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Be a good detective: Solve the case of oral reading fluency How can teachers help students become fluent oral readers? Here are clues. by Meribethe Richards.

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Presentation on theme: "Be a good detective: Solve the case of oral reading fluency How can teachers help students become fluent oral readers? Here are clues. by Meribethe Richards."— Presentation transcript:

1 Be a good detective: Solve the case of oral reading fluency How can teachers help students become fluent oral readers? Here are clues. by Meribethe Richards Group 3 Presentation: C. Joyce Farrar-Rosemon Sabrina Starks Luvenia Ramsey Heather Fountain Niya Pace Dr. Richard Binkney, EDU 687 Mercer University- Tift College Of Education September 21, 2011

2 Your assignment if you choose to accept is: Discover why fluency is a mystery to today’s teachers. A good mystery should cause cognitive dissonance. That is, according to Webster, “an uncomfortable mental state resulting from conflicting cognitions”. This is what I experienced as I read this article by Meribethe Richards. I thought of (Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) I had read that had “fluency” as an annual goal. Typically the stated methods of increasing oral fluency was for the student to use syllabication generalizations to decode words, or phonetic, word analysis and synthesis skills. A good detective knows that in order to solve a mystery, he or she needs “just the facts”. In this mystery of solving the case of oral fluency and helping students to become fluent readers, I carefully perused the research Meribethe Richards had uncovered to find the facts in order to solve it. I started with a review of the definitions of oral fluency Richards had given. Second, I studied the questions and answers that were posed by Richards and other researchers to give teachers clues about the definition of oral reading fluency. Finally, I analyzed any false assumptions not based on current research that Richards and other researchers had uncovered. 2

3 Questions Richards posed and her research findings What is oral fluency? M. Richards (2000) states that “for successful readers, it is the ability to project the natural pitch, stress, and juncture of the spoken word on written text.” Is oral reading fluency a critical aspect of reading performance and instruction? Nathan and Stanovich (1991) wholeheartedly agree and go as far as to suggest that fluency “may be almost a necessary condition for good comprehension and enjoyable reading experiences” (p. 176). Should fluent silent reading be the ultimate goal of reading instruction as it has been in the past rather than fluent oral reading? Taylor and Connor (1992) suggested the following three reasons that we should not abandon oral reading and why it should remain an essential aspect of reading instruction: 1. young children need to hear themselves read 2. students need feedback when they read orally 3. students can “show off an acquired skill” (p. 442) valued by society 3

4 Additional questions Richards posed and her findings If oral reading fluency is an important element in reading instruction, why is it a mystery to today’s teachers? Bear (1991) suggested that fluency instruction may have been lost in the debate between phonics and whole language. The emphasis here being on methods, rather than an “integrated, developmental model” of reading (p. 156). Other researchers discovered the following: Dowhower (1991) found that fluency is mentioned briefly and that future teachers are simply not taught to attend to fluency. Zutell and Rasinki (1991) agreed and found that reading teachers tend to focus on word recognition, vocabulary development, and comprehension. He found that fluency is considered an “outcome” of the goals “rather than a contributing factor” (p. 221). 4

5 Mystery Solved! Here are the facts based on current research Oral reading fluency is rate, recognition, and phrasing. Zutell and Rasinki (1991) described the rate aspect of fluency as “pace” and automatic word recognition as “smoothness” on their Multidimensional Fluency Scale (p. 215). The third element on this scale is phrasing. Dowhower (1991) described this final clue to fluency’s character. She explained that the element of prosody, commonly referred as “reading with expression,” is the ability to read in expressive rhythmic and melodic patterns” (p. 166). 5

6 What are the methods that Richards and other researchers suggest teachers use to capture this elusive element? Richards advises that teachers should first examine the evidence that suggest why some students are more fluent readers than others. Allington (1983) described six hypotheses: 1.Children who have models of fluent reading at home learn that fluent reading is the goal when reading aloud. 2.Successful readers are encouraged to focus on the elements of expression while poor readers are asked to focus solely on word recognition, phonics, and other skills in isolation. 3.Fluent oral readers are given more opportunities to read and therefore further develop this skill. 4.Fluent readers are often reading texts at their instructional level, if not independent level. Readers who lack fluency are often reading texts that are too difficult, in other words at their frustration level. 5.Fluent readers have more time to read silently and thus “reread sentences in an attempt to understand phrases and experiment with intonation, juncture and stress” (p. 558). 6.Good fluent readers understand that the ultimate goal is not solely accuracy but also meaningful expression. 6

7 Suggested methods for capturing fluency #1- Modeling 1.Modeling- teachers and older students can model fluent, uninterrupted oral reading in the classroom in lieu of parents who don’t model fluency at home. In school, Zutell and Rasinki (1991) pointed out that “poor readers only have other poor readers as models” due to the organization of most reading groups (p. 216). Reading Aloud: A Demonstration (Part 2 of 2) – YouTubeReading Aloud: A Demonstration (Part 2 of 2) – YouTube Click now for a live presentation 7

8 Suggested methods for capturing fluency Method # 2- Repeated reading (direct instruction) 2.Repeated Readings- Dowhower (1989) found that repeated reading helps students to understand the phrasing of the text and increases rate and accuracy, which transfers to new text. He suggested that increased comprehension may also take place “when the stories are at the same reading level and accuracy and speed have also increased” (p. 504). The article states that there are three ways to provide repeated reading experiences: 1) Direct instruction by the teacher with a discussion of new vocabulary and content. This is followed by whole group reading with a focus on prosodic features of the text. 2) Assisted method which utilizes a tape recorder, book, and tape of the book used simultaneously as the child reads orally. 3) Dowhower described this third method as “cooperative reading repeated reading” (1989, p. 506). It is similar to paired oral reading which will be discussed in the next slide. Repeated Reading Method – YouTubeRepeated Reading Method – YouTube Click now for a live demonstration 8

9 Suggested methods for capturing fluency #3- Paired oral reading 3. Paired oral reading- Rasinki and Zutell (1990) suggested two methods for developing fluency. The first method, paired oral reading, developed by Koskinen and Blum (1984), requires students to work in pairs. Passages are selected and read silently by each student. Then the student take turns reading the passage three times orally, in succession, to the other student. The listening student takes on the role of teacher giving suggestions and positive feedback to the partner. Buddy Reading – YouTubeBuddy Reading – YouTube Click now for a live presentation 9

10 Suggested methods for capturing fluency #4- The Oral Recitation Lesson (ORL) 4. The Oral Recitation Lesson (ORL)- Richards (2000) states that “this method is similar to using repeated reading as a component of direct instruction. Children are introduced to the text with comprehension as the focus of instruction. After the teacher selects a text and models a fluent oral reading of the text, she or he chooses a strategy of discussion focusing on comprehension. However, the teacher does not end the lesson at this point but continues with a discussion of prosodic elements found within the text as a group as well as individually. The final stage of the ORL is performance. Students are then asked to read a portion of the text for an audience” (p. 537). The Oral Recitation Lesson (ORL)The Oral Recitation Lesson (ORL) Click now for a live presentation 10

11 Suggested methods for capturing fluency #5- Choral reading 5. Choral reading- A final suggestion given by Richards for incorporating fluency training in the regular reading classroom includes the use of poetry in choral reading lessons. Miccinati (1985) explained that “through choral reading, children learn to enjoy listening and responding to sound, stress, duration, and pitch” (p. 207) these are the prosodic cues necessary for fluent oral reading to take place. As children develop their skills in detecting prosodic features of a specific selection, their abilities to identify patterns of syntax also develop. Best Choral Reading on VimeoBest Choral Reading on Vimeo Click now for a live presentation 11

12 Integrating fluency and comprehension Zutell and Rasinki (1991) recommend that teachers use texts at a student’s instructional level and choose texts that model natural language patterns. Basal readers should be excluded and texts that lend themselves to a predictable pattern would be suitable. Poems, or texts with a rhyming pattern, repeating refrain, or cumulative episodes would be appropriate as well. Richards delineates that it is important not to leave comprehension out of the teacher’s lesson plan. She prescribes the use of the Oral Recitation Lesson as the best way to integrate comprehension and fluency. Richards concludes that oral reading fluency is not elusive, and is attainable if the teacher understands the three interactive aspects of reading and provides instruction in oral reading fluency. 12

13 References Allington, R.L. (1983) Fluency: The neglected reading goal. The Reading Teacher, 36, Bear, D.R. (1991) "Learning to fasten the seat of my union suit without looking around": The synchrony of literacy development Theory into Practice, 30, Dowhower, S. L. (1989) Repeated reading: Research into practice. The Reading Teacher 42, Koskinen, P.A. & Blum I.H. (1984) Paired repeated reading: A classroom strategy for developing fluent reading. The Reading Teacher, 40, Miccinati, J.L. (1985) Using prosodic cues to teach oral reading fluency. The Reading Teacher, 39, Nathan, R.G. & Stanovich, K.E. (1991) The causes and consequences of differences in reading fluency instruction. Theory Into Practice, 30, Rasinki, T.V. & Zutell, J.B. (1990) Making a place for fluency instruction in the regular reading curriculum. Reading Research and Instruction, 29(2), Richards, M. (2000) Be a good detective: Solve the case of oral reading fluency. The Reading Teacher, 53, 534–539. Taylor, N. E. & Connor, U. (1982) Silent vs. Oral Reading: The rational instructional use of both processes. The Reading Teacher, 35,

14 p. 1, detective_conan. (13 Sept. 2011). p. 2, Clues and Riddles. http :// (13 Sept. 2011). p. 3, Clues and Riddles. http :// (13 Sept. 2011). p. 4, Clues and Riddles. http :// (13 Sept. 2011). p. 5, The Bermuda Triangle Mystery Solved. aspx (13 Sept. 2011). p. 6, The Bermuda Triangle Mystery Solved. aspx, (13 Sept. 2011). p. 12, Case closed (18 Sept. 2011). 14 Resources: Online Images

15 Barbre, Leslie “Reading Aloud: A Demonstration (Part 2 of 2).” (18 Sept. 2011). Bright, Paul (2010). “Best Choral Reading on Vimeo.” (18 Sept. 2011). I nterescadmin “Buddy Reading.” (18 Sept. 2011). Readers Theater. (2007) “The Oral Recitation Lesson (ORL).” (18 Sept. 2011). Reading Resource “Repeated Reading Method.” (18 Sept. 2011). 15 Resources: Audiovisual Websites

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