiling wall CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

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5 Simulation results Fig. (5.47) Configuration of ceiling slot ventilation test case. Fig. (5.48) The positions of the measuring poles for the ceiling slot ventilation test case, [13]. CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION E W N S Fig. (5.49) modeling of the square diffuser.

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5 Simulation results a b CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig. (5.56) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ε, case 1, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4m. Fig. (5.57) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ω, case 1, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4m.

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5 Simulation results a b CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig. (5.58) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ε, case 2, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4m. Fig. (5.59) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ω, case 2, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4m.

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5 Simulation results a b CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig. (5.60) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ε, case 3, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4m. Fig. (5.61) Distribution of calculation air temperature contours with k-ω, case 3, (a) plane at z=1.825m, (b) plane at z=0.4 m.

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5 Simulation results CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION a b c Fig. (5.62) Slot effect draft temperature for k-ε and k-ω models, (a) case1, (b) case 2, (c) case 3.

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