IIPM and Cultural & Linguistic Diversity by the 4J CLD/SPED Team Ana Arias & Karen Apgar 29 October 2012
Learning Objectives The nature of CLD learners How instruction and intervention can be made more effective for CLD students Making the evaluation decision for CLD students
Why a CLD/SPED Team? CLD Team will consult with IIPM teams re: Culturally and linguistically responsive instruction in the core and ELD curricula, Differentiated and targeted instruction meets individual learner needs, Progress monitoring in the general education classroom and in the ELD program. Why? To make sure kids are getting everything they can out of our instruction!
You should know… Pre-referral and instructional intervention may resolve 70% or more of the special education referrals of CLD students (Ortiz, 1999) and reduce the number of students inappropriately considered for special education eligibility and services (Fuchs, 2008).
Core + Differentiation + Targeted Additional 60 min/week minimum Instruction based on diagnostics Use of targeted instructional materials Core + Differentiation Same 90 min/day Use of supplemental materials to core Progress monitoring Core Reading 90 min/day Benchmark Screening min 2x/year Instructional Intervention & Progress Monitoring Decision rule: <20 th Percentile on screening assessments Decision rule: 6 weeks/3 data points Trendline/Aimline analysis Decision rule: 12 weeks/6 data points Trendline/Aimline analysis Change targeted &/or Referral for Evaluation Apgar & Potts, Eugene School District, 2010
CLD in Tier One Comprehensive Core Reading instruction, at grade-level (approx. 60 min/day) – Content objective – Language objective (pre-teach vocab) – Supplemental materials – Explicitly link concepts to students’ background & experiences ELD instruction is usually in addition to this Tier I instruction.
CLD in Tier Two Comprehensive Core Reading instruction at Instructional Level, small group (usually 30 min/day) Still in the General Education classroom Progress monitoring: on grade-level After a minimum of 12 weeks (6 data points), can determine if Tier 3 is needed ELD instruction is on-going
Differentiated vs. Targeted Differentiated instruction is when the curriculum offers several different learning experiences within one lesson to meet students’ varied needs or learning styles. Targeted instruction has a narrow focus on a specific skill area and is delivered in an explicit manner.
CLD in Tier Three Targeted Instructional intervention, small group, explicit, direct instruction (additional 30–60 min/week) Instruction matched to skill deficits – Phonics screener – Stages of reading acquisition
Reading Acquisition Phonemic awareness (rhyming, blending, segmenting, deleting) Phonics skills (sound-symbol correspondence, decoding) Fluency (word-level, passage-level) Vocabulary Comprehension Are we targeting & monitoring the right area?
Special Education evaluation After a minimum of 18 weeks of progress monitoring, consult with CLD Team to discuss potential SpEd evaluation. Review data: instructional interventions (Gen Ed & ELD), progress monitoring, ELPA level, parent interview, developmental history, school history, behavior, health, etc. *We will suggest changes!*
Why not just test and find out? “Probably no test can be created that will entirely eliminate the influence of learning and cultural experiences. The test content and materials, the language in which the questions are phrased, the test directions, the categories for classifying the responses, the scoring criteria, and the validity criteria are all culture bound.” Jerome M. Sattler, 1992
Before an evaluation: Parent involvement Developmental History Review of family/cultural stressors Review of previous school experience Review BICS/CALP and ELPA level Discuss assimilation/acculturation Explore affective filter Review intervention effectiveness and appropriateness
Parallel Processes in Development: Education follows Maturation LANGUAGE COGNITIVE ACADEMIC Preproduction Knowledge Early Production Comprehension Pre-Readiness Training Emergent Speech Application Readiness Training Beginning Fluent Analysis Basic Skills Training Intermediate Fluent Synthesis Early Conceptual ACQUISITION DEVELOPMENT INSTRUCTION B I C S C A L P Appropriate Instruction/Assessment Advanced Fluent Evaluation Advanced Conceptual CULTURAL CONTEXT Development B I C S C A L P B I C S C A L P B I C S C A L P Ortiz, S. (2008) Best Practices in Culturally Competent Assessment
Special Education eligibility “Exclusionary Factors”
Contact Info Ana Arias, Speech-Language Pathologist firstname.lastname@example.org 541-790-7838 Karen Apgar, School Psychologist email@example.com 541-790-7820