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Dyslexia Awareness Arkansas Law, Common Myths, and Our Responsibilities.

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Presentation on theme: "Dyslexia Awareness Arkansas Law, Common Myths, and Our Responsibilities."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dyslexia Awareness Arkansas Law, Common Myths, and Our Responsibilities

2 Outcomes Arkansas Laws Definition of Dyslexia Required Screenings Supporting Students with Dyslexia

3 Arkansas Law

4 Parents of struggling students with dyslexia approached Arkansas lawmakers with concerns regarding screening and interventions for their children. From this, Arkansas State Legislature enacted Act 1294 of the 2013 regular session to ensure that children with dyslexia have their needs met by all Arkansas public school systems.

5 Dyslexia is defined as a learning disability that is neurological in origin.

6 Dyslexia is characterized by… A deficit in the phonological component of language which can cause difficulties with: ➢ decoding ➢ accurate and fluent word recognition ➢ spelling ➢ reading comprehension ➢ reduced reading experience ➢ deficiencies in vocabulary and background knowledge

7 These characteristics are often unexpected in relation to the student's other cognitive abilities.

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24 Myths about Dyslexia Very common among parents, teachers, and the general public. Need to know myths as well as the truths.

25 Picture Naming Exercise You will see two pictures. When you recognize the picture, name it out loud. Ready?

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28 True or False? Reversal errors are a defining feature of dyslexia. b for d was for saw 53 for 35

29 True or False? Reversal errors are a defining feature of dyslexia. b for d was for saw 53 for 35 False!

30 If it were true… you would all have dyslexia!

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35 What’s the Story about Reversals? Reversals are a symptom of early reading development...not a cause for reading difficulties.

36 True or False Eye tracking exercises are effective in correcting dyslexia.

37 True or False Eye tracking exercises are effective in correcting dyslexia. False!

38 Eye-Movements in Reading It feels like our eyes glide across the page but they don’t! –They move in little jumps with little pauses in between. –Faulty eye movements do not cause poor reading but are a by-product of it!

39 True or False Dyslexia can be helped by using colored lenses.

40 True or False Dyslexia can be helped by using colored lenses. False!

41 What We Think Dyslexia Is Unexpectedly poor reading that is due to a problem in language--not in vision. The language system implicated is the phonological system—the part of the brain used for processing speech sounds.

42 True or False? Dyslexia is more common in boys than in girls.

43 Controversial: Two Views Male vulnerability is a myth. Equal numbers of girls affected.

44 Controversial: Two Views It is a fact that more boys than girls are identified as having dyslexia.

45 Controversial: Two Views If you are a teacher and have a limited number of referrals, why might you be more likely to refer a boy than a girl?

46 Controversial: Two Views If you are a teacher and have a limited number of referrals, why might you be more likely to refer a boy than a girl? Behavior problems. Referral bias could explain the fact of more boys being identified than girls.

47 True or False? Parents with dyslexia are more likely to have children with dyslexia.

48 True or False? Parents with dyslexia are more likely to have children with dyslexia. True!

49 Familial Risk Having a parent or sibling with dyslexia increases risk, but does not mean a child will be affected.

50 True or False? Students with dyslexia commonly have additional problems (e.g., ADHD, social problems).

51 True or False? Students with dyslexia commonly have additional problems (e.g., ADHD, social problems). True!

52 Conclusions 1. Reversal errors are not a cause or hallmark characteristic of dyslexia. 2. Faulty eye-movements are not a common cause of dyslexia. 3. Dyslexia is a language problem not a visual problem. Language problem resides in the phonological system.

53 Conclusions 4. Dyslexia runs in families. 5. Children and adults with dyslexia may have other problems (e.g., ADHD). 6. Dyslexia occurs in boys and girls.

54 Flip flops BEACH BALL BRAIN BREAK! Happy

55 Steven Spielberg - Dyslexia Interview https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-lGr840jE_0

56 General Steps for Identifying Students at Risk 1.Screening 2.Inform the student’s parents 3.Develop and implement an intervention plan 4.Measure outcomes 5.Modify interventions if necessary 6.Measure outcomes 7.Seek further diagnostic testing

57 Who Should be Screened? According to Ark. Code Ann. § , a school district shall screen: Each student in kindergarten through grade two (K-2); Any student in grade three or higher experiencing difficulty, as noted by a classroom teacher.

58 The screening of students shall be performed with fidelity and include without limitation : 1.Phonological and phonemic awareness; 2.Sound symbol recognition; 3.Alphabet knowledge; 4.Decoding skills; 5.Rapid naming; and 6.Encoding skills. (Ark. Code Ann. § )

59 Kindergarten Administration: Recommended Mid-Year DIBELS SubtestRequired Component Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF) Phonemic Awareness Letter Naming Fluency (LNF)Alphabet Knowledge Nonsense Word FluencySound Symbol Recognition/Decoding Skills

60 Kindergarten Administration: Recommended Mid-Year Recommended AssessmentRequired Component Arkansas Rapid Naming Screener* Rapid Naming Skills Developmental Spelling Analysis (DSA)** Encoding Skills * Located on the ADE website. ** Located in Word Journeys by Kathy Ganske

61 First Grade Administration: Recommended Beginning- Year DIBELS SubtestRequired Component Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF) Phonemic Awareness Letter Naming Fluency (LNF)Alphabet Knowledge Nonsense Word FluencySound Symbol Recognition/Decoding Skills

62 First Grade Administration: Recommended Beginning- Year Recommended AssessmentRequired Component Arkansas Rapid Naming Screener* Rapid Naming Skills Developmental Spelling Analysis (DSA)** Encoding Skills * Located on the ADE website. ** Located in Word Journeys by Kathy Ganske

63 Second Grade Administration: Recommended Beginning-Year DIBELS SubtestRequired Component Nonsense Word FluencySound Symbol Recognition/Decoding Skills Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)Decoding Skills/Fluency

64 Second Grade Administration: Recommended Beginning-Year Recommended AssessmentRequired Component Arkansas Rapid Naming Screener* Rapid Naming Skills Developmental Spelling Analysis (DSA)** Encoding Skills * Located on the ADE website. ** Located in Word Journeys by Kathy Ganske

65 3 rd – 12 th Grade Screening measures should be administered when a student in grades three or higher has difficulty in reading and writing. Dyslexia Resource Guide, August 2014, ADE

66 Third - Sixth Grade Administration: (as needed) DIBELS SubtestRequired Component Oral Reading FluencyDecoding Skills/Fluency Seventh - Twelfth Grade Administration: (as needed) The teachers should use grade-appropriate informal inventories.

67 Whatever the plan of action, researchers now know that the human brain has an incredible capacity to change—at every age level.

68 Supporting Students with Dyslexia

69 Response to Intervention Tier l: Core Instruction Tier ll: Supplemental Intervention Tier lll: Intensive Intervention

70 Supporting Students with Dyslexia Multi-sensory approach Visual Auditory Kinesthetic Tactile

71 Supporting Students with Dyslexia Instructional practices –Explicit teaching procedures –Step-by-step instructions –Repeating directions and emphasizing a daily review of previous learning –Recording directions, stories, and specific lessons

72 Supporting Students with Dyslexia Materials –Limit distractions –Additional practice –Provide a glossary in content areas –Develop study guides

73 Supporting Students with Dyslexia Technology

74 Supporting Students with Dyslexia Performance adjustments –Flexible work times –Adjusting assignments –Scaffold (easiest to hardest) –Instructional aids

75 Supporting Students with Dyslexia Arkansas Department of Education –Dyslexia Resources

76 What is most critical is that students with difficulties in learning to read are identified as early as possible, and that intensive and well-targeted interventions be provided to those students who are lagging behind, no matter what the cause.

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78 Contact Information Deborah Curry Anna Warriner


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