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Dallas ISD Language & Literacy Department

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1 Dallas ISD Language & Literacy Department
Balanced Literacy in the Elementary Classroom- Building from the Ground Up Core Content Training 3rd-5th Grade Teachers NTA, August 2013 Dallas ISD Language & Literacy Department

2 Goals for Participants
Participants will understand the Dallas ISD Balanced Literacy Framework. Participants will know how to locate Dallas ISD curriculum resources. Participants will understand what a literacy block looks like in the third through fifth grade classroom.

3 Core Beliefs Our main purpose is to improve student academic achievement. Effective instruction makes the most difference in student academic performance. There is no excuse for poor quality instruction. With our help, at risk students will achieve at the same rate as non-at risk students. Staff members must have a commitment to children and a commitment to the pursuit of excellence Discuss briefly. Participants should have already attended a training with Mr. Miles on these beliefs.

4 What is our Lesson Focus?
Our Lesson Objective for the first portion of this training is: Participants will understand the components of the Dallas ISD Balanced Literacy Framework. Our Demonstration Of Learning for the first portion of this training is: A Lesson Objective is the first bookend needed to determine the goal of a lesson. This is used to plan the assessment and the lessons that will ensure appropriate learning of content. Given the definitions of literacy components, participants will be able to correctly match at least 4 of the 6 components with its definition.

5 Keep your eyes out for MRS
Response Card Whip Around Modified Whip Around Think-Pair-Share Table Talk Quick Response Oral/Choral Response White Boards Explain that Multiple Response Strategies are engagement strategies that allow teachers to know if all students are actively engaged in the lesson We will embed the use of MRS within the training. Point them out as they occur. Give participants MRS handout

6 Dallas ISD Reading & Writing Philosophy
Dallas ISD believes that a balanced approach to literacy development is essential to building the foundational blocks of knowledge for strategic reading, writing, and analytical thinking. We believe that purposeful integration of interactive and engaging reading and writing skills in all disciplines, and media literacy, provide opportunities for students to enjoy reading, explore new learning, deepen thinking, ask and answer questions, and more importantly, develop lifelong learning. These are the specifics regarding DISD beliefs about reading and writing. This was taken DIRECTLY from the Comprehensive Literacy Handbook. Participants will read philosophy and then participate in MRS -Table Talk. “With your partners, decide what you think is a key component of the philosophy and why.” You can extend this with a Modified Whip-Around. These are the specific components mentioned in the handbook: What We Believe About Reading Reading instruction is connected to writing, listening, and speaking. Reading instruction is direct and explicit in developing concepts of print, letter knowledge, phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and critical thinking skills. Reading instruction includes progress monitoring and intervention, as needed, and is differentiated appropriately to help students meet grade level reading expectations. Reading is a skill that needs to be modeled and practiced daily. Reading should be purposeful and relevant. Students need to hear and read a variety of high quality texts to build reading skills. Students need ample opportunities to practice and build reading stamina. Students must be challenged daily to think critically. Students need to be able to self select materials they want to read. What We Believe About Writing Writing is connected to reading, listening, and speaking. Writing is a process to convey knowledge, express ideas, and construct thoughts in a methodical framework. Writing instruction must be modeled and should include the complete writing process: planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing. Writing is a process that must be practiced daily in all content areas to build stamina. Students must be able to write in a variety of genres within content. Students should be able to communicate effectively through writing and use conventional spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Students should have purposeful, relevant, and connected opportunities to write daily. Students should have opportunities to write in a wide variety of modalities. Students need to honor intellectual properties by citing appropriately.

7 #1 #2 #3 Assign each group a picture. Ask-
How does this picture relate to the core beliefs focusing on the district’s philosophy about reading & writing? MRS-Think-Quick Write-Pair-Share #3

8 Balanced Literacy Characteristics
The balanced approach to instruction is based on a comprehensive view of literacy that combines explicit instruction, guided practice, collaborative learning, and independent reading and writing. There are 4 main characteristics of a balanced literacy approach. Discuss meaning of explicit instruction: Guided instruction and strategic development in the basic understanding of required skills in reading and writing, which students can then build on through developmental practice, collaboration, repetition, hands on activities while scaffolding instruction.. guided practice- Guided practice means students use the strategy as the teacher provides targeted and differentiated support. collaborative learning- Collaborative learning requires working together toward a common goal; it means that students are responsible for one another's learning as well as their own and that reaching the goal implies that students have helped each other to understand and learn. independent reading/writing- In independent reading, students read individually and silently typically selecting their own texts, sometimes with teacher guidance. In independent writing, Students work silently and individually on their own writing. Teacher provides a daily mini lesson based on the needs of the writer. Students write and sketch, sometimes using a writer’s notebook and working through the components of the writing process. If you want an activity, you could add these phrases to a word bank or a word wall. Balanced Literacy Characteristics: Literacy involves both reading and writing. Oral language is integrated with reading and writing. Reading instruction includes phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Writing instruction includes the writing process, the qualities of good writing to communicate ideas effectively, and conventional spelling, grammar, and punctuation to make those ideas more readable. Reading and writing are used as tools for content-area learning. Strategies and skills are taught explicitly, with a gradual release of responsibility to students. Students often work collaboratively and talk with classmates. Students are more motivated and engaged when they participate in authentic literacy activities.

9 Characteristics of Balanced Literacy
Pictures will enter screen upon clicking, determine which ones exemplify traits of a balanced literacy program and which do not. MRS- Response Card Yes/No Then call on participant to tell which of the 4 characteristics is exemplified in the picture. Picture #1- Does Not- Students not set up for collaboration Picture #2- Does- Teacher is providing explicit instruction Picture #3- Does- Students are working collaboratively Picture #4- Does- Students are engaged in guided practice (or explicit instruction) Picture #5- Does Not- student is not engaged in learning at all Picture #6- Does- Student is engaged in independent writing

10 Comprehensive Literacy Framework
comprehension WORD STUDY Give participants copy of Comprehensive Literacy Framework Be sure to point out the text structure/text features of this document before you begin to investigate. Discuss: A balanced approach to literacy instruction calls for a curriculum framework that gives reading and writing equal status. Such a framework recognizes the importance of both the cognitive and affective dimensions of literacy. It acknowledges the meaning making involved in the full processes of reading and writing, while recognizing the importance of strategies and skills used by proficient readers and writers. Discuss: What happens to your house if you have an unbalanced frame? WRITING READING

11 This is a picture of a construction worker using a level to check his work. Look at our Comprehensive Literacy Framework. How does the framework help you do your work as a teacher just as the level helps the construction worker? MRS- Think-Pair-Share Call on a few participants to share.

12 Where would Bob be without his tools?
Create a “tool box” by folding paper. Participants will get a handout with pictures of tools where each tool represents one of the components of the balanced literacy framework. As we go over each component, participants will take notes on the “tool visual” and add this to their tool box. There are 8 tools to represent the components of reading and writing. On the back of the tool box, participants will draw a picture of nuts & bolts and this is where they will take notes on the Word Study components. These pieces are the connectors linking reading and writing. As you go through each component, if you have artifacts to share please show those. Help participants write notes that include the key points instead of copying the slide.

13 Read Aloud Teacher reads a selection aloud to students engaging in a series of activities, including: previewing vocabulary development predicting questioning story analysis feature analysis responding Rationale: Read Aloud promotes a love of reading, stimulates the imagination, and helps students develop an ear for the vocabulary and structures of language in print. It allows the teacher to introduce new reading strategies, and to model or demonstrate them by thinking aloud. It provides models of fluent reading; develops a sense of story/text, develops vocabulary and encourages predictions. Read Aloud also builds a community of readers and develops active listening. Discuss and add notes to the toolbox.

14 Shared Reading Rationale: Allows the teacher to model reading strategies, provides students with essential demonstrations of how reading works and what readers do to construct meaning. It demonstrates an awareness of text, develops a sense of story or content, teaches students strategies for decoding unknown words and for construction meaning from the text, develops fluency, phrasing and reading strategies. It also increases comprehension and allows for students to see themselves as readers. They feel comfortable and experience fluency when joining in the reading of familiar texts, provide students with a safe, nonthreatening environment in which to practice new and familiar reading strategies. The use of big books, charts and projected texts is a common practice for shared reading. At the primary level, texts are usually read multiple times over a period of days. Intermediate and upper grades often divide a longer selection over a period of days. Discuss and add notes to the toolbox. Teacher and students read text together promoting discussion, problem-solving and critical thinking. It is an interactive experience in which an enlarged text is used for all students to see.

15 Guided Reading Teacher works with small groups of students who have similar reading needs. The teacher selects and introduces new books carefully chosen to match the instructional levels of students with increasingly challenging levels of difficulty. The goal is to increase comprehension and encourage independent reading. There are multiple ways of doing small group instruction. To meet this need, DISD encourages and promotes Guided Reading. Rationale: Guided Reading promotes reading strategies and offers students the opportunity to practice their reading skills. It increases comprehension, encourages independent reading, and allows the teacher to monitor individual student’s progress. The teacher may need to prompt students to apply their knowledge of reading strategies when difficulties arise, provide further support, or regroup students according to their needs. It expands student’s belief in their own ability as a reader and consolidates or extends their understanding of a text. Readers are carefully prepared when being introduced to a new text, and various strategies are explicitly taught. Ongoing observation, assessment and running records help to inform instruction and grouping of students is flexible and may be changed often. Discuss and add notes to the toolbox.

16 Independent Reading Students self-select and independently read appropriate books based on their independent reading level and interest. During this time, students practice reading strategies that were explicitly taught during read aloud, shared reading and guided reading. Rationale: Independent Reading encourages strategic reading, allows students to choose texts that interest them and increases comprehension by allowing readers to practice the behaviors of proficient readers. It also supports writing development and extends experiences with a variety of written texts. It promotes reading for enjoyment and information, develops fluency by reading just right books and fosters self confidence by reading familiar and new texts. Notice that in the picture the student is actively engaged in independent reading but ISN’T sitting at a desk. Discuss and add notes to the toolbox.

17 Reading Workshop A framework of reading instruction that includes components that support comprehension and vocabulary development, differentiation of instruction and independence. Rationale: The reading workshop framework allows teachers to differentiate and meet the needs of all their students. Reading workshop fosters a love of reading and opportunities to practice reading strategies independently and with guidance. It emphasizes the importance of student engagement and facilitates the interaction and connection between readers and texts. Daily 5 is a management system that allows teachers to have Reading Workshop and students to be engaged in Independent Reading.

18 When the pieces fit together…
This is a video of a teacher in Dallas ISD working with a small group of students during a Guided Reading Lesson. (video of Kelly O’Hara teaching- 7 minutes long) Click on Bob the Builder to play the video. dstv channel Under “popular videos” Guided reading in a 3rd grade classroom

19 Writing Aloud/Modeled Writing
The teacher is routinely modeling the writing process in front of students by “thinking out loud” and supporting the writing process as a scribe. Rationale: Writing Aloud develops concepts of print, writing strategies, supports reading development, and provides a model for a variety of writing styles. It models the connection among and between sounds, letters, and words. It produces text that students can read independently and necessitates communicating in a clear and specific manner. The key is that the teacher HOLDS THE PEN. Discuss and add notes to the toolbox.

20 Shared Writing Rationale: Shared writing provides opportunities to plan and construct texts. It increases spelling knowledge, produces written language resources in the classroom, and creates opportunities to apply what has been learned. The key is that the teacher holds the pen. Teacher and students create the text together; then the teacher does the actual writing.

21 Interactive Writing Rationale: Interactive writing provides opportunities to plan and construct texts. It increases spelling knowledge, produces written language resources in the classroom, and creates opportunities to apply what has been learned. The key is the students share the pen with the teacher. Discuss and add notes to the toolbox. The teacher and class compose together to create a variety of written text using a “shared pen” technique. The group agrees on what to write through discussion and negotiation. Together the teacher and students navigate through the writing process.

22 Small Group Writing (Guided Writing)
Guided Writing lessons are temporary, small group lessons teaching those strategies that a group of students most need to practice with immediate guidance from teachers. Rationale: Teacher works with small groups of children who have similar writing needs. The teacher selects and introduces new techniques and strategies carefully chosen to match the instructional levels of students. Writers are carefully prepared when being introduced to an element of the writer’s craft, and various strategies are explicitly taught. Ongoing observation and assessment help to inform instruction and grouping of students is flexible and may be changed often. Discuss and add notes to the toolbox.

23 Independent Writing Students write independently in a variety of genres. Writing topics are either directed by the teacher or often self-selected. During this time, students practice writing strategies and techniques that were explicitly taught during shared writing, interactive writing and guided writing. Rationale: Independent writing strengthens text sequence, develops understanding of multiple uses of writing, supports reading development, and develops writing strategies and active independence.

24 Writing Workshop During Writing Workshop, children proceed through the writing process and use a variety of writing forms. The teacher guides the process and provides instruction through focus lessons and conferences. Writing Workshop is the framework through which students will have the opportunity to work on independent writing. The goal of Writer’s Workshop is to get students to become more independent writers. Rationale: Writing Workshop helps writers develop their voice and provides opportunities for children to learn to be writers. It provides chances to use writing for different purposes across the curriculum. It increases writers’ abilities to use different forms of writing and fosters creativity and the ability to compose a variety of genres. The mini lessons during writing workshop take the students through the components of the writing process.

25 When the pieces fit together…
This is a video of a teacher in Dallas ISD working with a small group of students during a writing lesson (Dr. Courtney Bauer- Notes from the Field, Writer’s Workshop- 4 minutes) Click on Bob the Builder to play the video Curriculum central Resources RLA Select: Notes from the field with Dr. Bauer Video #3

26 Word Study- The Connection
Notice on the Comprehensive Literacy Framework that the arrows for word study link the reading and writing pieces. Participants will make notes about the components of word study on the back of the tool box.

27 Phonics & Decoding Phonics is the study and use of sound/spelling correspondences to help students identify written words. Phonics instruction teaches students the relationship between letters(graphemes) and speech sounds(phonemes). Note that phonemic awareness is not included in the framework for grades Research suggests that it will be quite rare to find students at 4th grade and above who have insufficient phonemic awareness to support explicit instruction in the alphabetic principle. Phonics and decoding instruction in grades 3-5 might include: Decoding multisyllabic words by isolating prefixes and suffixes

28 Fluency Fluency refers to the ability of students to read and write quickly, effortlessly, and efficiently with good, meaningful expression… “Fluent readers... are able to read words accurately and effortlessly. They recognize words and phrases instantly on sight. Very little cognitive energy is expended in decoding the words. This means, then, that the maximum amount of cognitive energy can be directed to the all-important task of making sense of the text.” Fluency is the ability to read with automaticity and prosody. Automaticity combines rate and accuracy. Fluent readers read text quickly and make few or no errors. Automaticity is important because it frees cognitive resources to process meaning. Prosody is the appropriate use of intonation and phrasing, or reading with expression.

29 Vocabulary Words that make up speech (oral) or text (reading and writing) and their meanings Distinctions: Receptive vocabulary: requires a reader to associate a specific meaning with a given label Oral vocabulary Reading vocabulary Expressive vocabulary: requires a speaker or writer to produce a specific label for a particular meaning Writing vocabulary Vocabulary includes the words that make up speech or text and their meanings. A first, important distinction is between oral, reading, and writing vocabulary. Oral vocabulary represents words that students understand and can use both when they speak and when they listen to others speak. Reading vocabulary consists of words that students understand when reading them in text. Writing vocabulary includes words that students understand well and can use in their writing. A second distinction to consider is between receptive and expressive vocabulary. Oral vocabulary can be both receptive and expressive. For example, a young child might be able to understand the phrase, “Please place your shoes on top of that shelf,” and would show understanding by carrying out the task. However, this same child might not be able to verbalize all of those words. Reading vocabulary can be thought of as receptive. Students reading a passage or story will use the vocabulary and context of what they are reading to gain meaning from the text. Writing vocabulary can be considered expressive, considering that a young writer would need to use the correct words in context to express or convey the meaning of the written text. Indirect vocabulary acquisition occurs when students have extensive conversations with adults and peers as well as when they read or are read to. Thus, listening to and reading a wide variety of text in multiple genres greatly improves students’ oral vocabulary skills. Students also need vocabulary words to be directly taught. Teaching vocabulary directly builds students’ knowledge of words, improving their reading comprehension. Teachers who actively teach their students vocabulary realize measurable gains in student comprehension of text. Effective vocabulary instruction includes teaching students how to use context to determine the meaning of words encountered in text. Such teaching incorporates models, demonstrations, illustrations, graphic organizers, and classroom discussions to help students learn words and develop oral language skills. Systematic, explicit, and effectively implemented vocabulary instruction is a must for English language learners, or ELLs. Research has shown that effective teachers of ELLs infuse all lessons with vocabulary development, providing vocabulary support throughout all content areas with direct instruction and scaffolding. Effective teachers of ELLs also use a student’s native language as a resource. With careful instruction, Spanish-speaking students can take advantage of cognates, or words that are similar between two languages. It is also important to teach false cognates, or words that are similar but do not mean the same thing. The use of pictures and visual aids can help students connect words and meanings more effectively. Screening texts allows teachers to identify and target the words and linguistic structures that might cause confusion for ELLs. Teachers can then preteach the words that may be difficult, have multiple meanings, or have complex linguistic structures. The development of academic English is critical for ELLs’ success in school; therefore, academic English should be taught explicitly. ELLs should know words that are related to specific subjects, such as social studies, science, and math. ELLs should also know words that appear more often in texts than in oral conversations, such as sophisticated transitions, conjunctions, or prepositions. In addition, students need to understand the structures of complex sentences, expository texts, and paragraphs. Pre-teaching these difficult concepts and words, including multiple-meaning words, can help set up ELLs for success. These strategies are not just for ELLs; they are useful with all readers, especially struggling readers.

30 Grammar/Language Every word has a job
Punctuation helps with fluency and comprehension CUPSS Academic Language What is grammar/language in the RLA classroom? We are not talking about HOW to teach this right now. WE are talking about the language arts component of the lesson. Teachers need to provide academic language. Every word has a job- parts of speech CUPPS: Capitalization, Usage, Punctuation, Spelling, Sentence Structure Remember to link instruction to mentor sentences at every opportunity. Teachers need to be familiar with academic language and use it often and correctly

31 Demonstration of Learning
Given the definitions of literacy components, participants will be able to correctly match at least 4 of the 6 components with its definition. You’ve learned about all these pieces, what they are and why we include them in a Balanced Literacy approach. Participants will number a piece of paper They will write the literacy component (for reading & writing) for each definition. MRS- Choral Response to check

32 Lesson Objective Participants will know how to locate and utilize Dallas ISD curriculum resources.

33 Curriculum Tools for RLA
CPG (curriculum planning guide) Semester curriculum maps Six weeks curriculum maps Calendar Maps (by six weeks- 5th grade only) Journeys/Senderos The Write Source We have many other tools for curriculum, but, at this time, we will limit the discussion to the tools that all teachers have access to. Mention that all teachers have the Journeys/Senderos basal program in the classroom. There are an abundance of materials that go with this program and your campus coach can help you navigate your way through these materials. This program includes leveled books that can be used for guided reading. The Write Source is your resource for grammar and writing instruction.

34 CPG Show participants how to log on to curriculum central and locate CPGs. *This will be contingent upon the access to the internet during NTA training! Be sure to point out the features/structure of this document prior to jumping in. Scavenger Hunt Activity: Using the CPGs that are placed at each table, participants will look for components that help them plan for instruction in various components of a balanced literacy plan. MRS- Modified Whip Around- Ask participants to find a component from the CPG that can be used to help plan for instruction in Component X (vocabulary, fluency, etc.) . Participants stand when they locate something in the CPG that can help with this- as one participant names the part they would use to plan for instruction in component X, others who found the same thing sit down.

35 Semester Curriculum Map
Click on link to show participants what a semester curriculum map looks like. Discuss that this curriculum tool gives a list of the SEs to be taught over the entire semester. Can be helpful in planning for long term.

36 Six Weeks Curriculum Maps
Click on link to show participants what a 6 weeks curriculum map looks like. Discuss that this curriculum tool gives a list of the SEs to be taught during a specific 6 weeks. . Will include all SEs from the CPG for that 6 weeks.

37 RLA Standards for the First Six-Weeks Grading Period- Grade 5
Calendar Maps (by 6 weeks) THIS IS ONLY AVAILABLE IN FOR 5TH GRADE * Dallas Independent School District RLA Standards for the First Six-Weeks Grading Period- Grade 5 5.2E Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to: (E) use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine the meanings, syllabication, pronunciations, alternate word choices, and parts of speech of words. (RS) Students will demonstrate dictionary skills. Determine correct meaning of a new word Demonstrate how to locate the pronunciation, syllabication and part of speech of a new word. Students will demonstrate how to use a glossary. Determine meaning of new word as used in the text. Students will demonstrate how to use a thesaurus. Select alternate word choices for a given word. ONLY 5th GRADE HAS THIS. SEs are organized by 6 weeks and it includes a sample Lesson Objective for each SE.

38 Demonstration of Learning
Given a list of 4 curriculum tools, participants will explain how each tool helps in planning a Balanced Literacy lesson with 95% accuracy. CPG Six Weeks Calendar Map The 4 online curriculum tools we just studied will enter the screen with each click. Participants will use the MRS strategy of Quick Write to quickly write how the tool could help them in planning for a balanced literacy lesson. Semester Curriculum Map Six Weeks Curriculum Map

39 Daily Schedule We have now covered all the tools in your toolbox. We will look at a daily schedule for the literacy block and see how all the pieces fit together. Pass out copies of Option 1 & 2 of the 120 minute literacy block. Briefly discuss the differences in the options, being mindful that the goal is 120 minutes. When planning your daily schedule, remember to include all of the components EACH day, but the instructional practices that fit into each component will vary. Comprehensive Literacy Plan is available on Curriculum Central. It includes sample lessons for teaching each of these components. Walk participants through Options 1 & 2 and discuss how they differ.

40 “Our goal was to write a book about teaching reading in upper elementary classrooms, but we quickly abandoned that idea.  The interconnectedness of reading and writing is profound and inescapable.  We couldn’t address reading without discussing writing as well, because literacy doesn’t unfold that way in the classroom  – or shouldn’t. Fragmenting these complex literacy processes interferes with the greatest goal of literacy education – the construction of meaning from and through text. Using reading and writing together in harmonious concert enables learners to draw on these complementary processes at the same time they work to construct meaning.” - Irene Fountas & Gay Su Pinnell, Guiding Readers and Writers, p. vi

41 Michelle Brown, MLEP Michele Nichols, RLA

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