2Technology In Action Why Computers Matter to You: Becoming Computer FluentChapter one introduces the basics of becoming computer fluent, introducing many concepts that will be developed throughout the course.
3Objectives Computer fluency Computers and careers Computer functions Data vs. informationComputer hardware and softwareSocietal challenges and computersFuture technologiesTopics include:Computer fluencyComputers and careersComputer functionsData vs. informationComputer hardware and softwareSocietal challenges and computersFuture technologies
4What is Computer Fluency? To be computer fluent you must:Understand a computer’s capabilities and limitationsKnow how to use a computerThe information age is upon us and every corner of our lives has been effected. Everything we do—our work, our play, the way we communicate, our commerce, and our relationships—have all been affected by computers. Becoming computer fluent—being familiar enough with computers that you understand their capabilities and limitations and know how to use them—has become a necessity to succeed. Becoming computer fluent is what this course is all about.
5Computers in your Career? Computer careers in:BusinessThe ArtsThe Medical FieldEducationThe SciencesHomesRegardless of which profession you pursue, if computers are not already in use in that career, they most likely will be soon.The U.S. Department of Labor predicts that by 2010, 70 percent of the U.S. workforce will be using computers at work.Meanwhile, the U.S. Department of Agriculture has found that employees who use a computer on the job earn about 10 percent more than those who don’t.Becoming truly computer fluent—understanding the capabilities and limitations of computers and what you can do with them—will undoubtedly help you perform your job more effectively.
6Computers in Business Point of Sale Terminals Tracking merchandise Data miningBusiness around the world is conducted on the computer screen. Information is stored in enormous databases. To make meaning of all that data, they use a process known as data mining.Enormous leaps in business productivity are a direct result of the use of computers in all phases of business, from communications to product design. For example, the cash register is now a point of sale terminal. that connects automatically to a database, providing managers with current data on sales. This allows for better tracking of merchandise.Every segment of business has been transformed by the computer.
7Computers in the Arts Virtual art Virtual dance The creative arts have been widely enhanced by computers. Artists communicate and collaborate across oceans. Writers and editors complete their work together from across the country. New forms of graphic arts and cinematography are introduced every day, all globally and immediately. Even dance has been enhanced with the computer.
8Computers in the Medical Field Virtual reality in medical applicationsPatient simulatorDa Vinci Surgical SystemFew fields have grown as fast and touched our lives more than modern medicine. The ability of the computer to store, process, and distribute vast amounts of information globally and immediately has led to tremendous breakthroughs in pharmaceuticals and disease prevention. People are living longer, healthier lives and computers have played a large part in this development.Medical professionals can now train on patient simulators without risking a patient’s life.In the Physiome Project bioengineers are creating realistic computer simulations of all systems and features of the human anatomy.Surgery is being performed with robotic equipment.
9Computers in Education Computers in the classroomDistance EducationComputerized researchThe InternetComputers have given teachers tremendous new tools for presenting information and keeping records.Colleges offer full degree programs, totally over the Internet.Vast stores of information are available wherever there is an Internet connection. Libraries have brought the computer into their operations. Training tutorials are used to teach new tasks and research is done from the desktop. Education will never be the same as it was..
10Computers and the Sciences SupercomputersArcheologyMeteorologyScience has used the computer to streamline studies, eliminate redundancy, test hypotheses, develop theories, and communicate findings. The computer has brought vast new levels of global collaboration, advancing fields like engineering, chemistry, physics ,and cosmology to unprecedented levels.Supercomputers crunch enormous amounts of data carrying out experiments that could not be done before. Storms are being studied through intricate application of known data to form pictures that increase understanding.3D modeling and imagine software is helping archeologists take data and simulate ancient civilizations.
11Computer Gaming Careers Programming3D animationThe computer and video game industry is enormous. In fact, revenues from computer gaming in the United States have surpassed revenues from Hollywood. Very intricate programming is behind these games. The animations are the result of years of research and development, with new games being developed everyday
12Computers at Home Robotics Smart appliances Internet-connected refrigeratorAlready, robotic vacuums and lawnmowers are on the market.The home of the future promises smart appliances that connect to the Internet. The wired home will converge with the computer, television ,and telephone to totally surround us with devices programmed by our needs and desires.Robomower
13Artificial Intelligence RobotsNeurons vs MicrochipsCan computers think? The field of artificial intelligence shows us that they can make decisions based on criteria. As long as the facts are clear and the computer has a system to evaluate those facts, it can decide between alternatives.A good example is how well computers play chess. The best computer plays the best human to a draw. However, the computer is less prone to make a mistake.If a question requires creativity or dynamic thinking, the human brain’s neural network can’t be matched. It is so complex that science is just beginning to understand how it works.
14Challenges Facing a Digital Society Privacy risksPersonal data collectionMonitoringSoftware piracyThe information age brings to each of us a set of unprecedented challenges. Our identity can be stolen. Our work s may be viewed. Otherwise law-abiding citizens illegally copy software. Without thinking ,we cut and paste from copyrighted material on the Web.As computers become more and more embedded in our lives, all of these challenges will grow. Making the personal decisions required to efficiently, legally, and safely maneuver through cyberspace is tied to the knowledge and awareness of the user.
15Becoming Computer Fluent Data processingBits and bytesComputer hardwareComputer softwareComputer platformsSpecialty computersFundamental knowledge about the computer is important to becoming truly computer fluent.This knowledge includes understanding what a computer does and what its main parts are, understanding the language of bits and bytes, distinguishing between different types of computer programs, working with different platforms ,and recognizing computers other than the PC.
16Data vs. Information Data vs. Information: Data is a representation of a fact or ideaNumberWordPictureSoundInformation is data that has been organized or presented in a meaningful fashion.Strictly defined, a computer is a data processing device that performs four major functions:1. It gathers data (or allows users to input data).2. It processes that data into information.3. It outputs data or information.4. It stores data and information.
17Computers are Data Processing Devices Four major functions:Input dataProcess dataOutput informationStore data and informationStrictly defined, a computer is a data processing device that performs four major functions:1. It gathers data (or allows users to input data).2. It processes that data into information.3. It outputs data or information.4. It stores data and information.DATA ININFORMATION OUT
18Bits and Bytes: The Language of Computers Binary digit0 or 1ByteEight bitsASCIIEach byte represents a letter, number or special characterOFFON1Microchip SwitchIn order to process data into information, computers need to work in a language they understand. This language, called binary language, consists of just two digits: 0 and 1.Everything a computer does is broken down into a series of 0s and 1s. Each 0 and 1 is a binary digit, or bit for short.Eight binary digits (or bits) combine to create 1 byte.In computers, each letter of the alphabet, each number, and each special character (such as sign) consists of a unique combination of 8 bits, or a string of eight 0s and 1s.As it turns out, if 8 bits are put together there are 256 possible combinations that they can be in. That number of combinations allows for a code that can include all the upper and lower cases of the alphabet, all 10 digits, punctuation and a number of other much-used symbols. We call these 8 bits working together a byte. Bytes are the basic measurement for storage in a computer.= 4111= A11
19How Much is a Byte? Byte B Kilobyte KB Megabyte MB Gigabyte GB NAMEABBREVIATIONNUMBER OF BYTESRELATIVE SIZEByteB1 byteCan hold one character of data.KilobyteKB1,024 bytesCan hold 1,024 characters or about half of a typewritten page double-spaced.MegabyteMB1,048,576 bytesA floppy disk holds approximately 1.4 MB of data, or approximately 768 pages of typed text.GigabyteGB1,073,741,824 bytesApproximately 786,432 pages of text. Since 500 sheets of paper is approximately 2 inches, this represents a stack of paper 262 feet high.TerabyteTB1,099,511,627,776 bytesThis represents a stack of typewritten pages almost 51 miles high.PetabytePB1,125,899,906,842,624 bytesThe stack of pages is now 52,000 miles high, or about one-fourth the distance from the Earth to the moon.Not only are bits and bytes used as the language that tells the computer what to do, they are also what the computer uses to represent the data and information it inputs and outputs.Kilobytes, megabytes, and gigabytes are therefore simply amounts of bytes.
20Computer Hardware Input devices System unit Output devices Storage devicesComputer hardware consists of all the real stuff a computer is made of. If you can drop it on the floor, it is hardware.Hardware devices include input devices like keyboards, components in the system unit like microprocessors, output devices like monitors, and storage devices like a hard drive
21Input Devices Enter data to be processed D C A B Keyboard Scanners MouseTrackballTouch screenMicrophoneGame ControllerDigital cameraDCABInput devices include keyboards and mice, but also scanners, cameras, microphones ,and even network cards and modems. Data that gets into the computer must come through an input device..The rain in Spain
22System Unit Cabinet that houses all components Motherboard CPU Memory modulesSystem UnitCPUOnce data is entered into a computer, the computer processes that data.Those components that process data are located inside the system unit. The system unit is the metal or plastic case that holds all the physical parts of the computer together. The part of the system unit that is responsible for the processing is called the CPU.Memory chips hold (or store) the instructions or data that the CPU processes.The CPU and memory are located on a special circuit board in the system unit called the motherboardMemory ModuleMotherboard
23Output Devices Enable us to see or hear the processed information MonitorSpeakersPrintersIn addition to input devices and the system unit, a computer includes output devices that let you see your processed information. The monitor displays information temporarily, while a printer makes the output permanent. Audio output is through speakers.
24Storage DevicesEnable us to store data or information to be accessed againFinally, when your data has been input, processed, and output, you may want to store the data or information so that you can access and use it again.Specialized storage devices such as hard disk drives, floppy disk drives, flash drives, and CD drives allow you to store your data and information..Hard Disk DriveFloppy DiskCD / DVD DriveFlash Drive
25Computer SoftwareSoftware - programs that enable the hardware to perform different tasksApplication softwareTools for getting things doneSoftware is the set of computer programs that enables the hardware to perform different tasks. There are two broad categories of software: application software and system software.Application software actually performs the tasks that users desire.
26Computer Software System software Essential for platform operation and supportSystem software works to control and maintain the hardware and give the user access to resources.
27Computer Platforms: PCs and Macs CPU – Intel, AMDOperating system – Microsoft WindowsMacCPU – MotorolaOperating system – Apple Mac OSThe kind of OS you have depends on your computer’s platform. The two most common platform types are the PC and the Apple Macintosh (or Mac).A platform represents both the base hardware and software that programs must run on and devices must run with. The most used is the Intel-Microsoft platform. The closest competitor in the personal computer field is the Apple-Motorola platform. These platforms have evolved over 25 years and are still competing today. Recently, however, Apple has designed an operating system that works with Intel.
28Specialty Computers PDA Server Mainframe Supercomputer MicrocontrollersMainframePDAs are small, one task at a time computers, that serve highly mobile users.Servers are powerful computers that control networks and often use Unix as an operating system.Mainframes are large, expensive multifaceted computers designed to handle thousands of users.Supercomputers are large, fast computers assigned to concentrate on specific scientific tasks.Embedded computers are specially designed computer chips that reside inside other devices such as your car or your electronic thermostat in your home.Supercomputer
29Summary Questions What does it mean to be “computer fluent”? How can becoming computer fluent help you in a career?What kinds of challenges do computers bring to society?What are a computer’s four main functions?
30Summary Questions What is the difference between data and information? What are a bit and a byte?What hardware does a computer use to perform its functions?What are the two main types of software?What different kinds of computers are there?