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Moving beyond ‘Avoiding Plagiarism’ in academic writing DIANE SCHMITT NOTTINGHAM TRENT UNIVERSITY.

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Presentation on theme: "Moving beyond ‘Avoiding Plagiarism’ in academic writing DIANE SCHMITT NOTTINGHAM TRENT UNIVERSITY."— Presentation transcript:

1 Moving beyond ‘Avoiding Plagiarism’ in academic writing DIANE SCHMITT NOTTINGHAM TRENT UNIVERSITY

2 My Pet Hate

3 Avoiding Plagiarism – A red herring? absence of plagiarism good writing ≠

4 Avoiding Plagiarism – A red herring? absence of plagiarism good writing ≠ Preventing or avoiding plagiarism does not, in and of itself, lead to good writing or the achievement of assessment criteria.

5 Characteristics of Writing Poor writing Poor paragraphing Unfocussed text Spoken style Effective Writing Effective organisation Good argumentation Good lexico-grammatical choices

6 Good advice…

7 Linguistic gymnastics? Synonyms

8 Linguistic gymnastics? Sentence structure

9 Linguistic gymnastics? Voice

10 Linguistic gymnastics? Part of speech

11 Evaluation

12 Decontextualized practice that takes no account of how the source fits into the emerging text.

13 Academic learning requires reading multiple texts on a subject in order to be able to develop in-depth understandings based on a range of viewpoints. Making a claim

14 Academic learning requires reading multiple texts on a subject in order to be able to develop in-depth understandings based on a range of viewpoints. One consequence of this requirement for wide reading is that academic readers need to be fluent readers. Adding a further claim.

15 Academic learning requires reading multiple texts on a subject in order to be able to develop in-depth understandings based on a range of viewpoints. One consequence of this requirement for wide reading is that academic readers need to be fluent readers. Fluent reading is a seemingly effortless, rapid, and efficient process which relies on the coordinated use of a range of lower and higher level processing skills. Providing a definition

16 Academic learning requires reading multiple texts on a subject in order to be able to develop in-depth understandings based on a range of viewpoints. One consequence of this requirement for wide reading is that academic readers need to be fluent readers. Fluent reading is a seemingly effortless, rapid, and efficient process which relies on the coordinated use of a range of lower and higher level processing skills. Fluency enables readers to connect ideas across a text to achieve overall comprehension of that text. Continuing the argument

17 Academic learning requires reading multiple texts on a subject in order to be able to develop in-depth understandings based on a range of viewpoints. One consequence of this requirement for wide reading is that academic readers need to be fluent readers. Fluent reading is a seemingly effortless, rapid, and efficient process which relies on the coordinated use of a range of lower and higher level processing skills. Fluency enables readers to connect ideas across a text to achieve overall comprehension of that text. Anderson (2009) argues that reading fluency should be defined as reading at an adequate rate with adequate comprehension. Developing the readers’ understanding of the key concept (fluency)

18 Academic learning requires reading multiple texts on a subject in order to be able to develop in-depth understandings based on a range of viewpoints. One consequence of this requirement for wide reading is that academic readers need to be fluent readers. Fluent reading is a seemingly effortless, rapid, and efficient process which relies on the coordinated use of a range of lower and higher level processing skills. Fluency enables readers to connect ideas across a text to achieve overall comprehension of that text. Anderson (2009) stresses that reading fluency should be defined as reading at an adequate rate with adequate comprehension. Adequate comprehension for L2 academic readers might be defined as a level on par with their L1 counterparts. Making a further claim

19 Academic learning requires reading multiple texts on a subject in order to be able to develop in-depth understandings based on a range of viewpoints. One consequence of this requirement for wide reading is that academic readers need to be fluent readers. Fluent reading is a seemingly effortless, rapid, and efficient process which relies on the coordinated use of a range of lower and higher level processing skills. Fluency enables readers to connect ideas across a text to achieve overall comprehension of that text. Anderson (2009) stresses that reading fluency should be defined as reading at an adequate rate with adequate comprehension. Adequate comprehension for L2 academic readers might be defined as a level on par with their L1 counterparts. Using this type of comparison, Shaw and McMillion (2008) found that Swedish first year university students of biology were able to achieve similar levels of comprehension as their British counterparts, but needed 25% more time to do so. Using evidence to introduce a problem

20 Academic learning requires reading multiple texts on a subject in order to be able to develop in-depth understandings based on a range of viewpoints. One consequence of this requirement for wide reading is that academic readers need to be fluent readers. Fluent reading is a seemingly effortless, rapid, and efficient process which relies on the coordinated use of a range of lower and higher level processing skills. Fluency enables readers to connect ideas across a text to achieve overall comprehension of that text. Anderson (2009) stresses that reading fluency should be defined as reading at an adequate rate with adequate comprehension. Adequate comprehension for L2 academic readers might be defined as a level on par with their L1 counterparts. Using this type of comparison, Shaw and McMillion (2008) found that Swedish first year university students of biology were able to achieve similar levels of comprehension as their British counterparts, but needed 25% more time to do so. Slower reading rates mean that L2 students are less able to read widely and may run out of time on exams, both of which can negatively impact on grades Concluding

21 Using this type of comparison, Shaw and McMillion (2008) found that Swedish first year university students of biology were able to achieve similar levels of comprehension as their British counterparts, but needed 25% more time to do so. Original Paraphrase

22 Using this type of comparison, Shaw and McMillion (2008) found that Swedish first year university students of biology were able to achieve similar levels of comprehension as their British counterparts, but needed 25% more time to do so. Original Paraphrase

23 Cohesion and Coherence A text is coherent when it makes sense, and when the different sentences it contains clearly relate to the same overall topic. A text is cohesive when there are clear links between its different parts. These links can be the result of connections between words in different sentences or clauses. For example, writers often use words that have similar meanings (synonyms) to describe the same object, or words that have contrasting meanings (antonyms). This is lexical cohesion. The second type of cohesion is called grammatical cohesion, and this will form the main focus of the rest of today’s session.

24 Cohesion and Coherence A text is coherent when it makes sense, and when the different sentences it contains clearly relate to the same overall topic. A text is cohesive when there are clear links between its different parts. These links can be the result of connections between words in different sentences or clauses. For example, writers often use words that have similar meanings (synonyms) to describe the same object, or words that have contrasting meanings (antonyms). This is lexical cohesion. The second type of cohesion is called grammatical cohesion, and this will form the main focus of the rest of today’s session.

25 Reference ExplanationExamples The use of pronouns to refer to the same thing referred to by a noun phrase somewhere else in the same text. The use of a pronoun to refer back to a previous part of the text. Facebook is extremely popular. It currently has over a billion registered users. [it = Facebook] Social media is here to stay. This seems fairly certain. [this = social media is here to stay]

26 Substitution ExplanationExamples Using a substitute word such as so, do or same instead or repeating a noun, verb or clause There are a number of less obvious social media sites. Spotify is one. [one = less obvious social media sight] Spotify charges a monthly fee for its premium service, and will continue to do so [do so = charge a monthly free for its premium service] Facebook is entirely free of charge. At least it seems so until we consider how it makes money. [so = Facebook is entirely free of charge]

27 Ellipses ExplanationExamples Facebook is entirely free of charge. At least it seems so until we consider how it makes money. [so = Facebook is entirely free of charge] Social media allow ordinary people to communicate to many people at the same time, whereas traditional media don’t [allow ordinary people to communicate to many people at the same time]

28 Conjunction ExplanationExamples Conjunction is when conjunctions are used to show the connection between clauses or sentences. The choice of conjunction (words such as and, but, so, etc.) depends on the relationship that exists between the two clauses. Facebook is entirely reliant on advertising to make money. Twitter, however, also has a premium service for which a monthly fee is payable.

29 Student Activity – Identifying Grammatical Cohesion Look at the paragraphs in exercise 1 again. Which types of grammatical cohesion can you identify in these paragraphs? What types of grammatical cohesion can you identify in the following examples? Pay particular attention to the underlined words or phrases. 1.Many earlier social media sites charged a monthly subscription. Facebook and Twitter didn’t, a fact which helps to account for their huge popularity. type: ellipsis/substitution 1.Spotify is content oriented social media. This makes it different from Facebook in a number of important ways. type: reference

30 Noun Phrase Referential Chains “Although it is by no means an absolute rule, repeated references to an entity tend to follow the same progression of noun phrase types… (representing) a gradual decrease in fullness of expression over the course of a text. First mentions tend naturally to be more elaborated, so as to establish the intended reference... Subsequent mentions become progressively more economical and reduced.” N + postmodifier > premodifier + N > simple noun > pronoun Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English, Biber et al. (1999) Linnea Spitzer and Darby Smith IELP at Portland State University, Portland, OR

31 Example When exchange students return home, they may feel a lack of validation from family and friends who have not experienced similar adventures. Students are often excited to share all of their stories and photographs. They want to describe the people they met and the things that they saw in expectation of positive validation from the people they come home to. Unfortunately, the returning student often finds that their experiences are only superficially interesting to their family and friends because of a lack of ability to relate by their loved ones.

32 Example When exchange students return home, they may feel a lack of validation from family and friends who have not experienced similar adventures. Students are often excited to share all of their stories and photographs. They want to describe the people they met and the things that they saw in expectation of positive validation from the people they come home to. Unfortunately, the returning student often finds that their experiences are only superficially interesting to their family and friends because of a lack of ability to relate by their loved ones.

33 Example Noticing Activity Underline all the other phrases in the text below that refer back to “family and friends who have not experienced similar adventures” When exchange students return home, they may feel a lack of validation from family and friends who have not experienced similar adventures. Students are often excited to share all of their stories and photographs. They want to describe the people they met and the things that they saw in expectation of positive validation from the people they come home to. Unfortunately, the returning student often finds that their experiences are only superficially interesting to their family and friends because of a lack of ability to relate by their loved ones. 1.Look at the grammar of the phrases that refer back to “family and friends who have not experienced similar adventures.” Does the grammar get more or less elaborate? o Why do you think the writer does this? 2.Now circle all of the phrases that refer back to “exchange students”. Do you notice anything similar or different about the grammar? Discuss.

34 Ordering and Fill-in-the-Blank A. Put the noun phrases in order from most elaborate grammar to least. o these difficulties o difficulty transitioning into a new culture o them B. Fill in the blanks with the noun phrases from A. Culture shock is when a student has _________________. Occasionally, ___________________ prove severe enough for the student that he or she is never able to come to terms with __________________. Linnea Spitzer and Darby Smith IELP at Portland State University, Portland, OR

35 A further problem - Modelling Source Use Chapter# of readingsTeaching focus: Avoiding Plagiarism In-text citationEnd of text ref 12Citation styles – APA, MLAAPA√ 23Description of plagiarism√ 33foot & endnotes√ 43footnotes√ 52Citation format – (non) integralAPA√ 63Paraphrasing√ 73Summarizing√ 83footnotes√

36 Understanding of the function of sources If we want students to make more effective use of sources in their writing then we need to focus on what writers might do with sources (Bizup, 2008: 75).

37 BIZUP’s categorisation of academic sources: According to the way they are used, sources can be: Background sources, which you expect your reader to simply trust outright Exhibit sources, primary sources which you analyse to sustain your claims and deal with counter-claims Argument sources, secondary sources of theories, concepts etc. which you affirm, dispute, refine or extend in some way Method sources, which model the methods you use Bizup, J. (2008): BEAM: A Rhetorical Vocabulary for Teaching Research-Based Writing, Rhetoric Review, 27:1, Background sources don’t always need to be acknowledged Exhibit sources are often non- academic, and so difficult to cite correctly Argument sources are usually academic texts

38 Student Sample 1 Prior to the group task, the team decided to allocate team roles to all the members, which is in accordance to the Belbin’s theory on Team Roles (2004) to identify our strengths and weaknesses of all the team members. Feini was the implementer who was good at getting things done. Have you each taken a Belbin test? My team was trying to decide what the name of our Consultancy should be. There was disagreement on what to call the name, Feini and Anne said that they preferred the `Little Bees’ and there is no need to change the name. Each one had a different name for it and after many deliberations and arguments, we called it `HR Associates’ and this lead me to what Thomas and Kilmann (1974) said that conflict is inevitable in a group if managed effectively can strengthen the team. Though during the group meetings they were disagreements but my team managed it well by reaching an agreement and these made us more connected to each other.

39 Student Text 2 Monitoring Comprehension This involves the ability of readers to know when they understand what they read, when they do not understand, and to use appropriate strategies to improve their understanding when it is blocked. However, Grabe (2009) suggests that viewing monitoring as a matter of metacognitive control rather than as a specific strategy may be more appropriate. Moreover Pressley (2002a cited in Grabe 2009) also states that student monitoring can be difficult to teach as not all readers use the same ways to monitor comprehension and they tend to develop and practice those strategies that are most useful to them. Therefore, this strategy is not very appropriate to be included in a reading instructional curriculum.

40 Bringing it all together Instruction on paraphrasing is taught in isolation from instruction on coherence and cohesion. 1.Introduce the notions of coherence and cohesion early in writing instruction. 2.Show how these develop arguments 3.Use text samples that include sources 4.Introduce paraphrasing after coherence and cohesion 5.Show how paraphrases support developing text 6.Add guidance on cohesion to existing advice on paraphrasing

41 Thank you for your attention.


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