Kindergarten Environment The kindergarten environment was a regular size classroom divided into three distinct areas: circle time, library, and sensory area. Also included were seating arrangements consisting of six desks, which faced each other in two rows of three to form a table. Each desk was labeled with the child’s name. In the center of the desks was a basket of extra pencils and crayons. One of the seating arrangements was behind the circle time area. The other seating arrangement area was located behind the library area. A smaller area consisting of a pod of four desks was located near the windows between the sensory area and teacher’s desk. Circle Time – Used for whole group instruction for math and reading as well as for visiting guests. Visiting guests include magicians, storytellers, zoo visits, etc. Library - A small carpeted area where children can sit down in and read a book to themselves or share with a partner. Sensory Area – This area had an easel for painting as well as a small sensory table full of rice to use during free play time. Various shelving units with puzzles and manipulatives surrounded this area. Sixteen students are included in two half-day kindergarten programs. Of the sixteen students in the afternoon kindergarten class, one student has a hearing impairment and requires a sign language interpreter. At times the sign language interpreter will be utilized as a paraprofessional in the classroom.
Kindergarten Group Analysis First Sound Fluency 20
Instructional Activities First Sound Fluency Group 1: Core Support: Emma, Gabe & Claire The following activities were chosen based on all three students accuracy (43% - 48%) of identifying initial sound. FCRR: PA.007.AM2C Rhyme Memory Match – Extension Initial Sound FCRR. PA.010 Alliteration, Alliteration Action The following activities were chosen from Creating Strategic Readers to focus on the awareness of sounds in words. This activities will help the students to identify initial, vowel, and ending sounds. Think Sounds (p. 44) – Purpose: Isolate, identify and match beginning and ending sounds in words Say It Again (p. 57) – Purpose: To substitute phonemes to make new words.
Instructional Activities First Sound Fluency Group 2: Strategic Support: Maycie & Will The following activities were chosen from Creating Strategic Readers to identify initial sounds. Mirror/Mirror (p. 42) – To identify and demonstrated positioning of the mouth, lips, and teeth with isolated sounds. Alliteration Activation (p. 42) – To identify beginning sounds and create additional words that begin with the same sounds. Early Level – but will be adapted for Emergent level by modifying text and small objects to reflect same beginning word pair sounds already matched and same beginning sound small objects already matched. Further practice on letter-sound correspondence will assist the students at the strategic support level to become more familiar with how letters sound. This will enable the student to help identify the beginning sounds easier. FCRR.P.012- Brown Bag It – Match Initial phonemes to graphemes FCRR.P.013.AM1A – AMA1C) - Photo Chart – Use extension to match initial sound with photo
Kindergarten Group Analysis Phoneme Segmentation Fluency
Instructional Strategies Phoneme Segmentation Fluency Core Support: Clare & Emma The following activities were chosen based on their ability to partially segment words and are taken from Creating Strategic Readers: Egg-Cited About Phonemes – To hear individual units of sound in words and shake out the sounds. (p.51) Syllable Segmentation: To differentiate syllables in a word and examine various ways to segment syllables. (p. 53) The following activities were recommended to assist in recognizing onset and rime to segment syllables. Chime with Rimes – To hear the onset and rime of a word and blend them together to form the word. (Creating Strategic Readers p. 47) FCRR: PA.022 Rime House
Instructional Strategies Phoneme Segmentation Fluency Group 2: Gabe & Will (Lower end of Core Support) The following activities were recommended due to their limited ability to segment phonemes: FCRR: PA.036 – Phoneme Isolating: See It Sound It FCRR: PA.046 - Phoneme Segmenting: Phoneme Feud The following activity was recommended for segmenting the last sound (rime): FCRR: PA.037 – Phoneme Isolating: The last sound is..... The following activity was recommended for segmenting vowel sounds: FCRR: PA.039 – Phoneme Isolating: Sound Quest
Instructional Strategies Phoneme Segmentation Fluency Group 3 Maycie Strategic Support The following activities were recommended to aid in segmenting phonemes as well as assist in recognizing vowels: Syllable Segmentation – Differentiate syllables in a word and examine various ways to segment (Creating Strategic Readers p. 53) FCRR: PA.017 Syllables: Feed the Animals – Segment syllables in words (emphasis on vowel) The following activities were recommended due to her inability to hear ending sounds (rimes): FCRR: PA.001 Rhyme: Rhyme or No Rhyme FCRR: PA.002 Rhyme: Matching Rhyme Time
Kindergarten Group Analysis Nonsense Word Fluency
Instructional Activities Nonsense Word Fluency Group 1: Claire, Gabe & Emma – Core Support Recommendations for this group focused on higher level activities to enhance competencies already developed. Roll-Read-Record – Focus on a word and analyze it for the specific parts within the word. (Creating Strategic Readers (p. 70) Dissect: Examine a word by breaking the word into its parts, use other resources to read the word successfully. (Creating Strategic Readers, p. 71) Vowel Pattern Jingles – Identify and examine vowel patterns, unlocking the alphabetic code, shifting vowel sounds, and reading with accuracy and fluency. (Creating Strategic Readers, p. 81) FCRR: P.034 Encoding and Decoding – Vowel Stars
Instructional Strategies Nonsense Word Fluency Group 2 Maycie: Core Support Recommendations: Needs further practice on letter-sound correspondence, especially vowels. Letterboxes – Hear sounds in words, associate letters to represent the sounds, and blend sounds together to form words. (Creating Strategic Readers, p. 65) Stretch It – Recognized and demonstrate that letters have names and that sounds can be associated with letters. (Creating Strategic Readers, p. 66) FCRR: P.014 Letter-Sound Correspondence – Letter-Sound Place Mats FCRR: P.015 Letter-Sound Correspondence – Words Around Us Memory Game – When playing game, student from Group 1 could be paired to aid in listening for letter-sound correspondence.
Instructional Strategies Nonsense Word Fluency Group 3: Will – NSW Level barely meets core support Recommendations for instructional strategies will focus on sound-letter correspondence. FCRR: F.001 – Letter Recognition – Speedy Alphabetic Arc FCRR: P.016 – Letter-Sound-Correspondence: Letter-Sound Dominoes FCRR: P.018 – Letter-Sound Pyramid Letter-Sound Magnetic Connection – Recognize and show that letters have names and that sounds can be associated with letters. (Creating Strategic Readers, p. 65)
Kindergarten Group Analysis Lowest Score - Will FSF: 20 < 28 < 29StrategicNWF 17< 18 < 143 Core (Barely) 14/28 or 50% accuracy with initial sound. - 1/7 or 14% on whole word Not fluent due to accuracy below 95%- 18/28 or 64% accuracy sound-letter correspondence Yes, 14/28 or 50% on initial sound- Not fluent due to accuracy below 95% No, doesn’t identify initial sound plus blends- 6/7 or 86% accuracy on initial letters - 7/7 or 100% accuracy on final letters LNF: 39- 6/7 or 86% accuracy on vowels 39/41 or 95% accuracy in letter naming skill Fluent, do to meeting accuracy of 95% No letters were missed at the end of alphabet Student missed lowercase letters No, student does not get any letters correct and then miss Yes, all letters in name correct Did not skip letters in a letter Note confusion b Vs. d PSF: 20 < 21 < 81Core (Barely) 21/32 or 66% on segmenting phonemes 7/10 or 705 only segmented one whole word Not accurate due to only segmenting one word Not fluent due to accuracy below 95% 8/10 or 80% not accurate on initial sounds 4/10 or 40% not accurate on ending sounds 1/10 or 10% not accurate on vowels
Instructional Strategies Will: Strategic Support FSF: Recommendations focus on letter-sound correspondence and alliteration: FCRR: P.017 Letter-Sound Correspondence – Letter Bag FCRR: P.019 Letter- Sound Correspondence – Letter-Sound Folder Sort FCRR: PA>007.AM2A-E Extensions (5 Activities) Rhyme Memory Match – Initial Sound Pair-Share Match – To hear, match, and communicate rhyming words (Creating Strategic Readings, p. 39) PSF: Recommendations focus on ending sounds (rime) and vowels FCRR:PA.042 - Phoneme Segmenting – Phoneme Closed Sort FCRR:PA.047 – Phoneme Segmenting and Blending – Treasure Chest FCRR:PA.048 – Phoneme Segmenting and Blending – Picture Slide Musical Rhyme – To identify and generate rhyming words (Creating Strategic Readers, p. 36) NWF: Recommendations focus on vowels. FCRR: P.027 Onset and Rime – Picture the Word FCRR: P.028 Onset and Rime – Say it Now FCRR:P.026SS – Onset and Rime Slide Extension – Real Words vs. Nonsense Words Dancing with Diphthongs – Examine and Create a representation of various vowel diphthongs (Creating Strategic Readers, p. 82)
Sixth Grade Testing Environment All testing was completed in a Resource Room. The Resource Room is currently staffed by one teacher who works with students in grades 4 – 6. Students are sent to her room for various tests and extra support as needed per their individual IEPs. Students Bianca, Grace, Justin, and Ryan were all currently in a Resource Room currently receiving direct instruction using the SRA program. The teacher gave me permission to work at the opposite end of the Resource Room at a kidney shaped table for Dibels testing. Justin was pulled from the regular education classroom for Dibels testing. The room has two kidney shaped tables one on each end for small group instruction purposes. In the middle are six desks that face each other in rows of three for students to work on individual tasks if extended time is needed or with the Resource Room teacher. Although only one Resource Room teacher has a desk in the room, another Intervention Specialist uses the opposite end to give tests or provide small group instruction. During three of the Dibels tests, I had to position myself in the center section at the six desks between the two Intervention Specialists who were providing small group instruction. One group was working on their SRA program, the other group was working on a common assessment. The classroom was very loud due to teacher’s talking on top of each other and was not very conducive to student learning.
Sixth Grade Group Analysis Oral Reading Fluency
Instructional Activities Oral Reading Fluency Core Support: Justin, Bianca, Wesley Justin and Bianca tended to leave out articles and had some difficulty with (s) as an ending. Justin, Bianca and Wesley also had issues with multi-syllabic words. Wesley had issues with high frequency words. *Repeated Reading/One-Minute Reads: Increase time of wpm and read with accuracy. Level Transitional *Multimedia Reading: Utilize technology to evaluate one’s own reading Level: Transitional *Recorded Reading: Record/Check/Chart: Self-assess using a visible marking process, chart progress FCRR: F.002.AM4a – F.002AM.4b: Extended Lesson practicing affixes and prefixes. FCRR: F.011 High Frequency Word practice FCRR: F.003 Fluency Word Parts Race FCRR:F.004 Syllable Sprint FCRR: F.009 Fleeting Phrases Strategic Support: Grace & Intensive Support Ryan Grace had difficulty with sight words and word endings. Ryan had difficulty with multisyllabic words and word endings. FCRR: F.009 High Frequency Words Pass FCRR: F.013 Fast Phrases FCRR: F.007AMIc Affix Zip FCRR: F.CS.001 Common Syllables
Instructional Activities Retell Fluency Core Support: Wesley & Bianca Recommendations for Wesley and Bianca based on transitional level in the following activities from Creating Strategic Readers (p. 210-214): Main Ideal Wheel – Identify what is essential within the text. Highlighting – Identify essential information Say Something – Monitor thinking about text while reading Mind Mapping – Make connections to words or concepts from a text with artwork Core Support: Justin & Grace Recommendations for Justin and Grace utilize activities from Creating Strategic Readers (p. 203 & p. 209): Detail/Retell – Recount story details in a sequential order and develop story grammar Picture This – Examine a photograph for details and determine main purpose of photo FCRR: C.003 – Check-A-Trait, Compare/Contrast Characters FCRR: C.004.SS3 – Main Events, List events in sequential order Strategic Support: Ryan FCRR: C.024 – Background Knowledge Warm-up (Use KWL chart) FCRR: C.026 – Precise Predictions (Predict & Map) FCRR: C.027 – Read and Ask (What makes sense?, New Vocabulary?) FCRR: C.031 – Sum Summary! – Summarize Text
Instructional Activities DAZE Adjusted Score Core Support: Justin & Bianca Grouped together due to closeness in scores. Activities will continue to increase their vocabulary. FCRR: V.017 Word Meaning, Know or No: Relate new vocabulary to prior knowledge FCRR: V.023 Word Meaning, Undercover Meanings: Select unknown words within context of text FCRR: V.004 Synonym & Antonym Creations FCRR: V.009 Morphemic Elements: Affix Concentration Core Support/Strategic Support: Grace & Wesley (Respectively) Grouped due to closeness in scores. Activities will provide for further growth required in area of vocabulary building. FCRR: V.011 Morphemic Elements – Affix Action FCRR: V.014 Morphemic Elements – Root-A-Word FCRR: V.024 Word Analysis – Meaning Map FCRR: V.027 Word Analysis – Attribute Analysis Intensive Support: Ryan Ryan word calls when reading and doesn’t derive meaning from text read. Recommend visuals with words as well as activities that make a connection in his everyday life. Creating Strategic Readers (p. 145 - 147) Picture and Word Sorts – Determine and sort words by specific features. List/Group/Label – Organize and connect word attributes, images and descriptions of words. Creating Strategic Readers (p. 154, p. 158) Vocabulary Tree Notebook – Identify morphemes within a word Word Jars – Examine words in their environment and use new words in everyday language.
Sixth Grade Group Analysis Lowest Score – Ryan (DORF) Details: 2.1 70/73 or 96% reading accuracy (just below benchmark) Student requires strategic support – not flue due to accuracy but fairly accurate Read non phonemic sight words with 100% accuracy Problems reading multisyllabic words Did not provide student word to remember Student missing general English words (auditions, opportunity, lifes vs. lifestyle 2.2 96/99 or 97% accuracy reading words Fluency reflects at benchmark Student doesn’t reflect problems with non phonemic sight words Problems with word endings island”s” to frig”id” said “frigd” Did not provide student with any words Student missing words from science content area 2.3 66/71 or 93% accuracy reading passage Student not fluent due to accuracy Missed one dolch sight word (this). Fairly accurate 21/22 or 95% Missed multisyllabic words Did not give student a word but student read pods correctly first time and incorrectly the second time (pads) Missing vocabulary from general English literature and science “cacao”
Sixth Grade Group Analysis Lowest Score – Ryan (DORF) Due to use of word calling and having a reading accuracy score of 96%, recommended activities will be based on phrasing. FCRR: F.012 Phrases – Fluent Phrasing FCRR: F.012.AM2 Phrases – Fluent Phrasing Extension FCRR: F.013 – Phrases – Fast Phrases *FCRR: F.015 – Phrases – Phrase Progression *FCRR: F.020 – Connected Text – Listen and Read *Within activity, the student will work on intonation which will also help Ryan to understand the effect that intonation and expression aid in conveying meaning.
Sixth Grade Group Analysis Lowest Score – Ryan (Retell) Detail: 2.1 Student stated, “I didn’t really understand or remember.” Remembered 1 detail. 2.2 Remembered 2 details. Reflects poor comprehension and struggles trying to remember. 2.3 Remembered 2 details. Reflects poor comprehension and struggles trying to remember. Instructional Strategies Recommended for retell include strong focus on comprehension. FCRR:C.020 Comprehension – Text Analysis Cause and Effect Match FCRR.C.021 Comprehension – Text Analysis – Compare and Contrast using Graphic Organizer FCRR.C.024 Comprehension – Monitor for Understanding – Background Knowledge Warm-up (Uses graphic organizer) FCRR.C.026SS Comprehension – Precise Predictions – Uses graphic organizer
Sixth Grade Group Analysis Lowest Score – Ryan (DAZE) DAZE: 0 < 13 < 13 Intensive Support DAZE testing reflects lack of vocabulary which reflected in comprehension. Recommend the following instructional strategies to build vocabulary. FCRR: V.004 Word Knowledge – Synonym-Antonym Creations FCRR: V.005 Word Knowledge – Homograph Hook FCRR: V.020 Vocabulary – Word Meaning – Word Clues FCRR: V.024 Vocabulary – Word Meaning – All for One
Differentiation Within all instructional activities, readiness, learning styles and interest levels would be used to facilitate motivating the student and assist with making a connection to new material learned.