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Agenda 8am: Check in Activity 8:30am-12pm: The “what” of literacy; essential components of literacy instruction 12pm-1pm: Lunch 1pm-3pm: The “how” of literacy.

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Presentation on theme: "Agenda 8am: Check in Activity 8:30am-12pm: The “what” of literacy; essential components of literacy instruction 12pm-1pm: Lunch 1pm-3pm: The “how” of literacy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Agenda 8am: Check in Activity 8:30am-12pm: The “what” of literacy; essential components of literacy instruction 12pm-1pm: Lunch 1pm-3pm: The “how” of literacy instruction 3pm- 3:15pm: Evaluation 1

2 Check In How are you feeling today? What is your biggest question regarding your role in reading instruction? 2

3 3 Essential Components of Reading Instruction

4 4 Essential Questions Besides comprehension, what are some of the other skills and strategies students need to develop in reading? What can I do to support students in reading? How does my own understanding and proficiency in reading affect my ability to help my students?

5 Word Sort Pre-reading, during reading and after reading activity Used to introduce and develop vocabulary understanding Directions: –Cut out top (heading) “5 Essential Components of Reading Instruction” –Cut out other words –Sort words under heading (3 minutes) –Share thoughts –Revisit throughout 5

6 6 Effective Programs Provide… …repeated opportunities to apply what they are learning about how to read and understand what is read …motivating and purposeful Phonics

7 7 Effective Programs Are… Systematic- the plan of instruction includes carefully selected set of skills or concepts that are organized into a logical sequence Explicit- Programs provide teachers with precise directions for the teaching of these skills or concepts Engaging, yet focused- programs DO NOT need to be scripted to be systematic and explicit

8 8 The Five Essential Components of Reading Instruction

9 9 Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Development Comprehension The Five Essential Components of Reading Instruction

10 10 Phonemic Awareness

11 11 PHONEMIC AWARENESS The ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words. –Phonemes are the smallest parts of sound in a spoken word that make a distinction in the word’s meaning –Phonemic Awareness involves NO PRINT!

12 12 What It Is Recognizing which words in a given set begin with the same sound. Isolating and saying the first or last sound in a word. Combining/blending the separate sounds in a word to say the word. Breaking or segmenting a word into separate sounds Phonemic Awareness

13 13 Why It Matters: It improves children’s word reading. It improves children’s reading comprehension. It helps children learn to spell. Phonemic Awareness

14 14 What It Looks Like Word Comparison Rhyming Sentence Segmentation Syllable Segmentation/Blending Onset-rime blending/Segmentation Blending/Segmenting Individual Phonemes Phoneme Deletion and Manipulation Complexity less more Phonemic Awareness

15 15 How Many Phonemes? dog up sing fax though Phonemic Awareness Let’s Practice!

16 16 Assessing Phonemic Awareness DIBELS (phoneme segmentation fluency) –http//dibels.uoregon.edu. PALS Scholastic Phonemic Awareness Skills Phonemic Awareness

17 17 Strategies Making oral rhymes –Rhyme Away Stories –Use “Down by the Bay” Working with syllables in spoken words –I can clap the parts in my name – Bethann Phonemic Awareness

18 18 Identifying and working with onsets (beginnings) and rimes (endings) in spoken syllables or words. –The first part of sip is s-. –The last part of win is -in. Identifying and working with individual phonemes in spoken words. –The first sound in sun is /s/. Phonemic Awareness More Strategies…

19 19 Children recognize the same sounds in different words. –What sound is the same in fix, fall, and fun? Recognize the word in a given set that has a different sound. –Which word does not belong? bus, bug, run Phonemic Awareness More Strategies…

20 20 Introduction · Data System Introduction Data System Download DIBELS Materials Official DIBELS Home PageOfficial DIBELS Home Page The Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) are a set of standardized, individually administered measures of early literacy development. They are designed to be short (one minute) fluency measures used to regularly monitor the development of pre-reading and early reading skills. The measures were developed upon the essential early literacy domains discussed in both the National Reading Panel (2000) and National Research Council (1998) reports to assess student development of phonological awareness, alphabetic understanding, and automaticity and fluency with the code. Each measure has been thoroughly researched and demonstrated to be reliable and valid indicators of early literacy development and predictive of later reading proficiency to aid in the early identification of students who are not progressing as expected. When used as recommended, the results can be used to evaluate individual student development as well as provide grade-level feedback toward validated instructional objectives. © PhonicsPhonics

21 21 What It Is Phonics instruction teaches children the relationships between the letters of written language and the individual sounds (phonemes) of spoken language. Also known as Alphabetic Principle

22 22 Phonics Skills Letter-Sound Correspondence Irregular Word Reading Reading in Texts Regular Word Reading Advanced Word Analysis Skills Adapted from Reading and Language arts (2002) Phonics

23 23 Why It Matters Leads to an understanding of the alphabetic principle: the systematic and predictable relationship between written letters and spoken sounds. Significantly improves word recognition, spelling, and comprehension Phonics

24 24 What It Looks Like Systematic- the plan of instruction includes carefully selected set of letter-sound relationships that are organized into a logical sequence Explicit- Programs provide teachers with precise directions for the teaching of these relationships Phonics

25 25 Assessing Phonics DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency lutsim Basal Reading Series Assessments TOWRE Test of Word Reading Efficiency Phonics

26 26 Strategies Providing opportunities for frequent practice with sound/symbol relationships Blending phonemic awareness skills to enhance phonics development Making Words

27 27 FluencyFluency

28 28 …the ability to read a text with appropriate speed, expression and phrasing … accurately What It Is

29 29 Why It Matters Fluency allows students to concentrate more on understanding what they read rather than focusing on decoding the words Provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension Fluency

30 30 Take a Deep Breath.nworb emoceb seye eht, detisoped si tnemgip elbaredisnoc fI.roloc evitinifed sti semussa siri eht,ecafrus roiretna eht no raeppa ot snigeb tnemgip eht sA.roloc yarg-etals ro hsiulb a fo tceffe eht gnivig yllausu, eussit tneculsnart eht hguorht swohs reyal tnemgip roiretsop ehT.siri eht of ecafrus roiretna eht no tnemgip on ro elttil si ereht htrib tA.

31 31 What It Looks Like Automatic recognition of words Speed Accuracy Expression Prosody Fluency

32 32 Recognizing Non-fluent Readers Students are not automatic at recognizing words in their texts Student reads orally (not practiced) and makes more than 10% word recognition errors Student does not/can not read with expression Student’s comprehension is poor when reading to someone out loud Fluency

33 33 Strategies to Build Fluency Repeated Reading with a purpose –First time reading to familiarize –Second reading to identify storyline, make predictions –Third reading to build speed, accuracy, and expression Fluency

34 34 Read- Aloud Strategies Student-adult reading –Adult reads first, providing model Student reads same passage until fluent Choral reading –Students read along as a group with you. Must be independent level for most (if not all) Patterned or predictable books particularly good Begin by adult reading first to model 3-5 readings of same passage until fluent (not necessarily on same day) Fluency

35 35 Tape-assisted reading –Students read along as they hear a fluent reader on tape reading book. –Must be at reader’s independent level and read by fluent reader at rate of words per minute –Should not have sound effects or music –1 st reading-student follows along –Subsequent readings should be done until student can read independently of tape Fluency

36 36 Partner Reading –Paired students take turns reading to each other More fluent readers can be paired with less fluent readers* Stronger reader reads first, providing the model Less fluent reader reads same text More fluent reader helps with word recognition as needed Rereads until fluent Fluency

37 37 Reader’s Theater –Students rehearse and perform play for peers or others Script derived from books rich in dialog Students play characters who speak lines or a narrator who shares background info Provides readers with legitimate reason to reread text and to practice fluency Promotes cooperative interaction with peers Makes reading task appealing –On left “Reader’s Theatre” Fluency

38 38 Assessing Fluency DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency Curriculum-based Measurement Informal Reading Inventories Fluency

39 39 VocabularyVocabulary

40 40 What It Is Vocabulary are the words we must know to communicate effectively –Receptive (listening) vocabulary: words we need to know to understand what we hear –Speaking vocabulary: words we use when we speak –Reading vocabulary: words we need to now to understand what we read –Writing vocabulary: words we use in writing

41 41 Why It Matters Beginning readers use their oral vocabulary to make sense of words they see in print Readers must know what most of words mean before they can understand what they are reading Students need in-depth understanding of words in order to apply them and use them. Vocabulary

42 42 Speaking/Receptive and Reading Vocabulary Learning, as a language-based activity, is fundamentally and profoundly dependent on vocabulary knowledge. (Baker, Simmons, & Kame’enui, 1998) Vocabulary

43 43 What It Looks Like Vocabulary Instruction Direct: –Provides students with specific word instruction –Teaches student word-learning strategies Vocabulary Indirect: –Children learn indirectly in 3 ways: Engagement daily in oral language Listening to adults read to them Reading extensively on their own

44 44 Strategies Specific word instruction –Teach specific words before reading to help both vocabulary learning and reading comprehension –Provide extended instruction to promote active engagement with vocabulary, which improves word learning –Provide repeated exposure to vocabulary in many contexts to aid word learning Vocabulary

45 45 Strategies Word learning –How to use thesaurus’, dictionaries, glossaries and other reference aids to learn word meanings and deepen knowledge of word meanings –How to use information about word parts to figure out meanings of words in text –How to use context clues to determine word meanings Vocabulary

46 46 Strategies Reading aloud –Models fluent reading –Exposes students to a variety of texts –Provides opportunities to discuss new/out-of-learned-context vocabulary Definition mapping (aka graphic organizers!) Vocabulary

47 47 Vocabulary: Definition Mapping What is it? DefinitionWhat is it like? What are some examples? The Word ™ Vocabulary

48 48 Vocabulary: Definition Mapping rodent What is it? DefinitionWhat is it like? What are some examples? The Word ™ Vocabulary

49 49 Vocabulary: Definition Mapping mammal rodent What is it? DefinitionWhat is it like? What are some examples? The Word ™ Vocabulary

50 50 Vocabulary: Definition Mapping mammal rodent 2 sharp front teeth Gnaws on hard objects Smooth, short fur What is it? DefinitionWhat is it like? What are some examples? The Word ™ Vocabulary

51 51 Vocabulary: Definition Mapping mammal rodent 2 sharp front teeth Gnaws on hard objects Smooth, short fur mouseratsquirrel What is it? DefinitionWhat is it like? What are some examples? The Word ™ Vocabulary

52 52 Vocabulary: Frayer Model Word Definition ExamplesNon-examples Characteristics Vocabulary Word

53 53 Vocabulary: Frayer Model Word Definition A mathematical shape that is a closed plane Figure bounded by 3 or More line segments. Examples Hexagon Square Trapezoid Rhombus Non-examples Circle Cube Sphere Cylinder Cone Characteristics Closed Plane Figure More than 2 straight sides 2-dimensional Made of line segments Vocabulary Word Polygon

54 54 Vocabulary Assessment Graphic Organizers Reading Inventories Curriculum Assessments (science, social studies, math, music, etc.) cylinder Geometrical shape circularPringles can dog mammalpet4-legs Vocabulary

55 55 What Words to Teach Important words –Words critical for understanding concept/text Useful words –Words student likely to see/use again and again in many contexts Difficult words –Words with multiple meanings –idiomatic expressions Vocabulary

56 56 ComprehensionComprehension

57 57 What It Is The process of constructing meaning from written texts, based on a complex coordination of a number of interrelated sources of information.

58 58 Why It Matters The reason for reading! Comprehension

59 59 What It Looks Like Primary Grade Skills (K-3) –Literal comprehension –Sequencing –Summarization Comprehension

60 60 What It Looks Like Intermediate Grade Skills (4-12) –Connecting ideas within the reading –Comprehending complicated sentences –Critically reading passages Comprehension

61 61 Comprehension Activities Prereading During reading Postreading Comprehension

62 62 Prereading Activities Connect to prior knowledge Preview the text Make predictions Set a purpose for reading Review Vocabulary Comprehension

63 63 During Reading Activities Establish a purpose for reading Confirm/reject predictions Questioning self/text Identify and clarify key ideas Summarize Visualize Comprehension

64 64 After Reading Activities Was purpose met? Paraphrasing important ideas –Identify main ideas –Identify details Making connections Drawing conclusions Making judgments about the text Comprehension

65 65 Comprehension Assessment Standardized tests (formal) Reading Inventories (formal) Retell (informal) Semantic map (informal) Comprehension

66 66 Other Strategies Talk the student through a problem solving situation Understand the graphic organizers you will use with a student Ask the student a variety of types of questions Have students draw a picture

67 67 Essential Questions Besides comprehension, what are some of the other skills and strategies students need to develop in reading? What can I do to support students in reading? How does my own understanding and proficiency in reading affect my ability to help my students?

68 “Any book that helps a child to form a habit of reading, to make reading one of his deep and continuing needs, is good for him.” Maya AngelouAny book that helps a child to form a habit of reading, to make reading one of his deep and continuing needs, is good for him. 68


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