Presentation on theme: "Fluency Birmingham School District December 6, 2011 Michele Farah PhD Early Literacy Consultant Oakland Schools."— Presentation transcript:
Fluency Birmingham School District December 6, 2011 Michele Farah PhD Early Literacy Consultant Oakland Schools
Fluency session goals: O Understand the importance of oral reading fluency O Define and describe oral reading fluency O Differentiate between its components O Become familiar with guidelines for measuring and scoring reading fluency O Understand strategies for developing oral reading fluency for classroom use O Explore ways to assist students who struggle with fluency
What is Oral Reading Fluency O Think about fluent readers-list characteristics of fluent readers O Think about dysfluent readers-list characteristics of dysfluent readers O Define Oral Reading Fluency
Oral Reading Fluency Defined Oral reading fluency (ORF) is the ability to read aloud accurately, automatically, quickly and with expression while comprehending the text.
Silent Reading & Oral Reading Fluency O Oral reading is a valuable skill but fluency is even more essential in silent reading because silent reading is what most readers do most of the time (Cramer, 2003) O Oral reading fluency is stressed in order to assess and teach O Oral reading fluency is stressed in order to monitor reading progress O The final goal is that readers will transfer oral reading fluency to silent reading.
Theories behind Fluency O Automaticity O Attention Capacity O Verbal Efficiency Theory O Prosody
Theory of Automaticity O Looked at skills necessary for reading to be automatic O Decoding is a prerequisite to reading O Decoding involves O accuracy O speed of word recognition O Once words are read accurately and automatically the reader’s attention can shift to comprehending the text
Attention Capacity O Readers have a limited capacity for attention and can attend to one thing at a time but may be able to process many things just as long as no more than one thing requires attention O Beginning readers have high demand for attention, which causes attention to switch between decoding and comprehension O Once decoding is automatic the reader can allocate attention to comprehending the text
Verbal Efficiency Theory O Builds on automaticity theory O Decoding needs to be automatic O Attention is free from word recognition readers allocate attention to not only understanding words but also use text structures such as headings to determine which words to focus on O Attention allocated to comprehend higher level processes like metacognition O Inefficient decoding produces less efficient comprehension
Prosody O Prosody is intonation, stress and duration O Learning to read requires the reader to supply rapidly and automatically the portions of the oral signals that are not represented in the graphic signs O Easier to hear prosody in speech than to generate it from written language O Since prosody plays important role in spoken language for young children, the absence of these signals in written text explains why this is difficult
Read this phrase John threw the ball over the fence. O Answer these questions: O Who threw the ball? O How did the ball get over the fence? O Did your stress change?
When should direct fluency intervention be emphasized? O Chall (1983) and Samuels (2002) suggest specific points in reading development when the opportunity for fluency instruction should occur O Ungluing from print/Accuracy stage O Readers have a corpus of high frequency words which they can read accurately O Decoding is becoming automatic O Reading is becoming less choppy
Fluency Background O Two year pilot study and data collection during summer reading program for students reading below grade level O Looked at transitional readers text level, accuracy, rate, comprehension, automaticity and expression (prosody) after a six week intervention O Looked at student and teacher perceptions and understandings of oral reading fluency
Appropriate reading levels Students should be reading texts at their appropriate difficulty levels. Appropriate difficulty levels refers to independent and instructional level reading materials depending on the levels of support.
What reading level for fluency assessment and instruction O Fluency building is most effective when conducted with reading materials at the student’s independent reading level O Instructional level reading materials can be used to build fluency when teacher support and scaffolding are provided
Things that inhibit developing fluent readers O A steady diet of too-difficult texts that a student cannot read accurately O Daily lessons that provide little high-success reading opportunities so that very little actual reading is completed O Lessons where teachers, or others, frequently and consistently and immediately interrupt readers when they misread a word O Lack necessary basic skills instruction O Limited reading practice in high-success texts
Thinking about the fluency scale First consider… O 3 – the reader will need no demonstration, teaching or prompting O 2 – the reader will need no explicit teaching, but may need prompting O 1 – the reader will need explicit teaching and prompting O 0 – the reader will need intervention and intensive teaching
The reader will need no explicit teaching, but may need prompting #2 Possible prompts… O “listen to how you sounded on this page, you can make this page sound the same” O “show me the part where you think you sounded smooth…” O Find a book that they sound particularly fluent on and use this as a benchmark for other books
The reader will need explicit teaching and prompting #1 Explicit teaching… O Small group O Demonstrate/Model fluent reading O Actively engage O Set a goal Possible prompts… O “listen to me read this page, now you read it with me, now try the next page on your own” O “let me show you the part where you sounded smooth… let’s read that together” O Frame parts of the sentence for child to read
The reader will need intervention and intensive teaching 0 O Use the dimension of fluency scale to determine what the reader is neglecting O Small group or 1-1 direct instruction (1-3 students in group) for at least 6 weeks O Consider an intervention which models fluent reading O Set goals O Monitor progress
Monitoring oral reading fluency growth O Measure oral reading fluency regularly and systematically O Use both formal or informal measures O Establish baseline data and compare to grade level expectations (wpm) See Handout O Set fluency goals for individual students who do not meet grade level expectations O Provide additional strategic and explicit instruction and practice to increase the student’s oral reading fluency O Monitor progress by regularly assessing and graphing each at-risk student's progress toward his fluency goal
Calculating fluency rates O If you use the F & P Calculator/Stopwatch to time the reading, you need only enter the number of running words (RW) from the front cover of the book. The calculator will give you the words per minute (WPM) to record on the Recording Form O Oral reading fluency rate is calculated by taking the total reading time in seconds and divide this into the number of words provided on Recording Form O Black square indicates where timing ends
Dimensions of fluency O Pausing—the reader pauses appropriately at punctuation O Phrasing—the reader puts words together in groups so that it reflects the meaning of the text O Stress—the reader places appropriate stress on words in sentences to reflect the meaning of the text Handout
Dimensions of Fluency O Intonation—the reader’s voice varies in pitch, tone, and volume to reflect the punctuation and the meaning O Rate—the reading is not too slow and not too fast O Integration—good oral reading fluency means integrating all of the above factors so that the reading is smooth and expressive
Fostering Fluency in the Classroom O Model fluent reading in daily read aloud O Develop units of study that include fluency mini-lessons O Make fluency rubrics traits teaching points when you are conferring during reading workshop O Make sure your students have appropriate easy and just right books in their book baskets O Allow time for independent reading with targeted books during your reading workshop block expecting students to reread texts O Make use of small guided groups to teach and reinforce fluency
Fostering Fluency in the Classroom O Shared Reading (prosody, automaticity, rate, comprehension) O Guided Reading (prosody, automaticity, rate, comprehension) O Independent Reading (automaticity, rate, comprehension) O Letter Identification (automaticity) O Word Work (automaticity) O Language Experience Approach (prosody, automaticity, rate, comprehension)
How is this done? O Assisted Repeated Reading with Comprehension Focus O Paired Partner Reading
Interventions Assisted Repeated Reading with Comprehension Focus O Goal is to give the students the opportunity to read contextual materials a number of times so they could experience fluent reading ( Samuels, 1987) O Differs from repeated reading
Interventions Paired Partner Reading O Goal is to give the students the opportunity to read contextual materials a number of times so they could experience fluent reading ( Samuels, 1987) O Done as a follow-up to guided reading instruction O Students take turns reading about words from their guided/strategy group text. Each student takes a turn being the listener or reader, reflecting each time as to how he or his partner read.
Supporting Struggling Readers Things to consider: O Comprehensive literacy framework O Clear understanding of strengths and weaknesses O Too many teaching points O Need to change passive poor readers into readers who search actively for information in print that can help them (Clay, 2005)
What is prompting? O Precise language to use when teaching, prompting for, and reinforcing effective strategic actions in reading and writing O Based on your observations and analysis of students' reading and writing behaviors, you can select the specific language that will work best for children as they build their literacy processing systems O Precise language to improve the reader's or writer's ability to solve problems and use strategic actions independently.
Linking/Making Analogies What it means? O A reader can connect new learning with what she already knows Ways to prompt O “What word does that look like?” O “Look at this word like, if I change the “l” to a “b” what word is it now?” O “Do you see a part you know that might help you?” O “What do you already know about…?”
Self-Monitoring What it means? O A reader can check himself by asking if what he is reading sounds right, looks right and makes sense. A reader can self monitor for comprehension, 1:1 match, fluency and so on Ways to prompt O “Did you check that?” O “Point to the words” O “Why did you stop?” O “Were your right?” O “Try that again” O “Something wasn’t right, can you find it?”
Searching/Gathering What it means? A reader can search letters, words, pictures, punctuation and other text features to gather information that helps her read and understand the text. She can use something she already know to help her problems solve.
Searching/Gathering Ways to prompt O Is there something about that word that can help you? O What do you see that you know? O Check the first letter/part of that word O What would make sense there? O Try that again and think about what would makes sense and sound right
Predicting at the Word Level What it means? A reader can predict a word he does not automatically recognize. (Though his substitution may not be accurate, he is still predicting a word for the unknown word by using one or more sources of information)
Predicting at the Word Level Ways to prompt O “Can you think of a word that makes sense there?” O “What word might look right there?” O “Can you say the sound the first part of the word says?” O “Go back and reread. Can you think of a word that would look right, sound right and make sense there?”
Predicting at the Text Level What it means? O A reader can make prediction on what will come next in the text based on prior knowledge and based on what has happened in the text so far.
Predicting at the Text Level Ways to Prompt O “What do you think will happen next?” O “What do you think this book is going to be about?” O “Lets get our minds read to read. Look at the cover title and picture and think about what you might read in this book before we start?” O “ What do you think that character is going to do?”
Checking/Confirming What it means? O A reader can check or compare one kind of information against another by looking at multiple sources of information (meaning, structure,visual)
Checking/Confirming Ways to prompt O “Check that again” O “What else could it be?” O The teacher can ask the child, “it might be crocodile or alligator. How can you check that?”
Looking at Data O Using the sheet provided examine your own data O Think about the student’s strengths and weaknesses O Determine what you will need to work on in order to see change
Monitoring Progress O Meet in small group 5x a week O Collect and analyze data weekly (running records) O Make short term goals focusing on 1-3 teaching points that will be most effective to move the child forward