Goals Separate Coaching and Training Define Core functions of Coaching o Define four functions of coaching Establish applications of effective coaching to current efforts. -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Define 1-2 content areas where you anticipate you will be doing coaching in the next 6 months.
Three distinctions Coaching versus Training o “Actions” rather than “Role” Functions of Coaching Skills /Attributes of Excellent Coaches o Knowledge of core content o Time o Communication skills o Building professional relationship skills o Knowledge of organizational context
Example of the Impact of Coaching on Student Outcomes: Average Major Discipline Referrals per Day per Month Coach returns from leave Coach goes on leave
Coaching versus Training Training is the presentation of material to develop new knowledge and /or skill Coaching is the on-site support needed to use new knowledge and/or skills under typical conditions. Note: One person may do BOTH… but the skills, functions and measures of effectiveness are different.
Coaching Functions Prompting o Bring newly trained skills under stimulus control of natural stimuli Fluency Building o Repeated opportunities to use new skills … preferably soon after training Performance Feedback o Feedback on accuracy and shaping of trained skills Adaptation o Modify trained skills to fit to local culture and context
Prompting Bring newly trained skills under stimulus control of natural stimuli. Prompting typically focuses on emphasizing “when” a new skill is used. Skill Context for performance (Sd) Prompt Providing opportunities to respond (literacy) Building the agenda for team meeting (TIPS) Constructive performance feedback (math) Teaching Sharing (behavior)
Action: Prompting Select a content area you are currently supporting. o What is the skill or knowledge to be implemented? o What is the stimulus context where the skill should occur? o What additional prompt(s) can you provide to increase the likelihood that the skills will be used when and where it is most appropriate?
Fluency building Establishing efficient skill use. Perform a skill with the speed and ease needed to make it functional Using choral responding (reading) Building precise problem statements (TIPS) Error analysis (math) Building lesson plans for behavioral expectations
Fluency in Data Use 4. Progress Monitoring Collection of data on a monthly, weekly, daily rate Use of data for decision-making
Action: Fluency Building Select a content area you are currently supporting. o What is the skill or knowledge to be implemented? o What are the fluency variables needed to make the skill practical and functional? o What additional activities, practice, adaptations can you provide to increase the likelihood that the skills will be uses with the fluency needed to be practical and effective?
Performance Feedback Building skill accuracy and precision Using data to assign reading groups(reading) Writing action plans to address problems(TIPS) Selecting math curricula (math) Correcting behavioral errors (behavior) Billie JoSarah
Literacy Risk Tier I Risk Tier II Risk Tier III Risk
Action: Performance Feedback Select a content area you are currently supporting. o What is the skill or knowledge to be implemented? o What schedule and approach to performance feedback can you provide to increase the likelihood that the skills will be uses with the precision needed to be practical and effective? Always acknowledge successes first Place feedback in context of larger goal (getting fluent and effective at use of target skill for student gain) Provide sufficient feedback to get success
Adaptation Defining how new skills can be used within the local cultural and context Peer-mediated instruction (reading) Establishing team “norms” (TIPS) Amount of homework (math) Selecting school-wide behavioral expectations (PBIS)
Adaptation: Selecting Behavioral Expectations If “respect” is used and controlled by gang culture. Consider how to convey “responsible” across cultures o Native American o Japanese o Hispanic/Latino o White (non-Hispanic) Selection of Behavioral Expectations is (a) mandated by district to a common set (be respectful, be responsible, be safe), but (b) these are not stated in ways that resonate with your families/students District prohibits posting materials on new school walls.
Action: Adaptation Select a content area you are currently supporting. o What is the skill or knowledge to be implemented? o Identify at least two ways to achieve the targeted “core feature” and what cultural/organizational variables would lead you to recommend one versus another. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- o How may cultural variations across students/families affect use of the new skill? Interpretation of what is considered “respectful” o How may organizational context affect use of the new skill? Adoption of Common Core District human resource policies
Modify Coaching to Stage of Implementation? Adapted from Fixsen & Blase, 2005 We think we know what we need, so we ordered 3 month free trial (evidence-based) ✔ EXPLORATION & ADOPTION Let’s make sure we’re ready to implement (capacity infrastructure) ✔ INSTALLATION Let’s give it a try & evaluate (demonstration) ✔ INITIAL IMPLEMENTATION That worked, let’s do it for real (investment) ✔ FULL IMPLEMENTATION Let’s make it our way of doing business (institutionalized use) SUSTAINABILITY & CONTINUOUS REGENERATION
Summary Separate “coaching” from “training Self-assess your use of the four functions of coaching as you work with PBIS implementation leadership teams. o What are the skills you want them to perform? o What are the conditions/times/situations where the skill should be used o Are they doing the skills with sufficient fluency to make them functional o Are they doing the skills with sufficient precision to make them functional o Is adaptation needed to apply the new skills to achieve the core features needed for student benefit? Adapt your coaching support to match the team’s stage of implementation