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Math Facts through Conceptual Understanding Dawn Sparks Ann Sipe

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Math Assessment Probe Starting from what you know… – Fold assessment in half – Respond to one side only

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Making the Case… Focus on number sense! – Research indicates that early number sense predicts school success more than other measures of cognition like verbal, spatial or memory skills or reading ability. Jordoan, Kaplan, Locuniak, and Ramineni, 2007

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Washington State Report Card 5 th Grade Migrant Math Data

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Migrant Math Data 5 th Grade Math

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Wa KIDS Kindergarten Readiness ESD 105

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What is Mastery of Basic Facts: Addition and subtraction by the end of 2 nd grade Multiplication and division by 3 rd grade Fact fluency leads to other math fluent skills…

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Guided Invention: Fact mastery will not magically happen. – “Time is a poor intervention.” Teacher’s job is to design tasks and problems that will promote invention of effective strategies, that these are shared in the classroom, thinking aloud.

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Developmental Nature of Basic Fact Mastery CountingReasoningMastery

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Phase 1: Counting strategies- – using concrete objects – verbal counting Example includes: = count on starting at 5, = 5, 6, = 7 then 8, 9, 10, 11 Counting Strategies

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Phase 2: Reasoning Strategy: – using known information to logically determine an unknown combination – 4 + 7, student knows 3 +7 = 10 so just adds on 1 more. – 10 x 8 is 80 half of that is 5 x 8 is 40 Reasoning Strategy

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Phase 3: Producing answers efficiently – just knows it – = 11 Retrieval within 3 seconds Grade appropriate strategy Efficient Scalable Mastery

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Knowing Facts from Memory- “Passive Storage View” Thinking that students will learn their facts if they just practice enough What does this mean- – 100 isolated addition facts – 100 isolated multiplication facts – Also having to memorize subtraction and division- well over 300 pieces of information to remember – Not only having to memorize, but to keep practicing as well.

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Effects of not knowing facts fluently… Lack of basic fact automaticity has been shown: – Limit participation in math class discussions – Impede successful problem solving – Severely impair the development of the standard algorithms for multiple-digit addition and subtraction, long division and fractions – Misapply facts and not seeing reasonableness of answers – Inflexible thinking skills

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Struggling Learners and Students with Disabilities: Have difficulty memorizing so many isolated facts (but can be successful with strategies) Drill creates, in a majority of students, unnecessary anxiety Undermine student interest and confidence in mathematics

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ELL and Migrant Supports Scaffold the Language, but not the mathematic strategies Use Realia and Models Use Graphic Organizers Use Student Interactions for additional practice Use gestures for together, take apart, groups etc.

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Explicit Strategy Instruction: Strategies can be effective to learning math facts. Supports students thinking rather than give the students something new to remember. Key: Help students see possibilities and let them choose strategies that help them get to a solution without counting.

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Resources John Van de Walle – Research Origo The Box of Facts Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division

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Learning Facts: Addition Addition

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How many strategies? Addition Count On Use Doubles Bridge to 10

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Building on three strategies… Addition Count On Count on 1 Count on 2 Count on 3 Count on 0 Use Doubles Double Double Plus 1 Double Plus 2Bridge to 10

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Operation ~ Strategy Clusters ~ Sub Strategies ~ Teaching Strategies Addition Count On Count on 1 Introduce Reinforce Practice Extend Count on 2 Count on 3 Count on 0 Use Double Double Double Plus 1 Double Plus 2Bridge to 10

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Addition Strategies Count On – Count On 1 – Count On Turnarounds – Count On 2 – Count On 3 – Count On 0 Use Doubles – Double – Double Plus 1 – Double Plus 2 Bridge to 10 All Facts

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Count On: Addition Strategy Week One: Introduce Concept Through Real Objects Transitioning to Model Week Two: Reinforce Through Models Week Three: Practice through Games Week Four: Extend or Reteach

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Prepare… Before teaching strategies students need to know… Subitizing The ability to instantly recognize the total quantity of objects in a group without counting

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Week One: Introduce Concept Through Real Objects Transitioning to Model Counting bottles Cubes in a cup Addition stories Count on 1 Cards

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Week Two: Reinforce Through Models Count on Cards Number Tracks Cube Trains Count on Cards with Numeral Cards Does This Make Sense? Moving from physical models to semi-abstract models to symbolic models (with numbers)

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Week Three: Practice through Games Spin, Count On 1, Record Fact Reinforce with Count On Flash Cards Count On 1 Bingo – Total and Expression

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Week Four: Extend or Reteach ___ + 1 = ___ Any Number-What’s the Rule Moving to the teen numbers Investigate Number Patterns – – – – Target Number

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Supporting Migrant Students Through Family Support… Take Games Home – Instructions – Materials Send home strategies in newsletters – Language

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Count On Turnarounds: Addition Strategy Week One: Introduce Concept Through Real Objects Transitioning to Model Week Two: Reinforce Through Models Week Three: Practice through Games Week Four: Extend or Reteach

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Count On Turnarounds… Week One: Introduce Concept Through Real Objects Transitioning to Model T-shirt Count On Strategy Cards Blending Realia and Strategy Cards

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Count on Turnarounds… Week Two: Reinforce Through Models Count on Strategy Cards Using a Number Line Graphic Organizers Count on Flash Cards

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Count on Turnarounds… Week Three: Practice Through Games Flash Cards with Turn Around Strategy Bingo – Total Version – Expression Version Assessment and Monitoring

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Count on Turnarounds… Week Four: Extend or Reinforce Write 1 + ___ = ___ Develop a Rule Use same models with larger numbers Use Frames ___ + ___ = 18 ___ + ___ = (numbers between 10-30) 18 = ___ + ___ (after practice change position) Using a number line to show strategy

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Repeating with new strategies and operations Same structure for subtraction-opposite of addition Same format for multiplication and division

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Multiplication Strategies Use Tens – Five Facts Doubling – Two’s Facts – Four’s Facts – Eight’s Facts Use a Rule – One’s Facts – Zero’s Facts Build Down and Build Up – Nine’s Facts – Six’s Facts Last Facts

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Use Tens: Prepare Assumptions- – Students should already know tens facts – Be familiar with the turnaround strategy – Turnarounds are an application of the commutative property Realia-cubes in a bag Suggesting stories involving food Sentences reflecting multiplication (groups) Chocolate Bars and turnarounds-yum yum! Connecting with language

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Use Tens: Prepare Assumptions- – Students should already know tens facts – Be familiar with the turnaround strategy – Turnarounds are an application of the commutative property Making Models using Dice and Grid Paper Everyday situations involving 10 Unifix Cubes Modeling 10’s

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Count On Turnarounds: Multiplication Strategy Week One: Introduce Concept Through Real Objects Transitioning to Model Week Two: Reinforce Through Models Week Three: Practice through Games Week Four: Extend or Reteach

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Introduce: Five Facts What are our experiences with fives? Using students to model with hands Clocks Use Ten Strategy Cards

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Reinforce: Fives Facts Use 10 Strategy Cards Number Lines Finding Unknown Numbers

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Practice: Five Facts Multiplication Flash Cards Spinning Five Facts Tally Game Assess and Monitor

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Extend: Fives Facts ___ x ___ = 40 – Using 5’s and 10’s write four number sentences that would be true. – Repeat using numbers 80, 90, 110, 120 and so on. Number Lines Tables

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Multiplication Strategies Use Tens – Five Facts Doubling – Two’s Facts – Four’s Facts – Eight’s Facts Use a Rule – One’s Facts – Zero’s Facts Build Down and Build Up – Nine’s Facts – Six’s Facts Last Facts

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What to Do When Teaching Basic Math Facts Ask students to self-monitor Focus on self-improvement Drill in short time segments Work on facts over time Involve families Make drill enjoyable Use technology Emphasize the importance of quick recall

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What Not to Do When Teaching Basic Facts Don’t use lengthy timed test Don’t use public comparisons of mastery Don’t proceed through the facts in order from 0-9 Don’t work on all the facts at once Don’t move to memorization too soon Don’t use facts as a barrier to good mathematics Don’t use fact mastery as prerequisite for calculator use.

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Math Assessment Probe Starting from what you know… – Fold assessment in half – Respond to one side only

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Resources ESD Fact Fluency Courses Migrant Fluency- Origo: The Box of Facts Elementary and Middle School Mathematics by John Van de Walle

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Identify fact fluency is a developmental process. Identify research based strategies that help develop fact fluency Understand strategies that are ineffective for fact fluency development Learn specific strategies that help develop fact fluency

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