Presentation on theme: "Effective Instruction in the First Grade Classroom Day 3 Presented by: Diane Bussema Kathryn Catherman KRESA Developed by: Diane Bussema Kathryn Catherman."— Presentation transcript:
Effective Instruction in the First Grade Classroom Day 3 Presented by: Diane Bussema Kathryn Catherman KRESA Developed by: Diane Bussema Kathryn Catherman Stephanie Lemmer
Setting Group Expectations To make this day the best possible, we need your assistance and participation –Please allow others to listen Please turn off cell phones and pagers Please limit sidebar conversations Please do not use e mail –Share “air time” –Active participation –Take care of your own needs –Attend to the “Come back together” signal
Agenda Active Participation Organizing your literacy block Looking at your data Advancing Decoding ( Alphabet Principle ) Increasing Fluency Teaching for Vocabulary and Comprehension Using Learning Centers
RtI is… The same end goals or outcomes for all students We may need to modify our teaching : smaller group reteach the same concept more time on the task I do one We do one You do one
Active Participation READ it WRITE it SAY it DO it ALL MEANS ALL! EVERY STUDENT! EVERY TIME
1: Structure Active Learning in the Classroom 1
Show Time Active Participation Routines 1.Note the active participation procedures that are directly taught to students on your handout. 2.Identify other good instructional practices.
Work Time Select a story from your basal With a sticky note mark which Active Participation Strategies you will use throughout the week Code: c=choralp=partneri=individual tps=think, pair, share
Let’s Talk Data Phoneme Segmentation Fluency Nonsense Word Fluency Oral Reading Fluency
Work Time 1. Look at your classlist data and make sure you are progress monitoring the students that did not achieve benchmark during the winter testing period. 2.Sort your progress monitoring data into 2 categories. Students whose data is above the aimline and those who are not. 3.What should the next step be for students who are not making progress?
90-Minute Reading Block
90” Literacy Block Whole Group Instruction Teacher Led 40 min. Small Group Instruction Teacher Led Centers Student Led Differentiated Homogeneous Flexible Differentiated Cooperative Independent, Pairs
Whole Group Instruction Grade Level Purposeful Instruction Perky Pace Active Participation
Small Group Instruction Differentiated-Skill specific Homogeneous Flexible
What is Quality Small Group Instruction? When is small group instruction delivered? – Every day during the reading block How to plan for small group instruction? – Data is used to identify skill/s to teach – Resources to teach the skill/s are identified – Groups are reorganized based on regular progress monitoring data – Classroom management system is established
What is Quality Small Group Instruction? How should lessons be designed? -Coordinated with the core program -Consistently structured -Explicit and Systematic -I Do It, We Do It, You Do It -Provides appropriate levels of scaffolding as children learn to apply new skills/strategies -Utilizes active engagement strategies -Delivered by the most highly qualified teacher
Centers Requires a management system Differentiated Pre-taught Provide direct practice Group, pair, cooperative, individual Academically engaging Accountability
Center Criteria All work activities need to be aligned to instruction and focus on literacy work and are centered around the five essential components of reading instruction Even though an activity appears in your basal program’s Teacher’s Manual, it may not be powerful or appropriate for every child. ASK…. Is this activity one that will make the child read better?
40 minutes will devoted to whole class core curriculum 50 minutes will be devoted to small group instruction Teacher Plan for Small Group Instruction MTWTHF G1HR 25 minutes 25 G2SR G3LR
Additional Instruction 30 minute in addition to the 90” block Pull out program – Students in the low strategic range – Students in the intensive range – Title One teachers and paraprofessional Walk to Read – Students in all ranges of instruction – Classroom, Title One, Specials Education and paraprofessionals
Work Time 1.Create a chart that shows how your block is currently set up. Include any additional supports you have. 2.Using your classes’ data determine which strands should be taught whole group. 3.For each of your small groups determine what you should teach. Select one group and layout a week’s lessons.
Alphabetic Principle Based on two parts: Alphabetic Understanding. Letters represent sounds in words Phonological Recoding. Letter sounds can be blended together and knowledge of letter -sound associations can be used to read/decode words. What do your students do with words like ? catch slide treat boil
Sound by Sound Blending t ra i 1.Write t and ask what sound ? ( /t/ ) 2.Write r and ask what sound ? ( /r/ ) 3.Write ai (point with 2 fingers) and ask what sound (/ai/) 4.Slide finger under trai blend it ( /trai/ ) 5.Write n and ask what sound ? ( /n/ ) 6.Slide finger under train blend it ( /train/ ) 7.Slide finger under the word rat and ask what word ? (train) n
Continuous Blending frow 1.Point to the f and elongate the “sound”. 2.Point to the r and elongate the “sound”. 3.Point to the ow and elongate the “sound”. 4.Point to the n and elongate the “sound”. 5.Slide finders under the whole word to blend the word n 4
Whole Word Blending teach 1.Point to the letter t an say : /t/ 2.With two fingers, point to the letters and and say: /eee/. 3.With two fingers point to the letters ch and say : /ch/. 4.Point just to the left of teach and say: Let’s read this word. Then quickly sweep your finger under the whole word and say teach.
Vowel CombinationKey Word aysay airain ausauce erher irbird urturn arfarm oivoid oyboy ortorn eedeep oafoam ouloud owlow, down oomoon, book eameat, thread a-emake o-ehope i-eside e-ePete u-euse
Advanced Decoding Reading Multisyllabic Words Why do we need to teach advance decoding ? Many big words occur infrequently, but when they do occur they carry much of the meaning and content of what is being read. Cunningham, 1998
Reading Multisyllabic Words Grade 1 – students are reading mostly 1 & 2 syllable words Grade 2- students are reading mostly 2 & 3 syllable words Grade 3- longer multisyllabic words appear in text
Work Time 1.Pick the next story in your basal. 2.Select words where suffixes can be applied. 3.Write a routine that could be used to teach the suffix routine.
Oral Reading Fluency Error Analysis Process of diagnosing a child’s reading Based on analyzing when a child reads orally Using unfamiliar text Record common miscues
Common Reading Errors Substitutions I see the word. I see the worm. Omissions She went school. She went to school Insertions She saw a scary cat. She saw a cat.
Common Reading Errors Self Corrects He went to tent…town. He went to town. Repetitions He had a beach ball, a beach ball He had a beach ball. 3 second rule/ Told I like his …… ( 3 sec.) T I like his kindness.
What type of errors? Is it a single error pattern or does it cut across multiple word attack skills? Can you address the errors informally or do you need a more formal intervention program?
want wanted √ Error Analysis Sheet Actual Student Error Error Error Error Other Word Response sight word CVC(e) letter com. pre/suffix multisyl. what when √ bead bed √ kitten kite √ pine pin √
Connected Text error patterns: Missing prefixes, suffixes or endings Trouble decoding larger and/or multi-syllable words Difficulty with articles (a, the, an) Confusion of the “wh” or “th” words. Skipping words Adding words Substituting words Letter-sound correspondence errors Blending errors
Work Time 1.Look at the students’ Progress Monitoring that were below the aim line. 2.Choose one child’s booklet. Analyze the errors. You may need to use more than one selection in order to have enough reading to analysis. 3.Share with your partner. 4.With your partner plan a change in instruction for this child.
Fluency Combines rate and ______________ Requires ______________ Includes reading with _____________ Fluency: reading quickly, accurately, and with expression
What the Research Says About Fluency –Focus their attention on understanding the text –Synchronize skills of decoding, vocabulary, and comprehension –Read with speed and accuracy –Interpret text and make connections between the ideas in the text –Focus attention on decoding –Alter attention to accessing the meaning of individual words –Make frequent word reading errors –Have few cognitive resources left to comprehend
Factors Effecting Fluency 1.Proportion of words in text that are recognized as “_____________”. Sight words include any word that readers have practiced reading sufficiently often to be read from memory.” (Ehri, 2002) 2. Speed of ____________ strategies used to determine the pronunciation of unknown words.
Cloze Reading Benefits All students are reading. Lots of reading practice is occurring. The teacher is modeling fluent reading with expression. The technique provides good practice when all students need to be focused and the materials need to be read quickly. It provides excellent practice for reading story problems, directions, and instructional items.
Cloze Reading Procedures The teacher reads a little materials, then stops and has the students read the next word. The teachers selects words that have the most meaning within a passage for the students to read. It two words go together ( yellow bus, United States), the teacher selects the second word for student reading.
Small Group * Pose pre reading question * Tell students to read a certain amount *Ask them to reread material if they finish early (eternal review) *Monitor students’ reading. Have individuals whisper read to you. *Pose post reading question.
Silent Reading Benefits Students can read material silently before oral reading so that they will be more accurate and confident. Students have an opportunity to practice their decoding skills on unknown words. All students are practicing reading. However unless good instructional procedures are used, there will be a number of “silent reading fakers”.
Silent Reading Procedures Teacher indicates the amount to be read silently. Realizing that there will be early finishers, the teacher directs early finishers to re-read the material silently (eternal review). The teacher tells students that they will be whisper reading to the teacher when she touches their book or back.
Repeated Reading Repeated reading of text is an effective ways to improve fluency. Cold Timing one minute timing without prior practice Hot Timing one minute timing after practicing at least 3 times Practice Practice Practice
Fluency Practice Practice….
Work Time 1.With your partner choose a story from your basal. 2.Make a week long plan for the story using the appropriate fluency strategy. Strategies could include: echo reading, choral reading, cloze, partner reading, and /or repeated reading.
Read Alouds Vocabulary & Comprehension
What is Listening Comprehension ? Language Background ability knowledge Lays the fountain for children to later be able to “___________ what they read, ___________what they read, and ________________with others about what they read” National Institute for Literacy, 2001
Before Reading Teach the meaning of critical, unknown vocabulary words. Teach or activate any necessary background knowledge. Preview the story or article. Use the title for stories and subheadings, graphs and charts for articles
Understanding Different Types of Text Narrative Texts tell stories follow a familiar story structure Includes short stories, folktales, myths, legends, autobiographies, fantasies, biographies, science fiction, plays Expository texts explain information tell about topics provide a framework for comprehension of content- area textbooks include informational books, newspapers, magazine, catalogues
Predicting Narrative Text Read the title. Predict what the story will be about. Expository Text Read the title. Predict the content Read the introduction. “What will we learn in this passage?” Read the headings and subheadings. Predict the content. Read the summary.
How to choose words to teach? Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Words to teach: high-frequency, high-utility Low-frequency words: technical words Known, common words: nouns (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. Importance, Utility, Instructional potential
Selecting Tier 2 Words Frequently encountered Crucial to understanding main idea of the text Not a part of the students’ prior knowledge REMINDER: Tier 2 words should be taught before students read, and discussed and used frequently afterward. (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002)
Vocabulary Instructional Strategies Explicit Instruction: Anita Archer Quick Teach: Kevin Feldman Fast Mapping: Modeled by Anita Archer
The bold faced words Sensitive Threatened Alert Scale Directions Swivel
Which words should I teach? SensitiveThreatenedAlertScaleDirectionsSwivel WoodchuckDangersForestUsualSurroundedFrightened WolvesImaginedArgueSolveAgreedExtra-hungry MarvelousSeventhFourthFifthTenthDisappointment FartherFinallyDartedSolutionExpectingDisappeared PloppedMoaningTerrificDistantAdmit
Work Time Select a story from your basal that you will be teaching in the next few weeks. Look at the bold-faced words. Determine which words will be explicitly taught, quickly taught and those that you might not teach at all. Read the story and identify additional words that you will teach explicitly or quick teach.
Explicit Teaching -Instructional Routine- 1.I ntroduce the word 2.Present a student-friendly explanation 3.Illustrate the word with examples 4.Check students’ understanding Anita Archer
Instructional Teaching Routine Step 1. Introduce the word. 1.Write the word on the board. Threat en 2. Give students the correct pronunciation. Then Repeat it together chorally. Introduce the word with me “This word is Threaten. What word_____?”
Instructional Teaching Routine Step 2. Provide the meaning of the word with a student-friendly explanation. Tell students the explanation. Present the explanation with me. “to say that you will hurt someone if they don’t do what you want is to threaten them.”
Dictionary verses Student Friendly Threaten Dictionary: To utter threats against something or someone. Student Friendly: To say that you will hurt someone if they don’t do what you want.
Creating a Student Friendly Explanation 1.Ask your self, “When do I use this word?” “Why do we have this word/” 2.Use everyday language to explain the meaning of the word. 3.Keep focused on the central meaning or concept of the word rather than the multiple meanings of the word. 4.Try to include something, someone, or describes in your explanation to clarify how the word is used.
Help with Student Friendly Explanations English Language Learners’ Dictionary
Work Time With your partner: Write student friendly explanations for all the words you plan to explicitly teach. Write explanations for all the words you plan to quickly teach.
Instructional Teaching Routine Continued Step 3. Illustrate the word with examples. a.) concrete examples b.) visual examples c.) verbal examples Present the examples with me. “To tell a friend that you will punch them if they don’t let you ride their bike is to threaten them.” “To tell a friend you will tell the teacher if they don’t give you their pencil is to threaten them.
Examples and Nonexamples Purpose: To help students better understand the meaning of the word. Choose examples that show a range of the word’s meaning Choose nonexamples that are close to being examples of the word’s meaning
Work Time Work with your partner to create examples and or nonexamples for the word/s that you have chosen explicit and quick teaching.
Instructional Teaching Routine Continued Step 4. Check understanding Option #1. Ask Deep processing questions. Check students understanding with me. “Tell you partner a time when you have been threatened?”
Step 4 Continued Step 4. Check understanding Option #2. Have students discern between examples and non-examples. Check students understanding with me. “Would you feel threatened if a friend told you to bring a snack to school for or they would beat you up of the way home?” “ Would you feel threatened if you were invited to a friend’s birthday party?”
Step 4 Continued Step 4. Check understanding Option #3. Have students generate their own examples. Check students understanding with me. “ Tell you partner something that might make you feel threatened.”
Work Time Using at least one of your vocabulary words develop an activity to check for understanding.
Keys to Remembering Vocabulary Multiple exposures Definitional information Sufficient amount of instructional time Active engagement
Explicit Vocabulary Routine Anita Archer
Show Time Instructional Routine for Vocabulary Did the Teacher: 1.Introduce the word? 2.Present a student-friendly explanation? 3.Illustrate the word with examples? 4.Check Students’ Understanding?
Fast Mapping Fast Mapping is an instructional strategy that involves briefly telling students the meaning of words that are not being explicitly taught in order to improve comprehension.
Fast Mapping Anita Archer Wolf
Show Time Instructional Routine for Vocabulary List the words that Anita Archer chose to Fast Map. Make sure to jot down what she said to explain the word. Be prepared to share out
During Reading Strategies First Reading Ask appropriate questions that focus on literal understanding Second Reading Ask questions that require metacognitive thinking.
Thinking Aloud Model what good readers do to help monitor their understanding of what they are reading Model : How you picture in your mind what is happening in a story How you stop and summarize what has happened How you reread certain parts How you regularly make predications
After Reading Strategies Model the use of graphic organizers to enhance comprehension and text structure Engage students in discussion that promotes higher order thinking skills Provide vocabulary practice.
Retell Teachers can use retelling to assess comprehensions and to guide students toward a deeper understanding of a story. As a reader becomes more competent, their retellings become more sophisticated. Paired retelling sessions are even more effective if they are interactive, with the listener providing feedback.
Levels of Retell Emergent Level Focus on event listing and sequencing Introduce basic story elements Early Fluent Level Help students apply the basic story elements in oral and written retellings Indentify main events that lead the main character from the problem to the outcome Model and guide retelling events in sequence and integrating story elements, using story maps Fluent Level Introduce plot summary-retelling key events in chronological order Practice to refine sequencing and story elements in retelling
Retell Rubric 1.Provides 2 or fewer details 2.Provides 3 or fewer details 3.Provides 3 or more details in a meaningful sequence 4.Provides 3 or more details in a meaningful sequence that captures a main idea
Anita Archer Retell
Wanted Language Arts Learning Centers Why : So you have time to hold small groups What : Must pertain to a big idea and students must have knowledge of the skill. Provides practice to make skills automatic. How : Must have excellent classroom management. Introduce one at a time with preteach.