1Diane Newman firstname.lastname@example.org Six Minute SolutionDiane NewmanWelcome! It is an honor and privilege to be here.My background.Norms: cellphonesbathroom breaks 1call back to order with hand upnod head to show understanding
2Goals To understand what fluency is and how it impacts reading. 2. To understand the rationale and research behind reading fluency and the Six Minute Solution program.3. To understand and be able to use Six Minute Solution Program.Good teaching always begins with goals or objectives so that the participants know what they’ll be learning – where they’re headed.To get the big picture
3Agenda What is Fluency? Research and Rationale Assessments Selecting fluency partners and instructional groups Introducing the fluency concept Establishing partner behavior Training students in the partnership model Managing materials Student progress and record keeping Comprehension and writing strategies Conclusion: more than six minutes a day
4Reading: 5 Big Ideas Elementary Alphabetic PrinciplePhonemic AwarenessVocabularyFluencyComprehension
5Reading: 5 Big Ideas Secondary Word StudyVocabularyFluencyComprehensionMotivation
6Automaticity is… Performance of a skill without conscious thought Necessary for proficiencyImproved through practice, perfect practiceTake a moment to establish partners – identify partner #1 and partner #2.**Strategy: THINK, PAIR, SHARE – teacher gives a question, students think about question, partners compare and check answers okay to change answer, partners share out with class#1 Shutting garage door for me#2 Golf Weave participants’ stories of automaticity into discussion of each point above.#3 One of the fundamental principles of learning is that practice is important. However, practice has to be “perfect practice” to be worthwhile for learning. Practice has to be at the proper instructional level; not too hard, not too easy and it must be monitored to ensure that it is productive to learning. (Tie to participants’ stories, not to reading. That tie will come in the next slide.)
7Automaticity in Reading Frees up cognitive space for comprehension and critical thinkingLeads to enjoyable readingFluent reading requires all parts of the brain.As a reader becomes more automatic with phonological awareness, decoding and sight words, the areas of the brain used for critical thinking (frontal lobe) are freed up and more attention can be devoted to comprehension.We have more attentional resources available once underlying skills become automatic. The way to expend less attention on skills like decoding is to teach them to the point of automaticity.*How does automaticity in reading or any activity make it more enjoyable? Give partners time to discuss.
8FluencyFluency provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension (National Institute for Literacy 2001)Proficient readers are so automatic with each component skill (phonological awareness, decoding, vocabulary) that they focus their attention on constructing meaning from the print (Kahn and Stahl 2000)If a reader has to spend too much time and energy figuring out what words are, they are unable to concentrate on what the words mean.Fluency is more than speed, it also includes comprehension and expression.Fluency is reading accurately, quickly and with expression – this is the definition given in the Six Minute Solution book.
9Dysfluent Readers1. Students who struggle with underlying skill deficits, such as decoding and word recognition.2. Students who have adequate skills, but are slow at word and text reading.
10Strategies for Fluency Phrase-cued ReadingAlternate Oral ReadingSimultaneous Oral ReadingReader’s TheatreChoral ReadingRound Robin ReadingRepeated ReadingsLet’s discuss some developmental approaches to fluency improvement. These approaches are helpful for most children who need to develop their fluency. However, some children may need intervention beyond these techniques.Teachers use various strategies to preview a text they include: previewing key words, introducing the content, looking at the text ahead of time. All of these increase the likelihood that the task will be productive for increasing fluency.The first strategy to improve fluency is phrase-cued reading. This can be modeled and taught directly to help students move beyond word-by-word reading. Teacher models fluent reading in phrases then student reads it.Alternate Oral Reading – Pair up students 1 & 15, 2 & 16, etc. they alternate reading an assigned passage – stronger reader goes first.Simultaneous Oral Reading – fluent reader reads along with weaker reader, weaker reader hears better phrasing and experiences sense of fluency.Repeated Readings – Six Minute Solution
11Rereading to Build Fluency “Practice Makes Perfect”Repeated Reading Research (Levy, Nichools,& Kroshen, 1993; Meyer & Felton, 1999; Samuels, 1979)Six Minute Solution is based on repeated reading researchResearch also supports students’ reading skills improve when they work with peers in structured reading activitiesRESEARCH shows that rereading builds fluency.Whatever you’re doing: basketball, piano, processing text in a smooth, efficient and accurate manner, practice makes perfect.Repeated reading of same passage to build reading fluency has been well documented in research studies.HANDOUT P. 2 explanation of Rereading to Build Fluency
12Decoding and FluencyIn order to read fluently the reader must be able to decode the vast majority of words automatically with approximately 95% accuracyWhile fluency helps improve decoding it is not sufficient to remediate an underlying decoding problemAny underlying decoding problems must also be addressed either prior to or in conjunction with fluency practice.HANDOUT P. 297% - 100% Independent level91% - 96% Instructional level90% and below Frustration level95% # used a lot in Six Minute Solution as Independent level
13Independent Reading & Fluency Students that are fluent generally find reading to be pleasurable and therefore read moreReading more increases reading related skills, vocabulary, background knowledge, decoding, and fluency skillsThe rich get richer and the poor get poorer,the “Matthew Effect”Amount of time spent on independent reading increases when it is pleasurable.The gap widens dramatically between strong and weak readers. Want the aim line to be on an upward trend.Discuss what the “Matthew Effect” means. Coined by Keith StanovichMatthew 13:12 “Students with low word recognition and fluency skills will read less.”HANDOUT P.3Because students have insufficient word knowledge to comprehend what they read, they typically avoid reading and don’t have the opportunities to see and learn many new words.Schools have not caused the gap, we unintentionally exacerbate it.
14In 10 minutes of independent reading… A fluent reader might read 2,000 wordsA struggling reader might read only 500 wordsIdeally we want:Grades wpmGrades – 200 wpmStudies show that students who read 180 cwpm passed all state testsEqual practice time, unequal practice
15Work Completion & Fluency Think of the amount of reading assigned in upper elementary, middle school, and high schoolBoth students are assigned the same amount of readingThe student who reads 180 wpm will complete their work in two hours while a student who reads 60 wpm will need six hours to complete the same textHow many of you can picture or put a name to a student or two in your class like this?HANDOUT P. 3
16Reading Achievement and Fluency Practice We have the tools and knowledge to change the statistics! (44% of fourth graders were not fluent according to NAEP scores)Fluency can be taught.“Guided, repeated, oral reading procedures are appropriate and valuable avenues for increasing reading fluency and overall reading achievement.” (National Reading Panel 2000)I do it, we do it, ya’ll do it, you do it.NAEP = National Assessment of Educational ProgressI do: direct explicit instruction – model fluent reading to student(s)We do: read the passage togetherYa’ll do: partners read it togetherYou do: student does it aloneHANDOUT P. 3
17So how are we supposed to help these kids? “Never, never think outside the Box !”Six Minute Solutions is a research-based, quality program that teaches fluency. Providing time and arranging instructional groupings sometimes needs to be creatively thought through – unlike the cat, we need to think outside the box to reach these kids!
18Six Minute Solution Overview TimeMaterialsProcedures1 minuteTimerFolder containing two copies of the same passage, two copies of the fluency graph, on dry erase marker and clothGet ReadyTeacher announces that fluency timing will beginPartner 1 ReadsPartner 2 Gives FeedbackPartner 2 ReadsPartner 1 Gives FeedbackStudents put away materialsHANDOUT P. 1-2Handout is more descriptive than this slide.
20Primary: Step 1 - Assessments Assessment is critical in determining students’:Knowledge of phonetic elements (6 Phonetic Elements Assessments: letter/sounds, CVC short, blends and digraphs, vowel combinations, CVC with distractors, “r” controlled vowels )Level of sight-word acquisition (Automatic Words Assessment)Oral reading rate on a grade-level passage (Passage Assessments, AIMSweb or DIBELS fluency scores)Instructional reading level (San Diego Quick)STEP 1:This is the first step in the Six Minute Solution program – assessment. Chapter 1HANDOUT PThe phonetic elements assessment, automatic words assessment and passage reading assessments do not need to be given in order to use the program. Depending on a student’s instructional level, the teacher may elect to focus on fluency building for phonetic elements and/or sight-word fluency before passage reading fluency. More proficient readers may need to work only on passage reading fluency.Primary level (K, 1, 2) need to determine 1) students’ knowledge of phonetic elements 2) level of sight word acquisition 3) oral reading rate on grade-level passages, and 4) instructional reading level. Six Minute Solution has three different assessments ( phonetic element assessment, automatic words assessments, passage reading assessment) included to find these or use DIBELS to find entry point.Students with more significant reading problems may need more extensive assessment that assessments found in this book.Assessment provides baseline information so student growth can be evaluated.You can be a slow grade level reader.Phonetic Elements Assessment – tests mastery of individual letter names and sounds, single-syllable, short-vowel words, single-syllable long-vowel words, consonant blends and digraphs, vowel combinations, and “r” controlled vowels. There are six subtests in the Phonetic Elements Assessment. Start with the test that is based on the best estimate of student knowledge to begin testing. For example a kindergarten teacher might select the Letters and Sounds subtest at the beginning of the school year, while a first-grade teacher might select the CVC Short Vowel Patterns subtest.No more than 3 seconds per subtest item before marking the item as incorrect. Continue administering the subtests until the student’s accuracy rate drops below 90%.
21Assessment: Phonetic Elements What do you need Approximately min./studentCopies of a Student Copy of selected subtestSelect the appropriate list based on your best estimate of student knowledge.Ex. A kindergarten teacher might select the Letters and Sounds subtest at beginning of school year; a first grade teacher may select the CVC Short Vowel Patterns subtest at the same point in the yearTeacher Record Sheet for each student being assessedHighlighter or marking pen for the teacherThe book says it takes 1-2 hours. Amount of time is dependent on how many students you’ll be testing.Your testing spot should be away from other students so they can’t hear the other studentsTwo copies: one for you and one for student – you can laminate (plastic sleeve) yours to record errors or have one for each student for a permanent copy of errors.If a student is well below grade level, assess them at their estimated reading level until 95%Rotate through group to test all studentsHANDOUT P. 14 – 17 Level 1, 4, 6, and 9 Grade Level Fluency Assessment PassagesHANDOUT P. 18 Fluency Assessment Report for parentsHANDOUT P. 19 Initial Assessment Class Record Sheets for both oral reading rates and instructional grade levels of entire class.**We are currently using these class assessment records in our content area classes for PAIRED READING strategy.
22Primary Assessment: Phonetic Elements Assessment Procedure:Give the student a Student Copy of selected subtestInstruct the student to say the letter name, the letter sound, or the word depending on the subtest being administeredFollow along, track the correct responses as well as the errors allowing only three seconds per subtest item before marking it incorrect. You are assessing for automatic knowledge of phonemic elements, which is the goal of this program.Continue administering the subtests until the student’s accuracy rate drops below 90%Record their student’s individual instructional-level list number on the Class Record Sheet.Phonetic Elements Assessments in Primary book p
23Assessment: Automatic Words What do you need Approximately 2.5 min./studentTwo copies of a Student Copy of selected word list (select the appropriate list based on your best estimate of student knowledge)Teacher Record Sheet for each student being assessedHighlighter or marking pen for the teacherThe book says it takes 1-2 hours. Amount of time is dependent on how many students you’ll be testing.Your testing spot should be away from other students so they can’t hear the other studentsTwo copies: one for you and one for student – you can laminate (plastic sleeve) yours to record errors or have one for each student for a permanent copy of errors.If a student is well below grade level, assess them at their estimated reading level until 95%Rotate through group to test all studentsHANDOUT P. 14 – 17 Level 1, 4, 6, and 9 Grade Level Fluency Assessment PassagesHANDOUT P. 18 Fluency Assessment Report for parentsHANDOUT P. 19 Initial Assessment Class Record Sheets for both oral reading rates and instructional grade levels of entire class.**We are currently using these class assessment records in our content area classes for PAIRED READING strategy.
24Primary Assessment: Automatic Words by Ten Procedure:Give the student a Student Copy of word listInstruct the student to read the words quickly and carefullyFollow along, drawing a line through any word the student does not read correctly within three seconds, and record errors at the bottom of the word list(s).When a student misses one word on any list, stop. This is the list number that the student should begin practicing.Record their student’s individual instructional-level list number on the Class Record Sheet. This sheet will help form instructional groups.Handout p. 40Automatic Assessment sheets in Primary book p
25Assessment is critical in determining fluency Primary/Intermediate/Secondary Assessments Step 1: Fluency and Instructional Reading LevelAssessment is critical in determining fluencypartnerships and appropriate reading levels1. Give each student a one minute timing on a grade level passage to determine oral fluency rate2. Give each student a test to determine instructional reading level (91-96% accuracy)- San Diego Quick, silent reading test or a passage placement accuracy testOral Fluency Assessment sheets in Intermediate book p and Secondary book pSan Diego Quick Assessment sheets in Intermediate book p and Secondary book pSTEP 1:This is the first step in the Six Minute Solution program – assessment. Chapter 1Primary level (K, 1, 2) need to determine 1) students’ knowledge of phonetic elements 2) level of sight word acquisition 3) oral reading rate on grade-level passages, and 4) instructional reading level. Six Minute Solution has three different assessments ( phonetic element assessment, automatic words assessments, passage reading assessment) included to find these or use DIBELS to find entry point.Students with more significant reading problems may need more extensive assessment that assessments found in this book.Assessment provides baseline information so student growth can be evaluated.You can be a slow grade level reader.HANDOUT P. 4 and 7 Assessment informationHANDOUT P. 10 is an explanation of San Diego Quick AssessmentHANDOUT P. 11 Teacher copy of San Diego Quick AssessmentHANDOUT P. 12 Student copy of San Diego Quick AssessmentHANDOUT P. 13 Class record sheet for San Diego Quick Assessment
26Assessment 1: Fluency What do you need Approximately 2.5 min./studentTwo copies of a grade-level fluency assessment passageData sheet for the teacher to record correct wpm (oral fluency rate)Timer, clipboard, marking penThe book says it takes 1-2 hours. Amount of time is dependent on how many students you’ll be testing.Your testing spot should be away from other students so they can’t hear the other studentsTwo copies: one for you and one for student – you can laminate (plastic sleeve) yours to record errors or have one for each student for a permanent copy of errors.If a student is well below grade level, assess them at their estimated reading level until 95%Rotate through group to test all studentsHANDOUT P. 14 – 17 Level 1, 4, 6, and 9 Grade Level Fluency Assessment PassagesHANDOUT P. 18 Fluency Assessment Report for parentsHANDOUT P. 19 Initial Assessment Class Record Sheets for both oral reading rates and instructional grade levels of entire class.**We are currently using these class assessment records in our content area classes for PAIRED READING strategy.
27Guidelines for Counting WCPM Count a word read correctly as correct.Don't say the correct word after the student has said an incorrect word.Wait three seconds before supplying a word to a student who is stuck.ErrorsMispronunciations and dropped endingsOmissionsOut of sequence (count as two errors)Words supplied by teachersSubstitutions with synonymsRepeated errors are counted each timeNot ErrorsMispronunciations or dropped endings due to dialect or speech problemsRepetitionsInsertionsSelf-correctionsHere’s how to do the Oral Fluency AssessmentDon’t say, “Ready, set, go!”Refer to assessment passages HANDOUT PGrade 1 p. 14Grade 4 p. 15Grade 6 p. 16Grade 9 p. 17
28Curriculum-Based Norms in Oral Reading Fluency Students target fluency rate is based on his/her instructional reading level not current grade placement. Ex. Initial goal for an 5th grader reading at a 4th grade instructional level is cwpm.Once they have met that initial goal, increase cwpm to upper range or move them to next grade level.As a general rule, students scoring below 50th % benefit from participating in fluency building program.HANDOUT P. 20 Hasbrouck and Tindale Chart*WCPM = Words Correct Per MinuteHasbrouck, J., & Tindal, G. A. (2006, April). Oral Reading Fluency Norms: A Valuable Assessment Tool for Reading Teachers. The Reading Teacher, 59(7), 636–644.
29Conducting a One-Minute Timing Handout p. 16 passage Handout p Conducting a One-Minute Timing Handout p. 16 passage Handout p. 20 Hasbrouck & Tindal Chart Handout p. 19 Initial Assessment RecordAssessment test passage level 6 - the reader should make some mistakes to give the assessor some practice. Remember we are finding Oral Reading Fluency Rate.HANDOUT P. 14Read “Marsupials” aloudOn Elmo show “Marsupials” test and mark errors, figure WRCOn Elmo show Hasbrook and Tindale chart – below 50%On Elmo record fluency score on Initial Assessment recordUse of plastic sleeve for errors – saves paper with large classesWe can also see if a passage is at their instructional grade level by looking at 100 words read and figuring out the errors number.
30Assessment 2: Instructional Reading Level What do you need Approximately 2.5 min./studentMaterials to determine instructional reading level (passage placement accuracy test, word recognition test (San Diego Quick, group silent reading test)Data sheet for the teacher to record instructional reading levelPassage placement accuracy test = grade level assessment passages – Ex. the “Mammals” passage if student reads 100 wordsWord recognition test = San Diego QuickGroup silent reading test examples = Gates-MacGinitie, Scholastic Reading Inventory, McLeod Test of Reading ComprehensionRecord the students’ instructional level on the Data sheet HANDOUT p. 19 called Initial Assessment Record. This is the same sheet you wrote the students’ fluency levels on.
31Passage Placement Accuracy Test: What do you need Determining Reading Levels Chart (Using a 100-word passage)Passage Errors AllowedPassage Reading LevelComprehension Level3 or fewer errorsIndependent (97% - 100%)Good to Excellent4 - 9 errorsInstructional (91% - 96%)Good to Satisfactory10 or more errorsFrustration (90% & below)Satisfactory/Fair/PoorLook at the assessment we just did called “Mammals.” Based on my score, this would be my instructional reading level. You can use a grade level 100 word passage.Many teachers assign students fluency passages at their instructional level with the intent of having them progress more quickly. Other teachers – especially those of reluctant readers- assign fluency passages at their independent level with the intent of having them experience immediate success, resulting in increased motivation and self-esteem.Students should NEVER practice fluency with a passage in which their reading is less than 90% accurate. We would never practice shooting a basketball incorrectly or playing an instrument incorrectly. Practice perfectly.San Diego Quick p
32Conduct an Instructional Reading Level Test San Diego Quick Assessment Handout p San Diego Quick Assessment Handout p. 19 Initial Assessment RecordI’m a fifth grader so I’ll start the assessment 2-3 grade levels below = grade 2.HANDOUT p. 11 teacher’s copyResults: Independent – grade 3Instructional – grade 4Frustration – grade 5Read San Diego test aloud – participants scoreOn Elmo show teacher copy with errorsOn Elmo show “Errors and Reading level” formOn Elmo show Initial Assessment form to put reading level on
33Step 2 - Selecting Fluency Partners Partnering appropriately is essential to the success of the programMatch students as closely as possible by both oral fluency rates and instructional reading levelsNow that you’ve assessed the students to determine their fluency and reading level, the next step is Selecting Fluency Partners
34Selecting Fluency Partners Materials:Fluency data for each studentA student ranking sheet or computer spreadsheet program that generates ranking orderHandout p. 19 Initial Assessment RecordReminder: students need to be at the same instructional reading level.Have participants turn to HANDOUT P Use the student ranking sheet “Initial Assessment Record” with oral reading rate and instructional reading level or computer spreadsheet.
35Selecting Fluency Partners Fluency rates should be within words of each other – within 10 words at the primary levelRank by fluency and by instructional reading level1 and 2, 3 and 4 would be partners, and so onOnce partnerships are established, assign them partner 1 and partner 2. Partner 1 should be the strongest of the two partners (models the reading first).
36Initial Assessment Record Teacher__Mrs Initial Assessment Record Teacher__Mrs. Newman_______________ Class_____Reading Strategies__ Date March 2013_____Student NameAssessment1-Oral Reading Rate (CWPM)2- Instructional Reading LevelJeremy674thJon68Lisa75Kendra78Stacie80Joe86SeanErin90Kara915thCraig92Scott99Sue100
37Selecting Instructional Grouping Entire classroomsSmall groupsIndividual fluency programsParent-student partnershipsCross-age partnershipsThis was fundamentally designed for entire classroom but can be used successfully in different configurations. Share my experience.Small groups: Monday – teacher and students preview for accuracy, set timer 1 minute, student whisper read, underline difficult words. Tuesday thru Thursday – teacher and students choral read for 1 minute, set timer, student whisper read. Friday – students pair up or read to teacher for final reading.Individual fluency programs – special ed, remedial or resource rooms, not possible to select evenly matched fluency partners. Can set target goals words above initial timing. Can use passage for more than one week if necessary.Parent – student – use it at home, share example.Cross-age – older student paired with younger student. Older student conducts 1 minute timing.Another way to use 6 minute solution**Cold Timings, practice 1, practice 2, hot timing with partner
38Troubleshooting Partners AbsenteeismOdd number of studentsOne child who is far below all the others in reading abilityStudents who read less than 40 cwpm most likely need to increase sight vocabulary – automatic word lists (handout p. 38)Noise LevelAbsenteeism: teacher or aide substitute – partner up with other pair at same readability level.Odd number: Triad instead of a pair, reads 3 times per weekOne child far below: paired with teacher, aide, student tutor, or classroom volunteer40 cwpm: Less than 40 cwpm most likely need to increase sight word vocabulary – benefit from single word fluency practice (automatic word lists) Goal to read 60 cwpm on high frequency words. Students can do both single word lists and practice passage fluency practice.**Determining which AUTOMATIC WORD list to use: begin with set 1 – time for 1 minute – when student reads fewer than 60 cwpm, stop and this is where to begin building sight word fluency.Noise: lean in and whisper behavior – noise is not a problem. Can move students into the hall or around room.Example of automatic word list begin on P. 38 HANDOUT
39Step 3 - Introducing the Fluency Concept Set aside 30 minutes for lessonIntroduce the concept of fluency using activity procedure or scripted procedure (in book).Select the Practice Passage for demonstration. Explain the practice passage and model reading fluency procedure.Rationale reduces resistance!Step 3: Now that you’ve assessed the students and selected the fluency partners, you need to introduce the fluency concept.Practice passage should match the lowest level of readability in the class.
40Introducing the Fluency Concept What is Reading Fluency?The ability to read text:AccuratelyQuicklyWith expressionThe next two slides show blackline masters to use to introduce the fluency concept.Students deserve an explanation prior to starting in any new procedure. They are more likely to be enthusiastic participants when they know the what and why of an activity.Rationale reduces resistanceIntroduce the value of building fluency, benefits of rereading, practice makes perfect concept, correlation among fluency, comprehension, and work completion.Remind them that fluency is the ability to read accurately, quickly (not too quickly) and with expression.**I can give you some cheats……like in video games. Gets student buy-in.Can use script in the book: “Our class will be starting a daily reading fluency program. Before I explain the program to you, I want to talk about what fluency is and why it is important. Reading fluency is the ability to read text accurately. That means that you know the words. Reading fluency is also the ability to read text quickly. However fluency is not speed-reading. Good readers read quickly, but not too quickly. Finally, reading fluently is the ability to read with expression…….” “Everyone, when you read fluently, you are reading how? (accurately)” Students respond.
41Introducing the Fluency Concept It is directly related to:Reading comprehensionIndependent readingWork comprehensionAnother blackline master.
42Modeling the fluency procedure Select practice passage for demonstration (match to lowest level of readability in the class)Explain one minute timingDemonstrate whisper reading and tracking with finger or pen, underline unknown wordsFigure CWPMGraph scoresExplicitly modelExplain timer (1 minute)Teacher demonstrate whisper reading (we are practicing oral not silent reading) while tracking with finger or pen and underline any unknown words, draw a diagonal or bracket after last word read. – when the timer goes off.How to count total number of words read – go to number at the beginning of the line and then count to the last word read.How to subtract unknown (incorrect) wordsFiguring CWPMClarify any unknown wordsHave the students whisper read for one minute twice to compare their scores (second one should be better) Discussion of the benefits of repeated readingsShow how to graph scores – fill in passage number and date and score – Have them graph both scores. HANDOUT P (Graphs)
43Introducing the Fluency Concept Demonstration – Teacher Models:Track words with finger or penUnderline unknown wordsTimer sounds, draw bracket around last word readCount the number of wordsCount the number of unknown wordsFind CWPMGraph scoreStudents whisper read two times while timed to compare scores.Demonstrate whisper reading “Great Lakes”Show Marium’s graphs
44Step 4 – Establishing Partner Behavior Set aside 10 minutesInstruct on appropriate fluency behaviorProviding appropriate corrective feedbackNoise levelNo arguing ruleUse activity procedure or scripted procedure (in book)You model partnershipStudents practice partnershipWhen working in partners, , #1 should be the stronger reader and read first. Students are not told this.Now that you have 1) assessed students, 2) established partnerships and instructional groupings, 3) introduced the fluency concept, you are ready for…STEP 4 – Establishing Partner BehaviorThey will be working in partners - a partner #1 and partner #2Partnerships to be successful – students need to work together in a polite and respectful manner – cooperative.Working relationship, not necessarily a friendship. We are a learning community.Giving polite feedback “You read__________(total # of ) words. I heard _______ (# of ) errors.” The partner then points to each underlined (incorrect) word and pronounces it correctly for the reader. The partner asks the reader to repeat the word correctly.Lean in and whisperClearly state the No Arguing Rule – arguing wastes time**Teacher directly and explicitly demonstrates all of this. READ SCRIPT FROM BOOK!!
45Step 5 - Training Students in the Partnership Procedure Set aside 30 minutes for 3 daysPut students in any partnershipModel the fluency partnership using an overhead with a studentModel the procedure of marking errors and noting the stopping pointModel the error-correction procedure“You read__________(total # of ) words. I heard _______ (# of ) errors.”Model how to calculate the cwpm and graph scoreUse activity procedure or scripted procedure (in book)After you’ve established partner behavior, you’re ready for STEP 5: You are modeling to students how to be partnersFluency partner doesn’t have to be a final partnership for this training.Remember to use a passage readability that matches the lowest level in the room when modeling this.Once students are trained, should only take 6 minutes per day.When modeling, have student (partner 1) read to you – ask them to make some mistakes so you can model marking errors.Model tracking each word while partner is reading.Tell them to say, “You read _______(# of words).” and “I heard __________(# of errors).” This is kinder than “You made 5 errors.”Partner then points to the incorrect word(s) and repeats it correctly. Then asks partner to read it correctly.Use explicit instructional model when training students. Prevents problems later.Model making errors, stopping point, error correction procedure, calculating cwpm, and graphing.Have students practice after you’ve modeled – REMINDER: lean in and whisper, track partner’s reading, polite feedback, switchPut materials away
46Training Students in the Partnership Procedure Demonstration Handout p Training Students in the Partnership Procedure Demonstration Handout p , 41 PassagesPartners choose to read either HANDOUT p. 14, 15, or 16. Graph scores on p
47Step 6 – Managing Materials Set aside 10 minutesPocket Portfolio for each partnership2 copies of practice passageTransparencyFluency graphsZip lock bagDry erase markerEraserMonitoringAccountabilitySTEP 6:Show class where portfolios will be.Make sure kids know who is partner 1 and who is partner 2.Demonstrate process for getting the next week’s passage on Friday and filing old passagesDemonstrate storing materials**Show example of portfolio and next week’s passages folder
48Step 7 – Student Progress and Record Keeping Check for reading progress at the instructional level not at grade levelCheck students Fluency Graphs for-Is adequate progress being made?-Do students have the appropriate passage?- Are the partnerships appropriate?- Is it an appropriate time to increase the difficulty level of the practice passage being used by partners?Graphs are motivating to students – they can see their reading improve.Students at correct instructional level should make weekly progress.HANDOUT p Fluency graphs**Show Marium’s graphs?
49Building Phonetic Elements Fluency Step 1: Presentation of New Phonetic ElementModel or teach new phonetic element or pattern. Hold up a card “This letter says___.” “What letters make up this element? ____” “What does this element say?___” “Say its sound with me.__”“Say it by yourselves.___”Step 2: Group Practice of New Phonetic ElementStep 3: Independent Practice of the New Phonetic ElementStep 4: Review Phonetic ElementsUse the Phonetic Elements Fluency Building SheetsSmall group and partner practicePrimary book Chapter 10 p
50Building Automatic Words Fluency Day 1: Introduce 5 of the set of 10 words.Introduce each word by using a flash card“This word is___. What word? ____ Say the letters in this word with me. What do these letters spell? Say the word again with me.”Practice new automatic words – magnetic letters, word walls, white boards, write in uppercase letters, lowercase letters, four corners of your white boardsDay 2: Introduce the next 5 words.Review yesterday’s 5 words.Introduce new words using the same procedure as day 1.Review of automatic words using flash cards, magnetic letters, memory game, mixing up letters to making the words again
51Building Automatic Words Fluency Partner Practice:Assign partners based on assessment results p. 95 in Primary BookTrain students in the Six Minute Solution Primary fluency conceptProvide time each day for partner practice with Automatic Words Fluency Building SheetsHave partners record their own scores on an Automatic Words Record GraphWhen students can accurately read their assigned list of automatic words at 60 CWPM, they should be moved to the next list of automatic words with the introduction, instruction and practice cycle all over again.
52Let’s Practice Example 1: Kevin’s Fluency Graph Handout p. 25 Example 2: Sarita’s Fluency GraphHandout p. 26HANDOUT P. 29 – 30 Turn to these pages in handoutKevin – 8th grader, 4th grade instructional reading level. He is at expected reading rate for instructional level. He is making adequate progress. Monday he had 90 cwpm, practiced 4 times and is now at 100 cwpm. Next week Monday his fluency increased to 95 cwpm (up 5 from last Monday). Last score 110 cwpm. Could move him to 5th grade level with continued progress.Sarita – at 4th grade instructional level. She should be cwpm. She is below expected range. Need to evaluate if she was placed correctly. Teacher can 1) lower practice passage 2) add practice with automatic word list 3) add additional instructional strategies.Can move a student up a grade higher than their current grade: 7th grader reading 8th grade level.
53How to help a student who is not making progress Check instructional reading levelRead the practice passage with the student to make sure that the student is placed appropriatelyProvide additional practice with the automatic word listsGo a grade level belowCheck decoding skills – may need extra instructionCarefully monitorConsider a strategic partnershipGive extra untimed practice#1 Remember a student who reads less than 40 cwpm should be in an intensive comprehensive reading program (intermediate and secondary level). They may need to work 3-5 times per week with automatic word lists instead of passages.#1 If placed at the correct reading level, vast majority of students make excellent progress.#1 Student should be able to read 95% of words if at correct level. If not, drop down a level.#3 Automatic word lists – begin with set 1, move sequentially through lists. When student reads fewer than 60 cwpm, stop. Begin there to build sight-word vocabulary. Move to next set when they reach 60 cwpm.#6 When monitoring, make a point of meeting with the partnerships of struggling readers to ensure accuracy.#7 You can place a stronger reader with a struggling reader as a practice partner. The struggling reader can follow along while the stronger reader follows closely behind, echoing the words of the stronger reader.#8 Extra untimed reading practice – partners can whisper read to each other.#8 Partners can ping pong read sentences back and forth to each other to gain confidence and familiarity with the passage.
54Step 8 - Comprehension and Summary Writing Strategies SummarizingParaphrasingRetellingDescribingExpository Sequence StructureSummary Writing StrategiesUse modeling and guided practice to teach these to independent practice – “I do, we do, you do”Summarizing – read a paragraph, tell main idea of paragraph in a sentence or count number of words (ex. 10 words) to summarize. Same as paragraph shrinking.Paraphrasing – read a paragraph, put info in paragraph in own words. Easier to learn info when it is in your own words instead of text language. Read, cover, recite, check.Retelling – read paragraph and retell by using phrases: “This paragraph begins with ____________, Next, I read____________, Then I learned_________.Describing – list characteristics, features, or examples of topic using key words/vocabulary. Ex. Spider Web graphic organizer: main idea in circle, details fan out from it.Expository Sequence Structure – Teach students how texts are structured: 1) Sequencing - some passages list events first, next, then, then, finally 2) Comparing – how something is alike or different, use a Venn diagram, terms: alike, in contrast 3) Analyzing Cause and Effect – terms: consequently, because, if-then, use a graphic organizer 4) Problem Solving – a defined problem, a solution , terms: furthermore, one rease for, use a graphic organzierSummary Writing Strategies – On last day (Friday), students write a summary of the passage using a frame p. 31 handout – teacher models this the first time.HANDOUT P
55More than Six Minutes a Day On the first day of the weekSome students may need additional fluency practiceCertain grouping configurationsIncorporating comprehension and writingThese are examples of times when it may take more than six minutes a day.Bullet #1 – First day each partner silently read passage, confirms any unknown words#2 – Resource classes, classes with larger number of struggling readers.#3 – Guided reading groups, strategies classes#4 – Comprehension practice and summary writing takes more time.
56Mondays Distribute new Practice Passage Preview the passage and underline unknown wordsTeacher supplies unknown wordsMake sure students are accurate before beginningFirst TimingWord Walls
57Tuesday – Thursday Six minutes a day More if you want to include comprehension and writingMore if neededChange it up – chorale reading one day where teacher models the reading fluency as student follow along. Then teacher sets timer and students whisper read themselves.
58Friday Final Timing Turn in current week’s practice passage Select new passage for following week
59Teacher Duties Change partners if necessary Move students up or down in reading levelsMonitor student reading and provide corrective feedbackMonitor progressUse check list to ensure fidelity
60Moving Upstream: A Story of Prevention and Intervention 60
61In a small town, a group of fishermen gathered down at the river In a small town, a group of fishermen gathered down at the river. Not long after they got there, a child came floating down the rapids calling for help. One of the group on shore quickly dived in and pulled the child out.61
62Minutes later another child came, then another, and then many more children were coming down the river. Soon everyone was diving in and dragging children to the shore, then jumping back in to save as many as they could.62
63At that moment, their colleague came back. In the midst of all this frenzy, one of the group was seen walking away. Her colleagues were irate. How could she leave when there were so many children to save? After long hours, to everyone’s relief, the flow of children stopped, and the group could finally catch their breath.At that moment, their colleague came back.They turned on her and angrily shouted:“HOW COULD YOU WALK OFF WHEN WE NEEDEDEVERYONE HERE TO SAVE THE CHILDREN?”63
64river. So I got someone to fix the bridge.” She replied, “It occurred to me that someone ought to go upstream and find out why so many kids were falling into the river. What I found is that the old wooden bridge had several planks missing, and when some children tried to jump over the gap, they couldn’t make it and fell through into theriver. So I got someone to fix the bridge.”Parable illustrates our work in the schools and the idea of not waiting for failure. In the parable all the energy is going into saving the kids vs prevention/intervention. Six Minute Solution is an excellent intervention/prevention. too*Reflect and share with your partner: What are the messages that come to mind from this story? (if time)Prevention = identify students at-risk before they actually fail!64
65Let’s Try it! Six Minute Solution Overview TimeMaterialsProcedures1 minuteTimerFolder containing two copies of the same passage, two copies of the fluency graph, on dry erase marker and clothGet ReadyTeacher announces that fluency timing will beginPartner 1 ReadsPartner 2 Gives FeedbackPartner 2 ReadsPartner 1 Gives FeedbackStudents put away materialsHave participants formulate an action plan or best practice list for the upcoming school year.
66Exit Slip Goals:To understand what fluency is and how it impacts reading.2. To understand the rationale and research behind reading fluency and the Six Minute Solution program.3. To understand and be able to use Six Minute Solution Program.